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Fellow of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh ; Honorary Member of the Royal Irish Academy ; of the 
Royal Society of Sciences of Denmark ; of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin ; of the Royal Academy of 
Naples ; of the Geological Society of France ; Honorary Member of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta ; Fellow of 
the Royal Linnean, and of the Geological Societies of London ; of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, and 
of the Cambridge Philosophical Society; of the Antiquarian, Wernerian Natural History, Royal Medical, Royal 
Physical, and Horticultural Societies of Edinburgh ; of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland ; of 
the Antiquarian and Literary Society of Perth ; Of the Statistical Society of Glasgow ; of the Royal Dublin 
Society; of the York, Bristol, Cambrian, Whitby, Northern, and Cork Institutions; of the Natural History So- 
ciety of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle ; of the Imperial Pharmaceutical Society of Petersburgh ; < f 
the Natural History Society of Wetterau ; of the Mineralogical Society of Jena ; of the Royal Mineralogical So- 
ciety of Dresden ; of the Natural History Society of Paris ; of the Philomathic Society of Paris ; of the Natural 
History Society of Calvados ; of the Senkenberg Society of Natural History ; of the Society of Natural Sciences 
and Medicine of Heidelberg ; Honorary Member of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York ; of 
the New York Historical Society ; of the American Antiquarian Society ; of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia ; of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York ; of the Natural History Society of Montreal ; of 
the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanical Arts ; of the Geological 
Society of Pennsylvania ; of the Boston Society of Natural History of the United States ; of the South African 
Institution of the Cape of Good Hope ; Honorary Member of the Statistical Society of France ; Member of the 
Kntomological Society of Stettin, &c. &c. &c. 

OCTOBER 1853 APRIL 1854. 







TV, NTPP f.Y N'Flf.T. AND COMPAVT, O T. D T! « riM \ 7» KT T. 



Art. I. On the Palseohydrography and Orography of the 
Earth's Surface, or the probable position of Waters 
and Continents, as well as the probable Depths of 
Seas, and the absolute Heights of the Continents 
and their Mountain-Chains during the different geo- 
logical periods. By M. Ami Boue'. Communi- 
cated by the Author. (Continued from vol. lv., p. 
316.) . . . .1 

II. On the recent Progress of Ethnology, By Richard 
Cull, Esq., Honorary Secretary to the Ethnologi- 
cal Society, and Corresponding Member of the 
. Historical Institute of France, . .10 

III. On Cohesion of Fluids, Evaporation, and Steam- 

Boiler Explosions. By Lieut. E. B. Hunt, Corps 
of Engineers, U.S.A. Communicated by the 
Author, • . . . .26 

IV. Researches in Embryology ; a Note supplementary 

to Papers published in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions for 1838, 1839, and 1840, shewing the Con- 
firmation of the Principal Facts there recorded, 
and pointing out a Correspondence between certain 
Structures connected with the Mammiferous Ovum 
and other Ova. By Martin Barry, M.D., 
F.R.S., F.R.S.E. Communicated by the Author, 36 



Art. V. Notes on the Life of the celebrated Dominique-Fran- 
cois-Jean Arago, Perpetual Secretary of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences, Member of the Board of Longi- 
tude, and Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, 
&c, &c, . . . . .61 

VI. The Funeral Speech of M. Flourens at the Grave 
of M. Arago on the day of his Funeral, which took 
place on the 5th October 1853, . . 67 

VII. On tho Introduction of the Magnificent Forest Tree, 

the Deodar, from India into England, . . 70 

Cultivation of the Deodar in England, . . 70 

VIII. Remarks on Mollusca and Shells. By Dr Augus- 
tus' Gould, . . . . .74 

1. Zoological Regions, . . . 74 

2. Identity of Species, . . . -74 

3. Local Aspects of Species, and Characteristic Form of 

Regions, . . . -76 

4. Analogous Species in co-ordinate Regions, . 77 

IX. Report of the Maritime Conference held at Brussels 
for devising a Uniform System of Meteorological 
Observations at Sea, . . . .81 

X. An Essay on the China-stone and China-clays of 
Cornwall, with a description of some Mechanical 
Improvements in the mode of Preparation of the 
latter. By Mr H. M. Stoker, of St Austell, 
Cornwall, . . . . .91 

XI. On the Analysis of Euclaso. By J. W. Mallet, 

Esq., Ph. D., . . . .103 



Art. XII. On the Anatomy and Physiology of Cordylophora ; 
a contribution to our knowledge of the Tubularian 
Zoophytes. By George James Allman, M.D., 
M.R.I.A., Professor of Botany in the University 
of Dublin, &c, . . . . 106 

XIII. On the Elasticity of Stone and Crystalline Bodies. 

By E. Hodgkinson, Esq., . . .108 

XIV. The Classification and Nomenclature of the Palseo- 

zoic Bocks of Great Britain. By Professor 
Sedgwick, . . . . .110 

XV. On the Surface Temperature and Great Currents 
of the North Atlantic and Northern Oceans. By 
the Bev. Dr Scoresby, . . .114 

XVI. On the influence of Climate on Plants and Animals. 

By Dr Emmons of New York, . .118 

XVII. On the Origin of Crystalline Limestones. By Pro- 
fessor A. Delesse, . . . .127 

XVIII. Biographical Sketch of Mr Hugh Edwin Strickland, 131 

XIX. Notice of an Attempt to Naturalize the Craw-Fish 
(Astacus fiuviatilis) in the South of Scotland. 
Communicated by Dr Fleming, . .136 

XX. On the apparent Visibility of Stars through the 
Moon immediately before their Occultation. By 
H. Edmonds Jun., Esq. Communicated by the 
Author, . . . . .137 

XXI. On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals, . 139 



XXII. The Ocean — its Currents, Tides, Depth, and the 

Outlines of its Bottom, . . . 152 

XXIII. On some Points in the Physical Geography of Nor- 

way, chiefly connected with its Snow-Fields and 
Glaciers, . . . . .159 

XXIV. Ordnance Survey of Scotland, . . .170 
XXV. Scientific Intelligence : — . . .176 


I. On the Formation of Crystallized Minerals. 
By Aug. Frevermann. 2. Artificial Pro- 
duction of Diamond Powder, . 176—178 


3. Use of Salt among the Natives in Namaqua 
Land, South Africa, . . . 178 


4. Some observations desirable to be made with 
reference to the Glaciers of Norway. By 
Professor James Forbes. 5. Theory of the 
Pile and the Aurora Borealis. 6. w Piroroco " 
or Bore that occurs in the Guama River at 
Spring Tides. 7. Mirage of South Africa. 8. 
Majestic Cloud seen from the Jungfrau, 179—182 


9. A new method for taking Deep-sea Sound- 

in g s > 183 


II. Report of Committee appointed at meet- 
ing of the American Philosophical Society on 
30th of February last, to examine and report 
upon a collection of fine wools, presented by 
the King of Saxony to Peter A. Browne, 
Esq., 183-187 

15. Microscopical Description of the Proto- 
coccus nivalis from the Arctic Regions, by 
M. Justice. 16. Dr Kane on Specimens of 
Vegetable Matter found by him on the Ice 
Plains of the Polar Seas, . . 187-188 

17. Important Scientific Invention, . 188 



Art. I. On an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, illustrating the 
Geographical Distribution of Marine Animals. 
With an illustrative Map. By James D. Dana, 
Esq., . . . . .189 

II. On the Temperature of Running Streams during 
periods of Frost. By Richard Adie, Esq., Liver- 
pool, . . . . .224 

III. On the Nature and Origin of different kinds of Dry 
Fogs. By M. C. Martins, . . .229 

IV. Synopsis of Meteorological Observations made at the 

Observatory, "Whitehaven, Cumberland, in the year 
1853. By John Fletcher Miller, Esq., Ph.D., 
F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Assoc. Inst. C.E., &c. Com- 
municated by the Author, . . .249 

Y. The Great Auk still found in Iceland, . . 260 



Art. VI. On the Food of Man under different conditions of 
Age and Employment. By Dr Lyon Playfair, 
C.B., F.R.S., . • . .262 

VII. Description of Two Caves in the North Island of New 

Zealand, in which there are Bones of the large extinct 
wingless birds, called by the Natives the Moa, and 
by Naturalists the Dinornis ; with some general Ob- 
servations on this Genus of Birds. By Arthur 
S. Thomson, M.D., Surgeon of the 58th Regiment, 268 

VIII. Norway and its Glaciers visited in 1851 ; followed by 

Journals of Excursions in the High Alps of Dau- 
phine, Berne, and Savoy. By James D. Forbes, 
D.C.L., F.R.S., Sec. R.S. Ed., Corresponding 
Member of the Institute of France, and of other 
Academies ; and Professor of Natural Philosophy 
in the University of Edinburgh. (Continued from 
page 169,) . . . . .296 

IX. Notice of the " Silurian System of Central Bohemia, 
by Joachim Barrande." Communicated by James 
Nicol, F.R.S., Regius Professor of Natural His- 
tory, University of Aberdeen, . . . 310 

X. On Vesicles in the Abdominal Cavity and Uterus, 
containing a Mulberry-like Body rotating on its Axis, 
and on the Expulsion of the Ovisac from the Ovary. 
By Martin Barry, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. Com- 
municated by the Author, . . .319 

XI. The Physical Geography of Hindostan. By Dr 

George Buist, Bombay, . . . 328 

XII. On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals, . 353 



Art. XIII. On the Fossil Plants found in Amber. By Pro- 
fessor Go ep pert, . . . .365 

XIV. Scientific Intelligence : — 


1. Climate of Finmarken. 2. Proposed Meteor- 
ological Survey, . . . . 369 


3. Amount of pressure borne by Animal Life 
in profound depths. 4. Sea Pressure. 5. 
The colour of the Ocean. 6. Admiral Smyth 
on the Temperature of the Ocean. 7. Cap- 
tain Allen's proposal of converting the Dead 
Sea into a north-eastern extension of the 
Mediterranean. 8. Arctic Glaciers. 9. Al- 
pine, Norwegian, Himalayan, Snowdon, Cam- 
brian, and Highland Glaciers. 10. Dove on 
Oceanic Currents, . . . 369-373 


11. On the supposed new metal Aridium. 12. 
Density of Selenium. 13. Dolomite. 14. 
Crystallized Furnace Products. 15. Purifi- 
cation of Graphite for Lead Pencils. 16. 
Arctic Minerals, .... 373-375 


17. The Lower Silurian Rocks of the United 
States. 18. Nature of the Coral-Reefs be- 
tween the coasts of Florida and Mexico. 19. 
Geological conclusions in regard to the Rus- 
sian Interior Seas. 20. On the probable depth 
of the ocean of the European Chalk Deposits. 
21. Professor Rogers' objections to Professor 
Forbes' deep-sea genera. 22. Mr Ayres' 
objections to Professor Forbes' deep-sea 
genera. 23. Artificial Silicification of Lime- 
stone. 24. How to render Sandstone and other 
porous materials impervious to Water. 25. 
Employment of Quick Lime in High Fur- 
naces,, instead of Limestone, by C. Montefior 



Levi, and Dr Emil Schmidt. 26. Professor 
Hogers on Earthquake Movements, and the 
thickness of the Earth's Crust. 27. Colora- 
tion . 375-379 


28. Observations on the Habits of certain 
Craw-fishes. 29. Arctic Whale Fisheries. 
30. Cod-Fishing of the Lofodens 379-380 


31. Is the Flora of the Globe a distinct and in- 
dependent one ? 32. Physiognomy of Vege- 
tation in different quarters of the Globe. 33. 
The Plants, considered as Characteristic of 
Nations. 34. The Statistics of Vegetation 
over the Globe. 35. Geographical Distribu- 
tion of Plants, .... 380-383 


36. Dr Barth's Discoveries in Africa,. . 383 


37. Industrial Education. 38. The Earl of Rosse, 
K.P.M.A., on Education, , . . gp^ 




On the Palceohydrography and Orography of the Earth's 
Surface, or the probable pos Ition of Waters and Continents, 
as well as the probable Depths of Seas, and the absolute 
Heights of the Continents and their Mountain- Chains du- 
ring the different geological periods. By M. Ami Boue'. 
Communicated by the Author. 

(Continued from vol. lv., page 316.) 

But we give the means to determine approximative^ this 
value by another way, so that it is possible to control this geo- 
gnostic bathographic mode of determination by the more geo- 
detic one. Another control is given us by the estimation made 
by Humboldt for the maximum of the medium of continental 
heights, and the height of the point of gravity in the volume 
of all continents above the present level of the sea. He was 
led to this by the evident errors of Laplace, who estimated 
4000 feet the middle elevation of continents. Humboldt 
found 157*8 toises, or 307 metres, or 942 feet, for this value, 
but he left out of consideration and calculation the whole of 
Africa, where there exist immense plains, as well as very 
extensive plateaux, and even in the south-east very high and 
extensive chains. Nor could he have had, during the time of 
his calculation, an exact idea of the greatness and altitude of 
the lofty plateaux and plains of North America ; and he 
must have overlooked also all what is called the polar 
countries or islands, where high chains are not uncommon, 
especially at the Austral pole. For that reason A. K. John- 
ston differs already a little from Humboldt; for he admits 


2 M. Ami Boue on the Palceohydrography 

in Europe, instead of the 105 toises of Humboldt, 671 feet; 
for North America, instead of 117 toises, 748 feet ; for Asia, 
instead of 180 toises, llf>2 feet; for South America, instead 
of 177 toises, 1151 feet. We arrive in this way at the 
probability that Humboldt and Johnston's estimations are 
still too high ; but as in our way of reasoning, we must 
also take into consideration all the parts of the earth's crust 
which form submarine protuberances, and add this value to 
the one admitted in continental parts above the sea level ; in 
this way we must arrive evidently at a higher estimation of 
middle height or thickness, and this will not be far from 
1500 to 2000 feet in height for the last wrinkled pellicle of 
our globe under and above the sea level, which we thought to be 
able to establish for our whole water-covering of the oceans. 

On the other side, the values of the elevations and sub- 
sidences, or high and low parts of the earth's surface, being 
equal, an estimation of the maximum for the middle height 
of continents gives us the means to calculate the whole 
quantity of sea water through the mutual surface contents 
of land and water. The mutual relations of these is said 
to be about 1 : 3 or 2$, but according to Lyell, it is 1 : 4, 1 : 3. 
lie admits for the whole earth's surface 148,522,000 square 
miles, with 37,673,000 square miles dry land, and 110,849,000 
square miles of water (Principles, 1835, vol. i., p. 216). In 
following Laplace's old error of giving to the middle depth 
of the seas 2 miles or 4 leagues (Mem. Acad, de Sc. Paris, 
1776), we arrive at a quantity of water of 55,091,600 cubic 
leagues, or even for all waters on the earth's surface 1 10,183,200 
cubic leagues of Breislak (Institut. Geol., 1818, vol. i., p. 48). 
If Kant fixed the middle depth of seas to half a geographical 
mile, and Keil to a quarter of a mile, old De la Metherie was 
still more near the truth in admitting only 1200 to 1500 feet 
for this value ; and by that way he was able to calculate the 
quantity of the sea water to 1,530,320 cubic leagues. He 
&d< ltd also that if the whole earth's surface were iiat and covered 
entirely with water, the depth of it would be only 700 feet, 

■ •rding to the admission of the mentioned value of the 
quantity [fheorie de la Terre, 1795, vol. ii., p. 347). 

De la Mctherio's estimation of the quantity of water must 

and Orography of the Earttis Surface. 3 

be too great, if other calculations conduct Rozet to believe 
that this value is 1000 times smaller than the volume of the 
compact parts of the globe (Traite de Geologie, 1835, p. 15). 
The volume of the whole spheroid would be, according to 
Breislak, 1,230,320,000 cubic leagues ; according to Daubuis- 
son, 1,079,235,800 cubic myriameters (Traite de Geognosie, 
1819, vol. i., p. 25) ; and according to Reviere, 1,082,634,000. 
K. M. Beudant allows the quantity of the water on the 
globe under two millions of cubic myriameters. 

"When we have once the true value of the sea water and its 
basin, we can logically conclude from 
this the value of the dry land. But 
here is the place to remark that the 
highest chains are placed always 
only upon the greatest protuberances or vaults of the earth's 
surface, which is quite natural ; but together give an indica- 
tion of the maxima and minima values of the elevations upon 
the whole globe, as well as in each country. In other words, 
if we find heights from 24,000 to 27,000 feet in South America 
and the Himalaya, or similar cavities in the Austral seas, we 
must not believe that there exist in the earth such a force of 
elevation or subsidence ; but that only the last elevations 
have taken place upon a soil already elevated upon a vault 
of the earth, and that in the same way the subsidence has 
happened on parts already subsided. It is yet possible that 
a chain may be wholly upheaven in later times ; but our 
Alps in Europe shew us that we can hardly admit of a 
single elevation of 8000 feet at once, for all the summits 
and pinnacles which reach above 10,000 feet did gain this 
height only by the inclination of their composing beds. On 
the other hand, a yet unknown physical law has established 
an intimate relation between the value of the greatest eleva- 
tions or upheavings, or highest mountains of each continent 
and their relative individual extent. A kind of scale of this 
description is furnished by the Himalaya, the Chimborazo, 
and Mont Blanc, three continents of unequal greatness. 

The same relation is to be observed among the cavities of 
the earth, for the greatest sea depths are in the Austral seas, 
where the extent of dry land is to that of water as 1 : 16. 

A 2 

4 M. Ami Boue Oh the Palicohydvography 

The same may be said of the southern part of the Pacific, 
which is as large as all the continents together. On the 
contrary, in the Northern Ocean to the 30th lat. north, the 
sea has only a relative smaller depth, and the dry land fills 
up there nearly as much space as the water. 

We may observe, probably, that the volcanic action may 
modify our conclusions. We find, for instance, in Mont 
Blanc only metamorphic rocks, and in the Himalaya, second- 
ary slates, and the highest pinnacles of the Andes nothing 
else than volcanic cones, so that we can only compare the 
height of the old vaults upon which these volcanic matters 
were united. 

Volcanic action is still an agent very little known, and its 
force of elevation has not yet been determined. When we see 
on certain large volcanic islands, heights like those of Mont 
Blanc, for instance in Sicily, at TenerhTe, &c, and even still 
higher peaks in other volcanoes, those immense accumulations 
of igneous matters do not decide the question, if the volcanic 
force has been able to elevate a Chimborazo at the height of 
24,000 feet from the mentioned normal sea-depth of 1500 
to 2000 feet. According to all our observations, it must, on 
the contrary, be admitted, that the volcanic islands give us 
the limits of the volcanic force of elevation, and that in other 
places the height of the base of the volcanoes enables us to 
judge of their extraordinary altitude. In that way we see 
the lava flowing constantly from the crater of the Kirauea 
volcano upon the isle of Hawaii, which is only 3800 feet in 
height. We see volcanoes like Etna ejecting periodically 
stones to a height of COOO feet, but the lava flows only 
through rents in the sides of the cones far below the high 
summits. In the Andes, whose trachytic domes predomi- 
nate, the eruptions are also below, and the ashes and smoke 
go out above. This position of the volcanoes of South 
America upon the earth's vaults, may possibly explain how 
the volcanic phenomena and earthquakes in those countries 
are much stronger than elsewhere, because the action takes 
place under a covering filled with more rents, and more easy 
to be moved, being already bent to a vault. Generally, 
the higher the volcano, it is the more easily moved ; on the 

and Orography of the Earth's Surface. 5 

contrary, the lower, even when submarine, the motions are, 
the more difficult, and its effects more local. For in this 
resides probably partly the difference between the present 
and the former activity of volcanoes. These have lost very 
little or nothing of their former exciting cause, but only the 
secondary circumstances of their possible expansion by this 
force have been modified by time. 

Let us continue our approximative estimation of the Heights 
of Chains in the primitive periods, according to the mentioned 
depths of the various seas at different times ; the highest 
hills in the Primary period would be between 1500 to 2000 
feet, in the Zechstein period already 3000 to 4000 feet, in the 
Trias time 4000 to 5000 feet, in the Jura period 5000 to 6000 
feet, in the Chalk time 6000 to 11,000 feet, in the Tertiary 
period 8000 to 20,000 feet, and in the Actual, 10,000 to 
26,000 feet. The middle value of these highest pinnacles 
would be for the period of the Trias and Jura about 4000 feet, 
in the Chalk period 8000 feet, in the Tertiary period 10,000 
feet, and now it would be 12,000 feet. 

The mountains next in height would have increased in 
extent from the oldest times till now, as well as the inclined 
planes under the sea level. The greatest height of those 
chains may have attained in the Trias already 3000 feet, in 
the Jurassic period about 4000 to 5000 feet, in the Chalk 
period 6000 to 8000 feet, in the Tertiary time about 4000 to 
30,000 feet, and now they measured 6000 to 12,000 feet. 
Their middle value would give only 2000 feet in height for 
the Trias period, 3000 for the Jurassic, 7000 for the Chalk, and 
8000 for the Tertiary one. 

The greatest height of the hilly countries may have been 
in the Primary period 1000 feet, in the Zechstein 1500 feet, 
in the Trias 1600 to 1800 feet, in the Jurassic 2000 feet, in the 
Chalk 2500 feet, and in the Tertiary at least 3000 feet. Their 
middle height which varies now between 1500 and 3000 would 
have attained in the primary times only 600 feet, in the 
Zechstein period 1000 feet, in the Trias 1500, in the Jurassic 
1000 feet, in the Chalk 2000 feet, in the Tertiary time 2500 
feet, and in the Alluvial 3000 feet. 

6 M. Ami Boue on the Talceohijdrography 

On the Middle Height of the lowest parts of the Continents f 
according to Humboldt and Johnston. 

We can limit the estimations for each continent and can 
draw the conclusion how small that height must have been in 
the Primitive period. In Europe the middle height gives now 
only the middle value of 300 feet. As the middle value of 
the highest chains of the mountains of middle heights of the 
hilly land in the Alluvial period, is to that in the Primary 
time about 4 or 5 : 1 in the Zechstein, about 3 : 1 in the Trias, 
2 : 1 in the Jura, as 2, 2 : 3 in the Chalk, as 2, 3 : 3, and in the 
Tertiary as 2, 5 : 3, we obtain by using these researches in 
the middle height of the lowest parts of the continents in the 
different Primary periods 60 to 80 feet, in the Zechstein 
period 100 feet, in the Trias 150 feet, in the Jura 180 feet, in 
the Chalk about 200 feet, and in the Tertiary 250 feet. These 
values are naturally contrary to those of the cavities of the 
parts of the sea bottoms which were the nearest to the shores 
during the different geological periods. 

With the aid of such philosophical collections of heights 
as Strantz gave us, (Berghaus' Annal, 1830, vol. ii. ; 1832, 
vol. vi. ; 1835, vol. vii. ; 1836, vol. xiii. ; 1839, vol. xix. ; 1841, 
vol. xxiii.), one might with some difficulty establish by ap- 
proximations similar values for the breadth of the chains, 
the height of the plateaux and cols, the breadth of valleys, 
the length of the course of rivers, &c. s during the different 
geological periods. I may only mention one of these, viz., 
the angle of inclination of the low lands and of the lands of 
the middle heights for which Strantz adopts for the first 5° 
to 10°, and the latter 10° to 20°. These values have in- 
creased always from the older times till now, a fact which 
shews the necessity to admit in the Primary times not only 
a much flatter land than now, but quite flat shores. Quite 
the contrary must have taken place in the chains, because 
the higher were not protected as now by so many mountains 
of secondary height ; so that the angle of inclination of these 
last is much smaller than formerly. Generally this value 
rises with the smallness of the hill and diminishes with its 
greatness. But this value of the inclination of the plane 

and Orography of the Eartlis Surface. 7 

must have diminished in the hills from the beginning till now, 
a fact which, on the other hand, conducts us to acknowledge 
that the current of water, their destructions and alluvium, 
must have been much greater the more we look back to these 
primitive times. Probably about the chalk period the beds 
of rivers may have become long enough to equalize the re- 
sults of the greater angle of inclination with those of the 
shorter beds of these. 

Let us try, lastly, to determine geognostically the chief 
places of the continents in the various geological periods, in 
going back from the present time to the oldest. 

As the subsidences increase always in a certain arithmetical 
progression to the newer, and the elevations follow the same 
scale, it is clear that the present world must have possessed 
much more dry land at the beginning of things. 

In the alluvial time great countries have disappeared to 
the NNW. and west of Europe ; this we may suspect by the 
position of the greater parts of the low land, — by the chief sub- 
sidences in Europe and Africa, — by the destruction of part of 
the Tertiary beds and basins, — by many islands and many 
shallows of certain seas, as between Norway and Spitzbergen, 
in the German Sea, in the Gulf of Bevin, &c. But according 
to our observations they may have existed already in the old 
alluvial time {Proceed. Vienna Acad., January 1852). The 
myth of the lost Atlantis may well be a true tradition. 

In North and South America similar relations indicate for 
the same period of time subsidences in the north-east direc- 
tion for North America, and in south-east and south-west for 
South America. In the mean time was found in the Pacific, the 
great equatorial cavity in Southern Asia, especially that 
amongst the Indian Archipelago and east of Africa, — a subsi- 
dence in the south-east direction. 

In the tertiary period numerous basins indicate many great 
seas which did cover the lowest parts of the earth's surface, as 
I have detailed it already in the Proceedings of the Vienna 
Acad, for 1850, pp. 96-102 ; and also less completely else- 
where. As these parts form the largest portions of the earth's 
surface, this relation alone convinces us that much dry land 
disappeared in later date under the sea. In the same 

8 M. Ami Botie on the Palccohydrography 

geognostical way I have shewn the place that the sea has 
occupied in older periods. During the Alluvial time a good 
deal of land formed by Tertiary beds, Chalk, Jura beds, and 
even by Primary fossiliferous and crystalline rocks, subsided 
in the Atlantic, and in the Pacific the countries that disap- 
peared may have belonged to the tertiary, primary, and crys- 
talline rocks. To the south-east of Africa, fragments of 
land have subsided, belonging to all the four classes of for- 

In the middle and older secondary periods, it would seem 
that the countries lying on equatorial lines in the Pacific did 
replace the Australian countries, which had again subsided, 
as well as part of the dry land of both peninsulas in Hindu- 
stan. The secondary formations do not appear in these latter 
countries, because they could not be formed there. Accord- 
ing to similar considerations, it may appear probable that a 
part at least of Eastern America and a part of Western 
Africa were again put under water by subsidences. It is 
possible that the rent of the Red Sea took its origin in that 
time, for it is surrounded by much chalk and tertiary rocks. 
Later, at the end of the Jura time, on the contrary, these 
countries must have been thrown up, and the motion must 
have lasted till the Alluvial time. This we prove by the 
chalk mountains, and the now dry tertiary basins. 

In the Primary period were islands in all seas, especially 
distributed in an equatorial direction, because this position 
coincides most with the density of the centrifugal force, 
which had not then attained its present limits in the process 
of rotation. 

Before we conclude, we may observe that later observa- 
tions will certainly complete this essay. Through the pro- 
gress of palaeontology, and natural history, zoologists and 
botanists have been able not only to restore and delineate to 
us the old fauna and flora, but they have also deciphered the 
philosophical plan of the origin and development of organic 
nature. In the same way, geology and physical geography 
will illustrate the once palseohydrography and orography, and 
follow nearly all the changes in the palatoplasties of the 
earth. We shall obtain then, as complement of our actual 

and Orography of the EartKs Surface. 9 

geological maps, others for each period of time ; and in the 
last will be indicated not only the place of the various for- 
mations, but also the values of the various elevations and 
subsidences. These values will consist in the indications of 
the height, extent, and breadth, of the chains, of the angle of 
inclination of those as well as of the beds of rivers, the depth 
of the seas, the temperature of the different periods, the mag- 
netic phenomena during these periods, and, last, the general 
geography of the different fossil flora and fauna. 

A beginning is made in this way with the Palaiohydro- 
graphy and Orography, but the palaeophysics are hardly 
studied, and even less the palseoehemistry. We have got 
very few notions on palseometeorology and palseotemperature 
or thermics, as for instance in the changes in the isothermal 
lines in the geological times (Bui. Soc. Geol., 1848, vol. v. 
p. 276). The palseomagnetism, connected intimately with 
temperature changes, will also give rise to most interesting 
discoveries, and even to magnetical maps in the various 
geological periods. Upon palseohydrology, I may soon treat, 
and upon palseopotanography I have selected a few facts 
already (Mem. of the Vienna Acad., 1851, vol. iii. p. 89). In 
a later paper I have shewn, by the various degrees of heat 
in the thermal waters, where many different vegetables and 
animals of higher and lower classes may have lived, and 
that the temperature of the sea, at the beginning, could not 
have been so great as philosophers thought. The maximum 
of that temperature could have varied only between 70° and 
80° C. ; but in the general one I found only about 30° or 40°, 
like Sir H. de la Beche (Bui. Soc. Geol. for 1852, vol. ix.) 
The last knowledge mankind will acquire is that of Palceo- 
astronomy ; but a proper knowledge of this branch will require 
many centuries of time. 

10 Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 

On the recent Progress of Ethnology. By Richard Cull, 
Esq., Honorary Secretary to the Ethnological Society, and 
Corresponding Member of the Historical Institute of 

Two works by Dr Latham, one of our fellows, have been 
published during the year — " The Ethnology of Europe " and 
"The Ethnology of the British Isles:' These are valuable 
additions to our literature, and bear the characteristics of 
Dr Latham's vigorous mind. Much of the matter is neces- 
sarily familiar to us as admitted science ; and not a little 
containing his own views has already appeared in his former 
publications. Dr Latham is doing good service to our science 
by casting doubt and uncertainty on much of that which is 
believed to be true, but of which the evidence is unsatisfac- 
tory. Thus, in a former work, he drew attention to the 
limited data on which Blumenbach erected and eulogized his 
Caucasian race ; he now draws attention to the Saxons, and 
displays with ability his view of the place which they occupy 
in English history. And this view is not very flattering to 
the vanity of those who boast of Anglo-Saxon origin. 

One of the great questions of European Ethnology, the 
origin of the Etruscans, has been again discussed during the 
past year. This subject has occupied the attention of some 
of the profoundest scholars of our times, but unfortunately 
with results much disproportioned to the labour which has 
been expended. It is a question that only scholars can dis- 
cuss, for the investigation is historical, philological, and criti- 
cal, on materials collected both in ancient and modern days. 
Dr Donaldson has, with praiseworthy industry, in Varronia- 
nus, second edition, along with treatises on the Dialects of 
ancient Italy, given in fuller detail than in his paper read 
before the British Association, the evidences and data of his 
views on the language and consequent origin of the Etruscans. 

The population of ancient Italy, as Dr Prichard {Physical 
Hist., vol. iii., p. 203), has shewn, may be conveniently thrown 
into three great groups, viz. : — 

* From a copy communicated by the Author. 

Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 11 

1. The Umbrians, who may be deemed to be the earliest 
known inhabitants of North Italy, i. e., of nearly all Italy 
lying between the Alps and the Tiber. 

2. The Etruscans, who at a remote period dispossessed the 
Umbrians of a great part of their territory: they called 
themselves Rhasena. 

3. The population of Italy south of the Tiber consisted 
of several nations, termed. Siculi, CEnotrians, Aborigines, 
Latins, Sabines, Opici or Ausones. 

Dr Donaldson's view is, that the Etruscan language is in 
part a Pelasgian idiom, more or less corrupted by contact 
with the Umbrian, and in part a relic of the oldest Low 
German or Scandinavian. 

Scholars in general deem the Etruscan to be a composite 
language. Dr Lepsius adduced evidence to support his view 
that the Etruscans were Tyrrhenians or Pelasgians, who in- 
vaded Italy from the north-east, conquered the Umbrians, 
and took possession of the western part of the district for- 
merly occupied by that people. Dr Donaldson claims to 
have discovered a Scandinavian element in the Etruscan lan- 
guage. The evidence, however, which is adduced in support 
of the existence of such an element is considered by high 
philological authorities to be as yet unsatisfactory ; and it 
appears that our knowledge of the Etruscan language is 
nearly where Niebuhr left it, viz. that aifil ril means viosit 

Professor Newman in his Regal Rome, an Introduction 
to Roman History, has ably stated the leading characters 
of the Ethnography of ancient Italy. Professor Newman 
shewed years ago, Classical Museum, vol. vi., that even 
Cicero 1 s Latin abounds with intrusive Keltic elements ; and 
especially that the Sabine was related to the Gaelic. He 
considers (" Regal Rome," p. 18), that the primitive Latin 
must have derived its Keltic infusion through the Umbrian. 
Muller, as quoted by Prichard, ohserves, that words belong- 
ing to the barbaric portion of the Latin language abound in 
the Eugubian tables, which are Umbrian. Yet he admits 
that the dialect of these tables displays considerable analogies 
with the Greek. And Grotefend had long ago shewn that 

12 Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 

the Umbrian and Latin have an extensive vocabulary in com- 
mon, and that they abound in analogous grammatical forms 
both in verbs and nouns. Here are difficulties for criticism 
to reconcile. But whatever was the medium through which 
the Keltic element was introduced into the Latin language, 
we shall agree with the Professor that the Keltic is the in- 
trusive element, because, in numerous instances, the word 
which is common to the two languages is isolated in the 
Latin, while in the Keltic it is one of a family. The ques- 
tion may still be asked, Who are the Umbrians l It is true 
that the Umbrian language is cognate with the Latin, but its 
precise affinity has yet to be shewn. Dr Latham (Varieties of 
Man, p. 554), because Livy says the languages of Etruria 
and Rhaetia are alike, thinks the Etruscans and Rhoatians 
are one people ; the former at their highest refinement, the 
latter at their greatest rudeness : and also considers the 
stock to be indigenous to Northern Italy. It appears to me 
that we lack evidence, and, unfortunately for their reputa- 
tion, scholars are drawing wider conclusions than are war- 
ranted by the facts. 

An able paper on the Romanic languages of the Grisons 
and Tyrol was read last session by Dr W. Freund, one of our 
Fellows, in consequence of which the Berlin Royal Academy 
of Sciences has given him the charge of a commission to pro- 
ceed, at the Government expense, to ancient Rhaetia. to make 
philological and archaeological researches, so as to throw a 
light, by the collection of new facts, upon the ancient inhabi- 
tants of Etruria, the Grisons, the Tyrol, and the south-east 
of Upper Italy. 

The next contribution to European Ethnology during the 
year is an account of the ancient inhabitants of Yorkshire, 
in Mr Phillip's excellent work On the Rivers, Mountains, 
and Seacoast of Yorkshire. Mr Phillips reproduces York- 
shire in the time of the Romans, and shews its successive 
phases under the Anglo-Saxons and Danes. His synopsis 
of its history during that long period is concise and clear. 
In an able chapter on the Races of Men in Yorkshire, Mr 
Phillips says, — " If, without regard to any real or supposed 
evidence of their national origin, we attempt to class the 

Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 13 

actual population of Yorkshire into natural groups, we shall 
find, independent of Irish immigrants, three main types fre- 
quently distinct, but as often confused by interchange of 
elementary features. 

" 1. Tall, large-boned muscular persons; visage long, angu- 
lar ; complexion fair, or florid; eyes blue or gray ; hair light 
brown, or reddish. Such persons in all parts of the country 
form a considerable part of the population. In the North 
Riding, from the eastern coast to the western mountains, 
they are plentiful. Blue-eyed families prevail very much 
about Lincoln. 

" 2. Person robust ; visage oval, full, and rounded ; nose 
often slightly aquiline ; complexion somewhat embrowned, 
florid; eyes brown, or gray ; hair brown, or reddish. In the 
West Riding, especially in the elevated districts, very power- 
ful men have these characters. 

" 3. Persons of lower stature and smaller proportions ; 
visage short, rounded ; complexion embrowned ; eyes very 
dark, elongated ; hair very dark. (Such eyes and hair are 
commonly called black). Individuals having these characters 
occur in the lower grounds of Yorkshire, as in the valley of 
the Aire below Leeds, in the vale of the Derwent, and the 
level regions south of York. They are still more frequent in 
Nottinghamshire and Leicestershire, and may be said to 
abound amidst the true Anglians of Norfolk and Suffolk. 
The physical characters here traced cannot be, as Dr Prichard 
conjectures in a parallel case in Germany, the effect of some 
centuries of residence in towns, for they are spread like an 
epidemic among the rural and secluded population as much 
as among the dwellers in towns. Unless we suppose such 
varieties of appearance to spring up among the blue-eyed 
races, we must regard them as a legacy from the Roman 
colonists and the older Britons, among whom, as already 
stated, the Iberian element was conjecturally admitted. 

a Adopting this latter view, there is no difficulty in regard 
to the other groups. They are of North German and Scan- 
dinavian origin, and the men of Yorkshire inherit the physi- 
cal organization and retain many of the peculiarities of lan- 
guage of their adventurous sires. In the words employed, in 

14 Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology, 

the vowel sounds, the elisions, and the construction of sen- 
tences, the Yorkshire dialects offer interesting analogies to 
the old English of Shakspeare and Chaucer, the Anglo-Saxon 
of the Chronicle, and the Norse, as it is preserved to us by 
the Icelanders." 

Professor Phillips furnishes us with philological materials 
for the study of the East Yorkshire dialect, and says, — 
" Investigations of this kind (philological) must not be limited 
to Yorkshire, for even our dialectic peculiarities spread 
southward into Derbyshire, westward into Cumberland, and 
northward to the foot of the Grampians. Though several 
dialects, or varieties of dialects, exist in Yorkshire, they 
appear not so different from each other when heard, as when 
looked at in the disguise of arbitrary spelling." This work 
of Professor Phillips must be regarded as a valuable contri- 
bution to the Ethnology of England ; and it is to be hoped 
that others as well qualified will supply us with the ethnolo- 
gical details of their own localities. 

Our science is indebted to John Grattan, Esq., of Belfast, for 
obtaining certain ancient Irish crania from the round towers 
and other places, for carefully preserving them and bringing 
them under the notice of the Ethnologists at the Belfast 
meeting of the British Association last year. It is not easy 
to overrate the importance to our science of the study of 
crania, both ancient and modern. Mr Grattan ably classed 
his crania in four well-defined chronological groups, viz. : — 

1. The Prehistoric, 

2. The remote historic, 

3. The Anglo-Irish, and 

4. The Modern periods. 

Mr Grattan modestly said, — " To attempt to generalize upon 
such imperfect data would be rash and presumptuous in the 
extreme. Let us hope, however, that, by'calling public atten- 
tion to the value of such specimens, we may be but laying 
the foundation of a collection, which, one day more extended 
and in better qualified hands, shall do good service to science. 
They however illustrate one fact, which bears importantly 
upon the question of races, viz. the tenacity with which dif- 

Mr Culi on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 15 

ferent types preserve their identity even through periods of 
time which embrace no small portion of the history of man- 
kind/' It is with great pleasure I inform you that some of 
these crania will be figured and described in the large work 
on Ancient British Crania which my friend Dr Thurnam is 
now preparing for publication. 

Africa. — The recent progress of African discovery so 
amply repays the labour bestowed on it, as to satisfy the 
desires of the most ardent. Some account, in an agreeable 
though desultory form, of the scientific labours of the Prussian 
mission to Egypt and Nubia, under Dr Richard Lepsius, has 
appeared in an English dress, under the title " Discoveries in 
Egypt, Nubia, and the Peninsula of Sinai, in the years 
1842-45, during the mission sent out by His Majesty Fre- 
derick William IV. of Prussia. By Dr Richard Lepsius.'* 

These letters, on their arrival in Europe, appeared in 
various journals, chiefly in the Preussiche Staatzeitung, and 
thence were copied by other papers. The collected letters, 
therefore, although only now published, are not new to us ; 
and some of the lingual questions connected with Ethnology 
were discussed in our society as long as six years ago, The 
letters are edited by K. R. H. Mackenzie, Esq., who appears 
to be well acquainted with the Ethnology of North-East 

Much valuable information concerning the tribes in the 
interior of Africa around Lake Tsad has been collected by 
the enterprising travellers, Drs Barth, Overweg, and Mr 
Richardson, which is at present in the Foreign Office, but 
which the Foreign Secretary has kindly promised to lay be- 
fore our Society. 

Dr Daniell, a Fellow of our Society, and distinguished by 
his Ethnological researches in Africa, safely arrived at 
Macartney's Island, on the Gambia, in November last. Ho 
informs me that he is now in the midst of an unwrought 
ethnological field, and which he hopes to turn to good account. 
I trust his life will be preserved to pursue those researches 
for which he is so well qualified, and that he will return to 
us in robust health to enjoy the otium cum dignitate after 

16 Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 

his long and laborious sojourn in the pestilent marshes of 
the west coast of Africa. 

The publication of a second edition of the Rev. Samuel 
Crowther's Yoruba Vocabulary, now greatly extended, and 
also a grammar of the language by the same, a native author, 
supplies us with ample materials for the study of that beau- 
tiful language : while the able introduction by the Bishop of 
Sierra Leone is a valuable contribution to African philology. 

A characteristic of African languages is the euphonic con- 
cord, which was first discovered by the Rev. W. Boyce, of 
the Wesleyan Missionary Society, and published in his gram- 
mar of the Kaffir language ; but its principles have been 
since more fully laid clown by the Rev. John W. Appleyard, 
in his more elaborate grammar of that language, in which 
its extension to other South-African languages is exhibited. 

The Yoruba language, which is not a South-African one, 
has its euphonic concords, and that between the verb and 
the pronoun is worthy of attention. The pronouns are, 1st, 
" emi ;" 2d, " iwo ;" 3d, " on," in the nominative case ; but 
these nominatives have each two other forms, which depend 
on the vowel of the verb. And the third personal pronoun 
has seven forms dependent on the verb's vowel, when used 
in the objective case. In this way the pronoun is always 
subordinated to the verb. Now, although the existence of 
euphonic concord connects as one link the Yoruba with other 
African and chiefly South- African languages, yet at present 
I confess I do not see the special links which will enable one 
to say to what group it naturally belongs. At present, how- 
ever, we know but little of African philology. I need 
scarcely say in this society that euphonic concords are not 
confined to African languages, as every one knows they are 
found in the Keltic. 

The Rev. Dr Koelle of the Church Missionary Society, has 
lately returned from Sierre Leone with MS. vocabularies of 
150 languages, and with MS. grammars in an advanced state 
of compilation of the Bornon, and the Vei, the former of 
which, he informs me, has some features in common with the 
L T gro-Tartarian languages and some with the Semetic, the 
existence of which will modify our views of the Negro Ian- 

Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 17 

guages. He is now engaged in preparing this valuable con- 
tribution to our knowledge of African languages for the press. 
Dr Koelle informs me that his vocabularies do not extend to 
those languages spoken in the north-east of Africa. 

The continued lingual researches of Dr Krapf in the dia- 
lects of the east and north-east of Africa ; those of Mr 
Appleyard in the south of Africa from east to west, with the 
researches into the Negro languages of the western coast, 
seem to render the lines of demarcation between them less 
trenchant, and to indicate certain affinities which may con- 
firm the conjecture of Dr Prichard of a close connection be- 
tween all the African languages. Much, however, remains 
to be done in collecting vocabularies, shewing the areas in 
which the languages to which they belong are spoken, and 
the compilation of grammars. We must not remain satis- 
fied with the indications of affinities ; we ought from positive 
knowledge to exhibit the whole of their several relationships. 
And we must never forget that lingual evidence, however 
strong and perfect, is only one line of evidence : we must 
obtain the concurrent testimony of the other lines of Ethno- 
logical evidence in order to justify our conclusions. 

"Kaflraria, and its Inhabitants," by the Rev. Francis Fle- 
ming, M.A., Chaplain to the Forces in King William's Town, 
is a small volume, containing a popular but animated descrip- 
tion of the country, and so much of its natural history as the 
author found necessary to introduce an account of its human 
inhabitants. Mr Fleming^ knowledge is gained from a per- 
sonal experience of three years' residence. The large space 
devoted to a description of the native tribes and their lan- 
guages, displays the author's ideas of the importance of Eth- 
nological knowledge ; and the little work is likely to be 
useful in exciting a desire for more extended and systematic 
knowledge of the South African. 

Asia. — Steady progress continues to be made in decipher- 
ing the cuneiform inscriptions of Assyria. These inscriptions 
are the original public records of the empire, and are of infi- 
nitely higher value than ordinary ancient MSS., because, 
being the originals, they are free from those corruptions 


18 Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 

which creep into all MS. copied texts, either from the inad- 
vertence or the wilfulness of the transcribers. The great 
question is, Can we correctly read them? Some persons, 
who are unacquainted with the philological methods of re- 
search adopted in this inquiry, or whose philological know- 
ledge is insufficient to enable them to appreciate those 
methods, have called in question the results of the labours 
of our distinguished investigators. But 1 believe that all 
who have studied those methods are satisfied that we pos- 
sess the philological key to open the immense and invaluable 
stores of knowledge which are locked up in those languages. 
Mr Layard's new book, just out, is the last work on ancient 
Assyria. In it is a translation from these cuneiform inscrip- 
tions abridged, the joint production of Mr Layard and Dr 
Hincks, of the annals of King Sennacherib, by which he is 
identified with the Sennacherib of Scripture (p. 159). 

Colonel Rawlinson wrote a paper last year, containing an 
outline of Assyrian history, compiled from the inscriptions of 
Nineveh : and also a sketch of the Assyrian Pantheon, de- 
rived from the same source. To us, as Ethnologists, the im- 
portant light thrown upon ancient geography, and the con- 
nection of the people with their several localities, is of equal 
interest to any of the Assyrian discoveries. The chronology 
is of great value ; and these, together with the synchronisms 
of Biblical history, are already clearing away some of the 
Ethnographical darkness which yet enshrouds that interest- 
ing part of Asia. 

Dr Hincks read a paper at the Belfast Meeting, in Sep- 
tember last, of the British Association, " On the Ethnolo- 
gical bearing of the recent discoveries in connection with 
the Assyrian Inscriptions, " which claims our attention. He ' 
considers the Assyrian language to belong to a family akin 
to that of the Syro- Arabian languages hitherto known, rather 
than to that family itself. Dr Hincks pointed out the fol- 
lowing resemblances, or what the Assyrian had in common 
with the Syro-Arabian family. 

It has verbal roots, which were normally triliteral, but of 
which some letters might be mutable or evanescent, whence 
arise different classes of irregular verbs. These roots admit 

Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 19 

not only the simple conjugation, but others in which radical 
letters are doubled, other letters added, or both these modi- 
fications made at once. From these roots verbal nouns are 
formed, either by a simple change of the vowels, or by the 
addition of letters, such as are called, in Hebrew, Hee- 

The Assyrian agrees with the Arabic more closely than 
with any other of the Syro- Arabian family in these respects : 

1st, In forming the conjugations, consonants are inserted 
among the radical letters, as well as prefixed to them. This 
takes place regularly in Arabic, but in Hebrew only w T hen 
the first radical is a sibilant. 

2d, The termination of the aorist varies as in Arabic, 
different verbs taking different vowels between the second 
and third radicals, while the first radical sometimes termi- 
nates the verbs, and sometimes takes after it a or u; and, 

3d, The forms of the plural vary, and the cases of nouns 
differ in a manner which resembles, in some measure, what 
takes place in Arabic. 

The Assyrian language differs from all the Syro- Arabian 
languages yet known in the following respects : — 

1st, Where they have h it has s in a variety of instances, 
and especially in the pronouns and prenominal affixes of the 
third person— Su, si, sunu, since ; sa, sa, si, sun, and sin — 
most of which resemble forms in other languages, if only 
h be substituted for s. The same difference occurs in the 
characteristic of the causative conjugation. In these re- 
spects, but not by any means generally, the Assyrian agrees 
with the Egyptian, and, through it, with the modern Berber. 

2d, The Assyrian has no prefixes, such as b for in, I for to, 
which occur in all the Syro- Arabian languages. In place of 
these it has separate prepositions: and to evoid the awkward- 
ness of joining these to the prenominal affixes, and perhaps 
for greater clearness, nouns are inserted, forming compound 
prepositions, as ina kirbisu, "in its midst," for " in it." Com- 
pound prepositions may be used, also, before other nouns, as 
ina kirib biti. Sometimes the Assyrian uses affixes as sub- 
stitutes for prepositions. Instead of ana, " to " or " for," 

before a noun, ish may be added. Thus, for "a spoil" is 


20 Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology 

expressed indifferently by ana shallati and shallaiwh. 
This last form has much of the nature of an adverb, and has 
some resemblance to the Hebrew noun with the locative. In 
place of hh, the pronoun, generally ma, is adopted as a sub- 
stitute for ana. Thus su-ma is " to him," and answers to 
le-ho, from which lo is contracted ; the Hebrew prefixing the 
representative of " to," while the Assyrian postfixes it. 

3d, The Syro- Arabian languages make frequent use of a 
preterite, in which the distinctions of number and person are 
confined to the end of the root ; but the Assyrian rejects it, 
or at least uses it in an exceedingly sparing manner. On 
this account Dr Hincks proposes to consider the Benoni par- 
ticiple, masculine, singular, in regimen as the root., The varieties in the termination of the future are not 
connected with any particles that may precede them, but of 
themselves indicate different tenses. The termination in u 
is certainly a pluperfect. Thus, where mention is made of 
"that Marduk Baladan, whom I had defeated in my former 
campaign, 1 ' the verb is askanu: but whenever " I defeated" 
occurs in the simple narrative, askun or askana, or, in a dif- 
ferent conjugation, astalcan is used. This law has been fully 
established. The addition of a seems not to change the 
sense ; it is added to every verb when what it governs fol- 
lows it, and to some verbs even where it precedes it. These 
are chiefly such as denote locomotion. 

The resemblance of the most common Assyrian preposi- 
tions, and that of the pronouns, also, to the Indo-European 
form is curious, and points to a common though remote 

The Babylonian inscriptions are in the same language as 
the Assyrian. This was probably the court language at' 
Babylon ; but the common people most probably used the 
Chaldean language, in which some parts of the Books of Ezra 
and Daniel are written. 

Mr Hodgson is still contributing towards our knowledge 
of the monosyllabic languages in Trans-Gangetic India, and 
the results of his inquiries are recorded in the Transactions 
of the Bengal Asiatic Society. The present war in Burmah 
will, I trust, open up that and the surrounding countries for 

Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 21 

Ethnological inquiry ; and should the dynastic struggle which 
is now going on in China be finally settled by British arms 
or diplomacy, we may hope for the opportunity of studying 
more perfectly the Ethnology of that vast empire. Trans- 
Gangetic India and the Chinese empire may be considered as 
one extensive Ethnological area, the languages of which are 
monosyllabic and the religion Buddhism. 

Mr Oldham, Geologist to the Indian Survey, has been 
studying the hill-tribes north of Sylhet ; and a valuable com- 
munication was read to our Society on the subject on the first 
night of the session. We may expect further knowledge of 
these various tribes from him, as he has gone to that locality 
a second time with specific objects of inquiry. He says : " I 
am satisfied the language is monosyllabic : and I think the 
Garo tribe is more nearly allied to the Kassias, Kukis, Ka- 
chari, and Munipari, than with the Bodo or Dhimal." He 
is now studying the mutual relationship of these hill-tribes. 

Mr Logan, another of our Fellows, continues his scientific 
researches in the Indian Archipelago. He and his band of 
contributors record the result of their investigations in the 
Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia. Re- 
siding in that distant part of the world, they devote their 
energies to the study of its nature. Mr Logan's contribu- 
tions to its Ethnology are of the highest character. His 
papers on the languages of the Indo-Pacific islands place him 
in the foremest rank of ethnological philologists, and give us 
more precise ideas of the migrations which led to populating 
those islands. 

Mr Logan is animated by an intense desire of knowledge, 
with an untiring zeal in its pursuit, and aims at the high ob- 
ject of exhausting his subject. In a letter which I lately re- 
ceived from him, speaking of the Polynesian languages, he 
says : " I think you will find that I have pretty well exhaust- 
ed our present linguistic data in my forthcoming chapters, 
and thrown new light on the Polynesians, but we require 
more facts for Micronesia and Papuanesia, before we can go 
further. In my next chapters I take each geographical 
group separately (e.g. Sumatra and its islets, Java and its 
islets, Borneo and its islets, and so on to Polynesia)." .... 

21 Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 

" Within the last six weeks (January 6, 1853) I have re- 
ceived vocabularies of several new Borneon and Moluccan 

I am anxiously waiting for the continuation of Mr Logan's 
chapters on these languages, for he has already thrown a 
flood of light on the Ethnology of the Malays and the Poly- 

A valuable contribution to our knowledge of Buddhism in 
Burmah is made by the Rev. P. Bigandet, in a translation 
from a Burmese MS. of a legend of the Burmese Buddha, 
called " Gaudama/' The MS. was brought from Ava, which 
is a great seat of Buddhist learning. The original text was 
in the Pali, from which it had been translated into the Bur- 
mese language. 

Another contribution to our knowledge of Buddhism, as it 
exists in Camboja, entitled, •' Notice of the Religion of the 
Cambojans," taken from a MS. of M. Miche, Bishop of 
Dansara, also appears in vol. vi. of Mr Logan's Journal. 
" Whoever has sojourned in Camboja will have remarked 
certain points of doctrine difficult to reconcile to each other, 
and even with those mentioned in this notice. There is 
nothing wonderful in this. Some are taught in books, others 
are the popular beliefs. Moreover, it is not unusual to hear 
the Cambojans say amongst themselves, Such a pagoda does 
not teach the same as a neighbouring one : their books do 
not even always agree." Knowing the extensive area over 
which Buddhism prevails, we might expect it to vary both in 
doctrine and practice ; but it must be confessed, that until 
this article appeared we had no notion that neighbouring 
pagodas varied in their teaching, 

" A Manual of Buddhism, by the Rev. R. Spence Hardy." 
This is a valuable contribution to the literature of our science, 
as it ably answers the question, " What is Buddhism !" The 
manual is not a work written by the author after the mere 
consultation of Singhalese writings on the subject, but is 
itself an actual translation from Singhalese MSS. So that 
the work is not a view of Buddhism by a Christian, but by a 
Buddhist, and is, therefore, one of authority. The study of 
this work, in connection with the " Eastern Monachism" of 

Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 23 

the same author, published about three years ago, which 
describes the discipline, rites, and present circumstances of 
the Buddhist priesthood, will give us a complete idea of the 
nature and practice of Buddhism. 

The Buddhist religion is that of many millions of people 
spread over a vast area, the whole of which, however, is in 
Asia. The Buddhist religion of China differs somewhat from 
that of India. " The sacred books of Burmah, Siam, and 
Ceylon, are identically the same. The ancient literature of 
the Buddhists, in all the regions where this system is pro- 
fessed, appears to have had its origin in one common source ; 
but in the observances of the present day there is less uni- 
formity ; and many of the customs now followed, and of the 
doctrines now taught, would be regarded by the earlier pro- 
fessors as perilous innovations." (P. 357.) 

The doctrines of Gotama, therefore, like those of every 
other founder of a creed, have been modified by his succes- 
sors. Buddhism, and its powerful results, have been too little 
studied by philosophic historians. " There have been various 
opinions as to the age in which Gotama lived : but the 
era given by the Singhalese authors is now the most gene- 
rally received. According to their chronology, he expired in 
the year that, according to our mode of reckoning, would be 
B.C. 543, in the eightieth year of his age." (P. 353.) 

" Journal of a Cruise among the Islands of the Western 
Pacific, including the Feejees and others, inhabited by the 
Polynesian Negro races, in H.M. Ship c Havannah,' by John 
Elphinstone Erskine, Capt. R.N." This valuable contribution 
to Ethnological Science is well illustrated by coloured litho- 
graphs of the natives. This contribution, however, as a 
whole, is not quite new to us, for the Rev. John Inglis accom- 
panied Captain Erskine on a missionary tour to some of the 
islands, and gave us an account of it in a paper read in our 
Society, December 10, 1851 : and made also a valuable con- 
tribution therein to the philology of the Papuan race. 

Captain Erskine' s Journal corroborates Mr Inglis' tour, 
and also adds to our knowledge of other islands in the West- 
ern Pacific. 

We may expect further information concerning the Pacific 

24 Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 

islands from Captain Denham's expedition, which is now ill 
that ocean 

Mr Brierly, who accompanied the late Captain Owen 
Stanley in the " Rattlesnake" to New Guinea, the Louisade 
Archipelago, and the North-Western Pacific Islands, is en- 
gaged in preparing for publication the ethnological materials 
which he gathered in that cruise. His abilities as an 
observer, and the opportunities he enjoyed, have been turned 
to good account ; and I am able to say that his forthcoming 
work will extend our knowledge of the Ethnology of that 

America. — The study of the Ethnology of North America 
is being pursued with that energy and comprehensiveness of 
purpose which characterize that people. The Government of 
the United States appointed a commission of well-qualified 
men to study, record, and publish historical information con- 
cerning the Indians in its territory. A magnificent work in 
quarto is the result, of which the second volume reached 
Europe in the autumn. This work contains a description and 
history, with the manners, customs, and language, as ex- 
hibited in copious vocabularies and grammars, of the several 
tribes of Indians. The two volumes already published are 
well illustrated by copperplates and woodcuts. The com- 
prehensive design of giving a systematic account of the 
people who are fast fading away before the advances of a 
higher civilization, is one that we might copy with great advan- 
tage to our national character both in British America and in 
our other colonies. 

The Smithsonian Institution, in its systematic cultivation 
of natural knowledge, embraces that of Ethnology, and in its 
volumes are found most valuable contributions to the Archae- 
ology of the Indian tribes. The researches connected with 
the earth-works of the Mississippi Valley, by the Hon. E. G. 
Squier, who is a Fellow of our Society, in vol. i., and those 
connected with the earth- works in Ohio, in vol . iii., by 
Charles Whittlesey, Esq., are important contributions to the 
ancient Ethnology of those districts. 

The American Ethnological Society is not idle, but, on the 

Mr Cull on the recent Progress of Ethnology. 25 

contrary, is contributing its quota to the elucidation of Ame- 
rican Ethnology. The first part of vol. iii. is just issued 
from the press, and contains much new and interesting mat- 
ter. The Hon. E. G. Squier, whose work on Nicaragua is 
an authority, is still studying and throwing a light on that 
district. A paper, " On the Archseology and Ethnology of 
Nicaragua," in the present Part, is a valuable contribution to 
our knowledge, both of the tribes and of their languages. 
Prior to Mr Squier's visit, our information of this interest- 
ing district was very meagre and sketchy. A knowledge of 
these tribes is likely to point out what relationship existed 
between the Mexicans and Peruvians, and also the relation- 
ship of both to the great American family of Man. 

The British Association for the Advancement of Science 
has printed for circulation, in order to rightly direct inquiry, 
a new edition of its queries, under the title of " A Manual of 
Ethnological Inquiry." From the circumstance that the 
leading Ethnologists of Great Britain belong both to our 
Society and to the British Association, there is a unity of 
action in the two Societies, in the endeavour to collect the 
facts and data of our science. And my being Ethnological 
Secretary to Section E, as well as Honorary Secretary to our 
Society, the object of the Association in the distribution of 
its Manual can be more fully carried out. Copies have 
already been sent to nearly every missionary station in tne 
world ; and from the concise directions as to what to observe, 
we may expect a large mass of facts to be brought together 
for the advancement of Ethnology. — (From Sketch on the 
Recent Progress of Ethnology. By Richard Cull, Esq.) 

26 Lieut. Hunt on Cohesion of Fluids, 

On Cohesion of Fluids, Evaporation, and Steam-Boiler 
Explosions. By Lieut. E. B. Hunt, Corps of Engineers, 
U.S.A.* Communicated by the Author. 

I now wish to present a simple exposition of the mecha- 
nical theory of cohesion in fluid masses, and from this to de- 
duce the structure of a fluid surface, shewing that its cohesive 
strength is much less than that of the interior layers. The 
result furnishes a clear and direct explanation of the great 
fact of evaporation, and shews why, in all cases, even in ebul- 
lition, evaporation is a strictly surface phenomenon. Hence 
follows an explanation of one of the chief causes of steam- 
boiler explosions, and the easy suggestion of a very practical 
remedy; also an explanation of the heating of fluids to high 
temperatures, as observed by Donny, and of the entire 
agency of contained air in ebullition. 

Several years have now elapsed since, in tracing out the 
results of a highly general theory of molecular mechanics, it 
occurred to me to call in question the commonly-received 
views as to the amount and character of a fluid cohesion. 
Regarding all cohesion as directly a function of the distance 
between adjacent molecules, it was quite impossible to ima- 
gine that the exceedingly small difference of the intermolecu- 
lar distances corresponding to the fluid and solid forms re- 
spectively in any given substance, could produce that very 
great difference of cohesive strength so generally conceived 
to exist. The slight difference of volume, for instance, be- 
tween a solid and fluid pound of iron, would not lead us to 
anticipate any marked difference of cohesion, so long as we 
regard this cohesion as any tolerably simple function of the 
intermolecular distances. 

The ordinary experiments professing to measure fluid co- 
hesion, are by no means cases of direct rupture, and indeed 
furnish no measure whatever of actual cohesive strength. 
The common experiment of separating, by counterpoising 
weights, a disc from a fluid which wets it, furnishes no indi- 
cation of the cohesion in the mass of fluid, but merely shews 

• Read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at 
Cleaveland, Aug. 1853. 

Evaporation, and Steam-Boiler Explosions. 27 

the force required to break the fluid surface. Donny's expe- 
riments shew positively that the yielding is here entirely at 
the surface, progressing through the mass by the successive 
breaking of the successively formed surfaces, only a mere 
fluid filament being at last broken by direct rupture. It is 
truly a case of capillary action between a horizontal fluid sur- 
face and a horizontal solid circular surface, and like all other 
capillary action exists primarily at the surfaces only. Ex- 
cept in the frequently observed adhesion of well-boiled mer- 
cury in barometer tubes, to heights far above the true baro- 
metric level, we have in fact no record of any experiments 
exhibiting the resistance offered by a fluid mass to direct rup- 
ture, which only ought to be taken as a true measure of cohe- 
sion. All the common views of a slight fluid cohesion are 
based on erroneous interpretations, in which the effects of 
the easy mobility of parts in fluids are very loosely imputed 
to a low value of cohesion. Once clearly understanding that 
surface yielding gives no measure of cohesion or direct re- 
sistance in rupture, we can readily see that the prevalent 
ideas on this subject are without support. 

If we study the phenomenon attending the condensation of 
gases and vapours into fluids, it is apparent that while con- 
tiguous molecules are still at distances many times as great 
as that characterizing the fluid state, the cohesive attraction 
manifests itself appreciably. Steam instantly condensing, at 
the rate of a foot of steam to an inch of water, shews that in 
water the cohesive action of a molecule extends effectively 
through a sphere whose diameter is at least twelve times the 
distance between adjacent molecular centres in the fluid. 
Hence in water the radius of effective cohesive action must 
be so great as to include several molecular layers. The mo- 
ment a gas ceases to follow Mariotte's law, cohesive action 
becomes appreciable ; and this is proof enough that in masses 
many layers contribute their action in making up the total 

If we conceive any fluid mass to be distributed into layers, 
then the correct measure of fluid cohesion will be the force 
requisite to produce a direct simultaneous separation of all 
the parts along a unit of the dividing surface between two 

28 Lieut. Hunt on Cohesion of Fluids, 

layers. This is equal to the resultant of all the forces acting 
from cither direction against this unit of surface, these forces 
being held hi equilibrio by the equally opposing forces. To 
obtain an expression for this cohesion, let the fluid mass be 
conceived as divided into elementary layers relative to three 
perpendicular co-ordinate axes. Let the layers above the 
plane X, Y, be called 1, 2, 3, &c, those below being called 
«, b, c, &c. Take the unit of surface in the plane X, Y, be- 
tween layers 1 and a. Then the force with which the unit 
in layer 1 presses against layer a is composed of all the at- 
tractions which the entire layers a, b, c, &c, exert on the 

I I 

I I i_ 

1 1 3 

I I 2 

3 L_L, 



units in layers 1, 2, 3, &c, which make up the prism 
basing on the unit of surfaces. Or, making the cohesion -v[/, 
and designating the elementary forces by the layers between 
which they are exerted, we have 

-l = a, 1 + b, 1 4 c, 1 + d, 1 + &c. 

+ a, 2 + b, 2 + c, 2 + &c 

4- a, 3 + 6, 3 + &c. 

+ <2, 4 + &C 

in which the terms arranged above each other have equal 
values. This series would require to be extended so as to 
include all terms corresponding to distances at which cohe- 
sive forces may not be regarded as evanescent. By assuming 
some law of connection between this force and the distance, 
an integration of effect could be attained ; but this is not noyv 
necessary. An inspection of the formula gives the main fea- 
tures in the mechanism of cohesion within masses, either solid 
or fluid. 

In order now to study the peculiarities of constitution be- 
longing to surfaces, let us, in this formula, introduce the hy- 
pothesis that layer 1 becomes a surface layer. All terms 
containing 2, 3, 4, &c., are thus struck out, and we 

Evaporation, and Steam-Boiler Explosions. 29 

have, as the surface cohesion along the normal direction, 
^ = a, 1 + b. 1 + c, 1 + d, l + &c. But in the general expres- 
sion we have, by observing the equality of terms, 

cc = a, 1 + 2(6 . l) + 3(c. l) + 4(d.l) +&c. 
Comparing these values of m% we see that the surface layer 
coheres to the mass with a very much smaller force than two 
internal layers cohere against each other. For the second, 
third, &c, layers, a like discussion applies, and the cohesion 
gradually increases on penetrating the mass. 

This formula involves no particular hypothesis as to the 
value or character of the forces acting, only that the aggre- 
gate is attractive. But as condensation is a spontaneous 
phenomenon through all that portion of the aggregation al 
range in which energetic actions are found, we ought to as- 
sume that all the effective terms are attractive. To present 
the grounds which seem to me to authorize the conception of 
that repulsion in all states of aggregation, is only exercised 
between adjacent molecules, while the attractive actions are 
the resultants of all the primary constitutional forces, and 
extend through larger spheres, would involve the exposition 
of a complete theory of molecular mechanics. I must, there- 
fore, leave, as an assumption, the conception that in fluids the 
only repulsion to be taken into account is that between the 
contiguous layers (a and 1), which prevents their yielding 
farther to the cohesive forces pressing them together. 

We should observe, that in consequence of the deficiency 
of cohesion along the fluid surface, a rarefaction would take 
place, which would again diminish surface cohesion to a con- 
siderable extent below that value given by the formula. 

To determine the cohesion measured along a surface, as 
we have done for that along the normal, let the general for- 
mula be applied to a surface element. Then, instead of the 


I I 

I I I I 

I ! 

I I 

11 I 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 

I I 

I I I 
normal layers being full layers, they are essentially but half 

30 Lieut. Hunt on Cohesion of Fluids, 

layers, or each term has approximately only one-half of its 
value for the interior. Hence the value of x is approximately 
only one-half of the interior value, or the cohesion along a sur- 
face is about one-half what it is within the mass. But as this 
value gives a rarefication also along the surface as well as 
along the normal, it will therefore be much diminished, so as 
to become less than one-half the general value. Thus both 
along the normal and along the surface, a weak cohesion is a 
necessary characteristic of the bounding layers of material 
masses, both fluid and solid. The result thus reached in re- 
spect to a mass in vacuo, would not be greatly affected in the 
ordinary atmosphere. 

It is somewhat remarkable that Poisson's capillary theory, 
as stated by Mossotti, in Taylor's Scientific Memoirs, is 
based essentially on an analysis of the fluid surface, in 
which the halving of the normal layer is totally overlooked, 
and the cohesion along the surface is declared to be the same 
as in the mass, the surface layer only having been taken into 
account. I have not seen Poisson's work, but it is singular 
that Mossotti should either have made such an oversight, or 
have failed to detect it in Poisson, if he really committed it. 
It is a radical defect — even using Poisson's own hypothe- 
sis — and must directly affect, or even invalidate, his whole 

I come now to an important deduction from the preceding 
discussion. Fluid surfaces are in a state of weak cohesion 
as compared with fluid interiors ; hence a partially atmo- 
spheric condition of rarefaction exists along such bounding 
surfaces. If, then, we assimilate heat to a molecular repul- 
sion, as is customary, we see at once that as the temperature 
is raised the weak cohesion in the surface layer will be 
wholly overcome long before the mass is heated to that point 
which will overmaster its internal cohesion. Hence the sur- 
face molecules will freely pass off as vapour, while a strong 
cohesion still exists throughout the entire mass. Evapora- 
tion thus goes on at surfaces, at all temperatures above 
that which just suffices to overcome the weak surface cohe- 
sion. This constitution or structure necessarily characteriz- 
ing the limiting layers of fluids, is the true and full explana- 

Evaporation and Steam-Boiler Explosions. 31 

tion of evaporation in all its forms. From this we see that 
a fluid mass, without interior or exterior surfaces, or so in- 
closed as virtually to answer this description, might be heated 
up far above the boiling-point without boiling. "We see that 
ebullition is but the effect of an internal evaporation starting 
in minute air-bubbles, and growing with the expanding bub- 
ble. We see that water entirely freed from air-bubbles, and 
with a restricted open surface, as in Donny's tube experi- 
ment, should go on heating up far above the boiling point, 
until at last the whole heated mass would flash into steam 
with an explosion. All the phenomena described by Donny, 
in his excellent paper in the Annates de CTiimie et de Phy- 
sique, follow as easy and obvious deductions from this con- 
stitution of the fluid surface. Indeed, we do not at all wonder 
his being forced, from his experiments, to conclude empiri- 
cally that there must be some peculiar quality in surfaces, 
which makes evaporation take place so much more readily 
on them than in fluid masses. We see, too, how utterly 
fallacious are the experiments usually taken, as measuring 
fluid cohesion — .they being in fact only results of the weak 
cohesion in surface layers — which, with the free mobility of 
fluid parts, fully explains all the observed results. This fully 
explains how a too perfect boiling of the mercury in barome- 
ter tubes makes it adhere at the top with such tenacity. It 
explains Berthollet's experiment on the forced dilatation of 
fluids, in which a deaerated fluid, sealed when hot, does not 
shrink in cooling for a long time, but at last breaks and col- 
lapses — indicating that it has borne a great tension before 
yielding. Prof. Henry's elegant experiments with soap-bubbles, 
in which by measuring the tension of the inclosed air, he is able 
to deduce, first, the compressing force, and thence the cohe- 
sion of the fluid film, with a very great value, furnish an in- 
dependent confirmation of the same general views. We may 
remark that the heterogeneous structure of the outer layers 
would destroy the mobility of their parts, and give a film- 
like character to the fluid surface, while all within this film 
would have free mobility. This, with the additional fact of 
a drawing inward of the outer layers, by the unbalanced co- 
hesive action of the layers near the surface, explains the 

'62 Lieut. Hunt on CoJieslon 0/ Fluids. 

great variety of formal phenomena exhibited by drops, bub- 
bles, and fluid surfaces. 

About four years since, I conceived the idea of directly 
measuring fluid cohesion by rupturing a pure fluid column 
in a cylinder with a moving piston. By filling the cylinder 
with the fluid to be tested, and immersing the piston by the 
aid of a valve closing at will, the force requisite for starting 
the piston will be the cohesion of the column, on allowing for 
atmospheric pressure. Of course, the fluid must adhere to 
the cylinder more strongly than it coheres in itself, else 
the adhesion only would be measured. Nor must it contain 
any air-bubbles, as the presence of one such, however small, 
will give a start to the break, by presenting a weak surface. 
This is the great difficulty of the proposed experiment. In 
May last, I had just begun such an experiment, on mercury, 
in an amalgamated cylinder, but the requisite precautions 
for excluding air could not be taken for lack of time, as I was 
obliged to leave my station before the apparatus was com- 
plete. The rapidity with which the mercury rushed past 
the piston, in the rough trials made, shewed that some pack- 
ing will probably be requisite in a deliberate measurement, 
and this again will present the difficulty of introducing an 
unamalgamated surface in the mass to be broken. The pre- 
cautions requisite for a perfect trial of the experiment are 
quite numerous. I anticipate that exceedingly small air- 
bubbles will have the effect of making the indications irregu- 
lar, as the smallest bubbles will only start a break on the ap- 
plication of very considerable force. 

I will now apply this discussion to steam-boiler explosions. 
The condition requisite for ebullition in boiling water is 
simply that air-bubbles in the heated portions shall present 
on their boundaries the weakly coherent surfaces requisite 
for evaporation to be established. Perfectly deaerated water, 
with a limited surface, would not boil at all, but would 
steadily heat up until it reached that point at which it would 
flash explosively into steam. Now, one chief cause of steam- 
boat explosions is clearly of this description. The boat stops 
at a wharf; "the doctor," or pump supplying water to the 
engine, being worked by the engine itself, stops its water 

Evaporation, and Steam-Boiler Ecxploaions. 33 

supply when the engine stops. The water in the boiler goes 
on boiling until all the air-bubbles are boiled off from the 
water, and their air is mixed with the steam above. There 
then ceases to be any evaporating surface, except that on the 
top layer, which is farthest from the heating surface, and 
quite inadequate to the consumption of all the heat supplied. 
Then the mass of water begins to heat up, and it goes on 
storing up the unconsumed caloric, until the water is far 
hotter than the head of steam would indicate. The engineer 
then starts the engine ; this starts the pump, which throws 
a stream of air-charged water directly into the glowing fluid. 
The heat instantly finds its outlet by an overwhelming eva- 
poration on the newly supplied bubble surfaces, and a tumul- 
tuous ebullition follows. The gathered store of heat flashes 
off a portion of the water into steam of excessive tension — a 
tension such as nothing can withstand. The terrific conse- 
quences are too often witnessed in those fatal catastrophes 
which have given to our western rivers such a tragic repu- 
tation. No one can examine a list of western steam-boat 
explosions without being forcibly impressed with the fre- 
quency of these accidents just as the boat is starting from 
the wharf, after a landing. It seems to me beyond doubt 
that many of these occur just in the manner now stated, 
and from the deficiency of air-bubbles in the boiler. We see 
in this reasoning, too, a sufficient explanation of dry steam, 
or steam hotter than its tension indicates. The heating is 
then going on faster than the evaporation, and the steam is 
thus heated as if it were not in contact with the water, or 
were in a vessel by itself. 

It is not always that the remedy for a danger is as obvious 
and as easily applied as in this case. It is only necessary to 
keep the pump in steady, slow operation, while the engine is 
at rest. It should always be capable of an independent 
movement, and should constantly, while a boat is fired up, 
be kept at work, however slowly. By this means air for 
ebullition will always be supplied, and the accumulation of 
heat in a sluggish mass of water cannot then go on until 
the explosion point is reached. The field over which I have 
thus rapidly traversed is one requiring much patient study 


34 Lieut. Hunt on Cohesion of Fluids, 

for its full development and illustration. I could not here 
give all which belongs to it without exceeding reasonable 
limits. Nearly all the views which I have presented were 
the result of my own studies, so far as concerned my original 
acquaintance with them, but I was happy to find that Donny 
and Henry had, in some points, reached the same conclusions 
by independent routes. But I am not aware that any one 
has presented the same analysis of cohesio nor of the mole- 
cular constitution of material surfaces. Especially does the 
derivation of evaporation from molecular mechanics seem to 
me novel and worthy of careful consideration. Donny indi- 
cates essentially deaeration as a cause of steam-boiler explo- 
sion ; but it is as an experimental deduction, and not con- 
nected with its mechanical derivation. 

In conclusion, I will present an outline of a most interest- 
ing illustration of creative design in the earth's co-ordination. 
The explanation of evaporation which has been given shews 
that for each fluid the formation of vapour lies within certain 
definite limits of temperature, as a result of primary struc- 
ture. These limits differ greatly in different fluids. Now, 
in framing the earth for habitation, or for the proper life of 
animal and vegetable forms, something equivalent to rain 
was necessary, from the constant descent of fluids to the 
lowest level. "Without some agency to lift the great organic 
fluid above its lowest ocean bed, sterility would have been 
the lot of all which rose above its surface, and terrestrial 
organisms would have been quite impossible. But fluidity 
does not involve evaporation except within certain definite 
limits, special for each liquid. Again, evaporation might 
freely go on, and yet no capacity for condensation exist, ex- 
cept within other limits of temperature, quite unattainable, 
save through special arrangement. Rain, then, with our 
earth and atmosphere, involved a special constitution of the 
raining fluid, not only so that evaporation at ordinary tem- 
peratures should go on, but so that condensation may again 
take place in the ordinary air. Not only must this qualitative 
arrangement exist, but also a quantitative one ; since the 
quantity of rain best sufficing to the aggregate organic need 
is exactly a certain definite number of inches per annum. 

Evaporation, and Steam-Boiler Explosions. 35 

Now, water is doubtless the only known liquid which could 
by possibility answer these definite mechanical conditions ; 
hence we say, that there is a peculiarly clear evidence of de- 
sign, first, in making a fluid which could, under our cosmical 
conditions, undergo the raining round, and secondly, in its 
being on the earth in so exactly the quantity best meeting 
the aggregate organic needs. Ether, quicksilver, or any 
other known fluid, could not, in any possible arrangement of 
quantity, supply this primary cosmical necessity. Now, 
when we reflect how many are the instances in which the 
terrestrial elements, simple and in combination, exist in 
strict adaptation to organic needs, both qualitatively and 
quantitatively, the cumulative evidence of design much ex- 
ceeds that furnished by a locomotive or a cotton -mill. Not 
only is organic life framed in strict relation to the earth, but 
the earth is also primarily constituted in strict relation to 
organic life. Let whoever doubts this, study the extremely 
slender a priori chance that a drop of rain of any known 
liquid should ever fall upon the earth, and let him but pic- 
ture the total lack of all land life which must have followed 
any cast of the die other than that really existing. Life 
without fluid circulation is totally inconceivable by the mind 
of man, and exactly to determine the appropriate kind and 
quantity of liquid, as has been done in the real frame 
of nature, was a problem of pure and absolute intellection, 
transcending the grasp of every mind save the all-wise creat- 
ing Designer. 


36 Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 

Researches in Embryology ; a Note supplementary to Papers 
2>ublishcdin the Philosophical Transactions forlSSS, 1839, 
and 1840, shewing the Confirmation of the Principal Facts 
there recorded, and pointing out a Correspondence be- 
tween certain Structures connected with the Mammiferous 
Ovum and other Ova. By Martin Barry, M.D., F.R.S. 
F.R.S.E.* (Communicated by the Author.) 

The following are some of the principal facts recorded in 
my Papers on Embryology : others will be mentioned further 

1. The spermatozoon penetrates into the interior of the 

2. The germinal vesicle persists beyond the period at which 
it had been supposed to disappear. 

3. Cleavage of the yelk, previously noticed in Batrachian 
Reptiles, and some Osseous Fishes, takes place in the ovum 
of the highest animals — Mammalia. 

4. This cleavage of the yelk is effected by means of the 
nuclei of cells. 

5. The nuclei effecting cleavage of the yelk have their ori- 
gin in the germinal spot, which divides and subdivides to 
furnish them. 

6. The nucleus of the cell neither " remains unaltered," nor 
" is absorbed as useless," after the formation of the cell-mem- 
brane ; but continues to display properties which shew it to 
be the most important portion of the cell. 

7. Ova of the Rabbit destined to be developed, are in most 
instances discharged from the ovary in the course of nine or 
ten hours post co'itum ; and they are all discharged about the 
same time. 

Two of these facts, viz., that regarding the period at which 
the ovum of the Rabbit is usually expelled from the ovary, 
and the fact that cleavage of the yelk takes place in the marn- 

* The substance of a Paper read before the Royal Society of London, June 
16, 1853. 

Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 37 

miferous ovum, — both of which I published in March 1839, — 
received immediate confirmation. All the others were denied. 
Yet since then they have all, without exception, been abun- 
dantly confirmed. Some of these facts, however, remained un- 
acknowledged for so many years, that the original record of 
them was forgotten. These have proclaimed themselves 
in ova of some of the lower animals, and observers are pub- 
lishing them as quite new, though really no more than con- 
firmations of facts first observed in the mammiferous ovum, and 
recorded inthe Philosophical Transactions many years before. 

Up to the period when I communicated to the Royal Society 
the second series of those Researches, entire ignorance of the 
time post co'itum when the ovum leaves the ovary had so com- 
pletely prevented the obtaining of ova from the Fallopian 
tube, that nothing was known of the essential part of the 
mammiferous ovum between its expulsion from that organ, 
and a comparatively advanced condition of it in the uterus. 
By a determination of that time the hindrance in question was 
removed ; it was thus made comparatively easy to procure ova 
from the Fallopian tube, in one of the Mammalia at least — - 
the Rabbit. And very soon afterwards a work by Professor 
Bischoff appeared in Germany on the mammiferous ovum, ac- 
knowledging that Barry seemed to have been right in his an- 
nouncement that the time post co'itum when the ovum of the 
Rabbit usually leaves the ovary is about nine or ten hours.* 

To determine the time in question, was a task requiring a 
great deal of patience, and attended with difficulties of no 
common kind. But in the course of that inquiry I became ac- 
quainted with the fact that there was another period also in 
the existence of the mammiferous ovum regarding which 
nothing whatever had been ascertained, — the period interven- 
ing between the coitus and the expulsion of the ovum from 
the ovary. I saw changes then taking place in the ovarian 
ovum, without a knowledge of which it is impossible to under- 
stand the ovum in any of its future phases. And it is mainly 
to what was noticed by myself during the inquiry now referred 

* Or words to this effect. I write from a part of the country where the hook 
is not obtainable. 

38 Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 

to in that dark and previously unexplored period, that I owe 
my observation of nearly all the facts just mentioned ; and 
any one of these would have repaid the labour. Had BischofF 
duly examined the ovum after the coitus and before its ex- 
pulsion from the ovary, for which nine or ten hours afford 
ample opportunity, he would have seen it becoming more and 
more prepared for fecundation, might perhaps have met with 
it at the very moment of this change, and would at all events 
have had the opportunity of witnessing the effects thereof in 
their most incipient stages. He would then have understood 
the ovum better in the Fallopian tube and uterus, and could 
not have denied facts which have since established themselves 
in ova of some of the lower animals, notwithstanding the ob- 
scuring yelk, and in spite of all the outcry which Bischoff 
raised against my announcement of them. 

Thus while some laughed at what I maintained regarding 
the germinal spot, they gave drawings shewing that at the very 
same time they had divisions and sub-divisions of this myste- 
rious body before their eyes ; obscured however, in the ova 
they examined, by a quantity of yelk not present in a solid 
form, in the mammiferous ovum. Hence the importance of 
examining the latter at the early period just mentioned. 
And I now have the satisfaction to see that the illustrious 
names of Von Baer and Johannes Muller may be added to 
those who at length find just what I had described as seen in 
the Mammalia, that the germinal spot, dividing, furnishes the 
nuclei of the cleft yelk-balls. 

The importance of the nucleus of the cell, the part it takes 
in producing secondary deposits, and its divisions for the pro- 
duction of young cells, I believe to be now doubted by very- 
few of those who have really made adequate inquiry. Yet 
up to the time when these facts concerning the nucleus were 
recorded in the Philosophical Transactions, no one had ques- 
tioned the views of Schleidcn and Schwann, — that after the 
formation of the cell-membrane the nucleus either " remains 
unaltered," or " as a useless member is absorbed." Thus 
Schwann, when discussing the question, whether the germinal 
vesicle is a young cell, or the nucleus of the yelk-cell, re- 
marked : " If it be the first, it is very probably the most essen- 

Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 39 

tial foundation of the embryo ; but if it be the nucleus of the 
yelk-cell, its importance ceases with the formation of the 
yelk-cell, and according to the analogy of most cell-nuclei it 
must subsequently be either entirely absorbed, or continue 
for a time without forming any new essential object."* 

My observation that the spermatozoon penetrates into the 
interior of the ovum, after having been by some neglected 
and by others denied for about a dozen years, and even as 
lately as in 1852 being ridiculed by Bischoff as " born of the 
imagination," has at length been fully confirmed ; and this 
in two quarters, by inquirers acting quite independently of, and 
unknown to one another, — in animals, moreover, not far 
from the lowest in the scale, my own researches having been 
made at the other end of the animal kingdom in the highest 
class — Mammalia. One of these confirmations was made in 
this country by Dr Nelson, the other in Germany by Dr 
Keber. The researches of the former were on ova of an 
Entozoon, those of the latter on ova of the fresh-water 
Mussel. Nelson's paper was published in the Philosophical 
Transactions for last year ;t that of Keber has been published 
in a separate form. J It is impossible to read the accounts 
given by these observers without feeling the fullest confi- 
dence in their observations, made and repeated as they evi- 
dently were with care and patience that leave nothing in 
these respects to be desired. 

It was found by Nelson, that the spermatozoa penetrating 
each ovum of the Entozoon he examined were in considerable 
number ; but by Keber, that only a single spermatozoon pene- 
trated the ovum of the fresh-water Mussel. Nelson is one 
of those who now find in animals at the other end of the Ani- 
mal Kingdom what I had shewn in Mammalia, that the ger- 
minal spot, dividing, furnishes the nuclei of the cells out of 

* " Mikroskopische Untersuchungen uber die Uebereinstimmungen in der 
Struktur und dem Wachsthum der Thiere und Pflanzen." Berlin, 1838-9. 
S. 660. 

t " The Reproduction of Ascaris Mystax. Phil. Trans. 1852, Part ii. 

X " T)e Spermatozoorum Introitu in Ovula. " Konigsberg, 1853. (The obser- 
vations were on Unio and Anodonta, and made in 1852.) 

40 Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 

which arises the new being ; an opinion which, as will pre- 
sently be shewn, is that of Keber also."* 

Keber describes the penetration of the spermatozoon into 
the interior of the ovum in Unio and Anodonta, through an 
aperture formed by dehiscence of its coats, analogous to the 
micropyle in plants ; and he refers to an observation in ova 
of several species of Holothuria made by Professor Johannes 
Miiller, and communicated by him to the Academy of Berlin 
in 1850 and 1851, of what he (Miiller) considered as very 
much resembling that micropyle. The orifice found by Keber 
to form for the entrance of a spermatozoon into the Mussel's 
ovum, seems to correspond to that seen by myself to have 
formed for the same purpose in the ovum of the Rabbit ; in 
which orifice I saw and delineated what I believe to have 
been the head-like extremity of a spermatozoon on the point 
of uniting its hyaline nucleolus with that of the germinal spot. 
Neither Keber nor Nelson, it is true, saw any such immediate 
and close connection between the fecundating element and the 
germinal spot. Nor do I think that this was essential, seeing 
that in the ova they examined, the yelk enters largely into 
the formation of the new organism; while in the mammiferous 
ovum (the subject of my observations) it is the fecundated 
germinal spot alone that forms it. Hence they did not trace 
the fecundating element beyond the yelk. Nelson describes the 
spermatozoa as undergoing liquefaction in the yelk, the ger- 
minal spot furnishing the nuclei to effect cleavage of the latter. 
Keber saw the spermatozoon, or rather what he terms the nu- 
cleus of its head-like extremity, to divide into nucleoli in the 
yelk. He acknowledges his inability to solve the question, in 
what relation these nucleoli derived from the spermatozoon 
stand to the pell acid nuclei of the yelk-balls; which nuclei — ac- 
cording to Vogt, Von Baer,Loven, Johannes Miiller, and others 
— have their origin in the germinal spot-t But after recapitu- 
lating the results obtained, he concludes from the observations 
of Johannes MiillcrJ and his own, that neither the germinal 

* Eveti Nil on, however, was not aware of my having recorded the penetra- 
tion of the spermatozoon into the ovum as an established fact ; though Keber 
Wto fully aware of it, and does me the justice to quote all that I had written in 
the ]'ni/"?f,j, Ideal Tr6n#dctt#rh on the subject; both in 1840 and 1843. 

t Kel er ; toe, cit , p. 40. ♦ Muller'e Archiv, 1852. 

Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 41 

spot nor the spermatozoon really disappears, •* but that both 
enter into the formation of the nuclei of the new organism."* 
And he finally says : " Through observation alone can it be 
decided, whether the nuclei arising out of the spermatozoon 
and the germinal spot unite to pass into the embryonic cells." \ 
That such union is what takes place in the mammiferous 
ovum I think was shewn by my own observations in 1840, 
when it was recorded that, before the cleavage of the yelk 
begins, the hyaline centre of the germinal spot is determin- 
ately held by the retinacula, up to a certain time, as near as 
possible to the surface of the ovary ; that an orifice is formed 
in the " zona pellucida," at the part where this centre lies ; 
that on one or two occasions I saw this centre of the germi- 
nal spot, apparently without any covering from the germinal 
vesicle,^ actually protruded into the orifice in the " zona 
pellucida," as if to meet the fecundating element ; and that 
subsequently the germinal spot passes to the centre of the 
germinal vesicle, and the germinal vesicle to the centre of 
the ovum. I added, that the germinal vesicle, which by de- 
terminate pressure at the periphery became lenticular, now 
resumes the spherical form, and that an orifice in the " zona 
pellucida" is no longer seen. Such alterations suggest the 
probability of some sudden and important change having been 
effected in the condition of the ovum. The nature of the al- 
terations is such as to induce the belief, that the ovum has 
undergone fecundation ; the mysterious hyaline centre or nu- 
cleolus of the germinal spot having received the fecundating 
element of the seminal fluid, and having thus been the point 
of fecundation. And farther, from an observation I published 
at the same time, it is to be inferred that the fecundating 
element is the pellucid substance (nucleolus) contained in the 
head-like extremity of the spermatozoon, a direct union taking 
place in the mammiferous ovum between this substance and 
the hyaline nucleolus of the germinal spot. I have already 
stated why I think such direct union between the spermato- 

* Keber, loc. cit., p. 56. f Keber, loc. cit., p. 111. 

J I have since recorded the fact, that an orifice is sometimes seen at the cor- 
responding part in other cells. Phil. Trans. 1841, Part ii., p. 204, Plates 17 to 

■12 Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 

zoon and the germinal spot is not essential in ova where the 
yelk enters largely into the formation of the new being. In 
the mammiferous ovum, the hyaline centre of the germinal 
spot, and the hyaline in the head-like extremity of the sper- 
matozoon are both to be considered nucleoli, a mixing or 
combination of which it appears to me yields the substance 
out of which is formed the new being ; and to this mixing I 
apprehend is to be attributed the resemblance between the 
offspring and both its parents.* 

Keber justly deprecates theory when it is attempted there- 
with to make up deficiencies left by superficial investigation, 
and gives examples of it in two papers recently published in 
Germany on this very subject, shewing the conclusions they 
contain to be valueless, annihilated as they are by positive 
observation. The author of one of those two papers is Bis- 
chofF.t that of the other, Kblliker.J 

I fully adhere to what I first published in 1839, and again 
recorded as established and extended by means of higher 
magnifying powers in 1840, that in the mammiferous ovum, 
the mulberry-like body into which the fecundated germinal 
spot has divided, contains a cell larger than the rest — a sort 
of queen-bee in the hive ; and that the embryo arises out of 
the nucleus of this cell, in the form at first of the so-called 
" primitive trace," and " chorda dorsalis." 

This origin out of the nucleus of a cell (instead of, as had 
been supposed, in the substance of a membrane) explains why 
in the higher animals, the embryo is formed at one point of 
the yelk surface. Farther, I maintain the accuracy of all the 
other " marvellous figures," as Bischoff calls them, given by 
myself of mammiferous ova from the uterus. Before record- 
ing the results referred to in this communication I had sacri- 
ficed about 150 rabbits, which yielded 181 ova from the uterus, 
230 from the Fallopian tube, and an uncounted number from 
the ovary, — a large proportion of the latter belonging to the 
dark period pioneered in the inquiry above mentioned. And 

* fSee also my remarks on this subject in Muller's Archiv for 1850, Heft vi. 
t " Theorie der Befruchtung und iiber die Rolle wclche die Spermatozoideii 
dabei spielen," in Muller's Archiv, 1847, s. 422. 

X " I3eitrage zur Kenntniss der Geschlechtsverhaltnisse." 

Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Emhryology. 43 

I cannot refrain from here repeating that he who, in re- 
searches on the mammiferous ovum, does not very minutely, 
and very patiently, and again and again, examine ova during 
that period, i.e., in the ovary post eo'itum, is quite incapable 
of understanding them in the uterus or Fallopian tube. 

Another cause of ignorance that recent works by a German 
author shew still to exist regarding the mammiferous ovum 
in the Fallopian tube and uterus, is its perishable nature. 
This inconvenience is felt chiefly in examining ova the essen- 
tial part of which has left the centre and reached one side ; 
for the chances are against that side being directed towards 
the eye. You cannot turn the ovum round and round with- 
out destroying it, for to a body so delicate it is impossible, 
even with the finest hair pencil, to apply an equally delicate 
manipulation. And supposing you at length find one having 
the essential part directed upwards, a few minutes will not 
suffice for the examination, of which some figures that have 
been published afford ample proof. Some medium is required 
in which the examination maybe more perfectly accomplished. 
The smallest ova from the Fallopian tube and uterus it was 
my practice to view imbedded in some of the mucus taken from 
those parts, after I had excluded the air in a manner formerly 
described.* For any but the smallest a transparent fluid is 
required. I tried a large number, and all were found unsuit- 
able excepting one. That one was a saturated aqueous solu- 
tion of Kreosote, which I still most particularly recommend 
as a medium in which the ovum may be examined day after 
day, and may be even delineated at the end of several days.f 

Besides the facts and conclusions already referred to in 
this communication, my papers on Embryology will be found 
to contain others, among which are the following, viz. : — 

8. The existence and mode of origin of a vesicle not pre- 
viously described, which I shewed to be common to the ova 
of vertebrated animals, and to constitute the foundation of 
the Graafian follicle, a vesicle which I followed upwards from 

* Phil. Trans. 1839, Part ii., pp. 365, 367. 

t Phil. Trans. 1839, Tart ii., p. 3A5, Plate 8, fig. 138, a drawing taken 
after the ovum had lain in Kreosote water for three days. 

44 Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 

the minuteness of T ^th of a line, and proposed to call the 

9. The existence and mode of origin of ban dsregulating 
the movements of the mammiferous ovum in the ovary, and 
rendering gradual its expulsion from that organ ; which bands 
I termed the retinacula. 

10. The existence of vesicles under the mucous membrane 
of the uterus in the Rabbit, containing a mulberry-like body, 
one of which I had seen revolving on its axis. 

In rabbits, of which he sacrificed about thirty in his re- 
searches, Keber met with vesicles in large number, each of 
which contained a revolving mulberry-like body, revolving by 
means of cilia ; and he found the position of these vesicles to 
be most frequently somewhere in the cavity of the abdomen. 
He satisfactorily shews such vesicles to have been expelled 
from the ovary, and mentions facts that induced him to be- 
lieve them to be ova. 

I have no doubt that this indefatigable observer is quite 
right in considering the revolving body in such vesicles to be 
the essential part of an unfecundated ovum.* There is one 
point, however, on which I am compelled to differ from him 
in his conclusions, without for a moment questioning the accu- 
racy of any of his observations. He is evidently one who, 
desiring only to arrive at truth, will not feel hurt by the sug- 
gestion I am about to offer. So far from this, indeed, his 
work already mentioned contains a special invitation on the 

I do not believe the membrane of the vesicles in question 
to be the vitellary membrane ("zona pellucida"); and for 
the following reasons. 

In some of the Mammalia it is so common to meet with 
ova that have escaped from the ovary during the rut without 
fecundation, that with others I believe this to take place 
generally in the class. Such unimpregnated ova. however, 
1 have usually found to be accompanied by their ovisacs ; 
which also I have no doubt takes place generally in this class 

* It was erroneously stated in a short notice which appeared in the last num- 
ber of this Journal, that Keber had considered the vesicles in question to be 
fecundated ova. 

Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology, 45 

of animals. Then the first change after their expulsion from 
the ovary seems to be the disappearance by liquefaction of 
the " zona pellucida ; M * which is not surprising, for it arises 
as a mere fluid,f and seems never to reach more than a gela- 
tinous consistence in the ovary. In the Rabbit, when the ovi- 
sacs thus expelled with their unimpregnated ova do not pass 
into the cavity of the abdomen, but enter the uterus, they 
become connected therewith by bloodvessels, and seem to 
exist for a while therein as parasites. The mulberry-like re- 
volving body they contain, no doubt consists of the group of 
cells arisen from nuclei into which the germinal spot divides 
and subdivides ; which divisions and subdivisions, therefore, 
I believe to take place without fecundation. But when this 
happens, they do not lead to the formation of a cell larger 
than the rest, which I have compared to a queen-bee in the 
hive. The epithelium with vibrating cilia seen by Keber on 
the inner surface of the membrane of these vesicles, appears 
to me to have been what Von Baer denominated the mem- 
brana granulosa; each granule having become an epithe- 
lial cell. The membrane of the vesicles in question, there- 
fore, lined by such an epithelium, / believe to be that of my 

From these remarks it will be seen that, though not taking 
the same view as Keber on one point, I believe that physi- 
ologist to have shewn that the mulberry-like body described 
by myself in the Philosophical Transactions for 1839, as re- 
volving on its axis, was the essential part of an unfecundated 
mammiferous ovum. That observation of mine was quite 
incidental, but I have the satisfaction to know from Bischoff's 
own remarks that it was that observation that led him to 
look for a revolving body in the ovum of the Mammalia,J 
and which he was so fortunate in one instance as to find. It 
was the fibrous membrane, — the layer of granules on its inner 
surface, — the connection by bloodvessels with the uterus, — 

* See a drawing I gave of such an ovisac from the infundibulum in the Hog. 
Phil. Trans. 1839. Part ii., Plate 5, fSg. 102, h and /. 
t Phil. Trans., 1838. Part li., Plate 8, fig. 70,/. 
% See a paper of his in Muller's Archiv for the following year, 1840. 

40 Dr Martin Barry's liesearclies in Embryology. 

and the absence of anything like a " zona pellucida," — that 
made me hesitate to consider the mulberry-like revolving body 
as the essential part of an ovum ; for, as regarded that mul- 
berry-like body, I stated the resemblance it bore to an ovum 
to be perfect. There certainly were not wanting inducements 
that would have made it very agreeable to one who had shewn 
ihat cleavage of the yelk takes place in the ovum of the Mam- 
malia* could he have extended from the ovum of some of the 
lower animals to that of the highest class, the remarkable 
phenomenon of rotation also. But I contented myself with 
the remark : " It remains to be discovered whether the mul- 
berry-like structure with its germ in the ovum of Mammalia 
also performs rotatory motions." f 

Among the objections anticipated by Keber as likely to be 
raised by others against his view, that these vesicles are ova, 
is the fact that their membrane is fibrous, — a fibrous structure 
never having been discovered in the " zona pellucida." Now 
this objection I have just met by my statement that the mem- 
brane in question is not the " zona pellucida," but the ovisac. 
For there can be no doubt that a multitude of particles I 
figured as dividing and subdividing to enter into the formation 
of the ovisac (before the existence of what could be denomi- 
nated membrane), and leaving remarkable centres which also 
I delineated, Were the elements of fibre. \ 

Another objection that might be raised against Keber's 
view has reference to size ; an objection fully provided for by 
my idea that the vesicle in question is not the vitellary mem- 
brane but the ovisac. 

Keber observed, that in the membrane of one of the vesicles 
containing a revolving body there had been formed an orifice ; 
and this by an arrangement of the fibres too regular to admit 
of the supposition that the orifice was accidental. This ori- 
fice I believe to exist before the expulsion of the ovum from 
the ovary ; an opinion founded on the following observation 

* Phil. Trans. 1839, Plate 6. f Phil. Trans. 1839, p. 357. 

X See especially in the Phil. Trans, for 1841, Plate 25, figs. 164 to 173. 
And see a paper of mine in this Journal for October 1853, " On Animal and 
Vegetable Fibre." 

Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 47 

along with others ; viz, that " when the discharge of the ovum 
from the ovary is very near, that portion of the Graafian vesi- 
cle directed outwards is seen to have been removed."* After 
recording which, I gave a drawing of a Graafian vesicle "about 
to discharge its ovum, that Graafian vesicle having been care- 
fully dissected out of the ovarium, and so placed that the com- 
pressor might act upon it laterally, when an appearance was 
obtained which I cannot help believing to have presented the 
orifice in question. \ And I have no doubt that in the Mam- 
malia this orifice is intended as well for the admission of the 
fecundating element, as also for the expulsion from the vesi- 
cle in question (ovisac), while in the ovary, of the fecundated 
ovum. J For my observations shew that fecundation of the 
mammiferous ovum takes place in the ovary. § 

And here I am reminded, not only that the ovisac at its 
origin, like other primary cells according to my observations, 
is always elliptical and not round, but that as its size advances 
(during which it becomes more spherical) it is often met with 
somewhat tapered at one end ; which end is often found to be 
the position of the minute ovum.\\ Now as possibly the ori- 
fice in question may be intimated at an early period, and before 
the ovisac becomes covered with bloodvessels to produce a 
Graafian follicle, I recommend inquirers to seek for it chiefly 
at the smaller end, which they will no doubt find directed 
towards the surface of the ovary. 

I have just shewn that in Mammalia, when unfecundated 
ova leave the ovary, the ovisac usually escapes with them. 
It is deserving of notice that in this class of animals the 
leaving of the ovary by fecundated ova seems to be always 

* " Researches in Embryology, Second Series." Phil. Trans., 1839, p. 317. 

t Phil. Trans., 1839, Plate 5, fig. 95. 

J See a drawing I gave of the ovisac with its orifice after the expulsion of 
the ovum. Phil. Trans., 1839, Plate 5, fig. 98. 

§ It must not be inferred that my observations of Spermatozoa in the interior 
of ova met with in the Fallopian tube, made me suppose fecundation of such ova 
to have taken place after their expulsion from the ovary. ~ 

|| " Researches in Embryology, First Series." Phil. Trans., 1838, Plate 8, 
fig 74 h. 

4S Dv Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 

followed by the expulsion of the ovisac.* So that in Mammalia 
the ovisac appears to escape either with the ovum or after it. I 
This brings me to conclusions, which 1 venture to offer as 
perhaps sufficient to supply analogies long sought for by 
Physiologists in vain, viz. : — 

1. That in the Mammalia the vesicle I described as the 
foundation of the Graafian follicle, and termed the ovisac, 
does not remain permanently in the ovary, but is expelled 
and absorbed. if 

2. That in the Bird the ovum, when escaping from the 
ovary, is accompanied by the corresponding vesicle, — the ovi- 
sac, and that the ovisac becomes the shell-membrane of the. 
Bird's egg ; the Bird's " egg," as we call it, being thus a 
shelled ovisac, and the contained " yelk," as is known, be- 
ing the true ovum. 

3. That the expelled and lost ovisac in the Mammalia 
therefore corresponds to the shell-membrane in the Bird. 

4. That after the formation of the ovum, the albuminous 
contents of the ovisac in the Mammalia correspond to the al- 
bumen in the Bird's " egg.^ 

5. That my retinacula in the Mammalia after all find their 
analogue in the chalazse of the Bird ; and that both have their 
origin in the granular contents of the ovisac, which, at an 
early period, are in appearance just the same in both. 

6. That the shell-membrane of the Bird's " egg" is thus 
a primary cell. 

(We next come to the " zona pellucida' 1 in the ovum of 
Mammalia, known to correspond to the vitellary membrane 

* In the Rabbit this expulsion of the ovisac seems to take place in three or 
four days after the fecundated ovum has escaped. In the Sheep and Goat not 
so soon; for it appears to me to have been this vesicle (my ovisac) that l)r 
Pockels refers to in these animals, as remaining in the incipient corpus luteum 
eight days and more after the expulsion of the ovum from the ovary. — (Midler's 
Archiv, 1836, Heft ii., s. 203.) 

t The ovisac escapes freed from its vascular covering; the latter alone enter- 
ing into the formation of the co?-pus luteum. " Researches in Embryology, 
Second Series." Phil. Trans, 1830, § 261, Plate 5, fig. 98. 

I And, therefore, as I formerly shewed, can take no part in the formation 
of the corpus luteum. 

Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 49 

in the Bird's " egg ;" which latter I found to be originally a 
perfect " zona pellucida," — its consistence almost fluid.*) 

If the analogies now pointed out be admitted, they will of 
course be found applicable, more or less, to the ova of other 
animals, as well as to the ovum of the Bird. 

They will also serve to explain the occasional presence in 
the Bird's " egg" of more than one yelk (ovum) ; obviously 
referable to the same cause as that (to be presently men- 
tioned) sometimes producing in Mammalia several ova in one 
Graafian follicle. For, it must be remembered, the founda- 
tion of the Graafian follicl$ in Mammalia is the ovisac ; and 
the ovisac I have just stated my belief to become the shell- 
membrane of the Bird's " egg."t 

(The existence of my retinacula is actually among the 
facts that Bischoff has denied. I must confess that this ap- 
pears to me to imply investigation so superficial, that I do 
not wonder at denial in the same quarter of facts requiring 
far more profound research. For instance, the penetration 
of the Spermatozoon into the ovum, my observation of which, 
— though the fact was stated to have been demonstrated to 
an Owen and other men of eminence, — Bischoff ridiculed as 
" born of the imagination. 1 ' Those who, from such denial, 
have been led to doubt the existence of the retinacula, may 
be convinced of it without the trouble even of opening a 
Graafian follicle, by simply examining the latter in the Bab- 
bit, or still better in the Ferret (Mustela Furo), from the ex- 
terior of the ovary with a good pocket lens.) 

I cannot refrain from again referring to the egg-like form, 
tapered at one end (this end often found to be the position 
of the ovum), among my figures of the ovarian ovisac, which 
I believe to become the shell-membrane of the Bird. For 
such an early appearance of that tapered form suggests the 

* Phil. Trans., 1838, Plate 5, fig. 25. 

t In the Dog, I have frequently seen three, and not rarely four ova in one 
Graafian follicle ; and in the Ferret, such instances of plurality are still more 


50 Dr Martin Barry's Researches in Embryology. 

thought, that the shape characteristic of the Bird's " egg" is 
first intimated there — in the ovary. And if so, the shape in 
question is after all not peculiar to the " egg" of the Bird ; for 
it happens that the ovarian ovisacs to figures of which I am 
now referring, were seen in one of the Mammalia.* 

From the observations of Von Baer and R. Wagner, in 
invertebrated animals, and my own in two classes of the 
Vertebrata, I concluded, in 1838, that the germinal vesicle 
and its contents constitute, throughout the animal kingdom, 
the most primitive portion of the ovum. "I 1 Subsequent re- 
search in the Bird enabled me to record this as an established 
fact. J And as the positions to be assigned to the several 
parts of the ovum, in the language of " cells" have not yet 
been satisfactorily determined, I will here, in that language, 
state my own recorded observations. 

There first exists a pellucid particle, which becomes an 
elliptical " cytoblast.' ' Out of the nucleolus of this " cyto- 
blast'' there arise the germinal vesicle and its contents ; and 
then the outer part of the " cytoblast" forms the membrane 
of a cell, — my ovisac. To this cell the germinal vesicle is 
related as the hollow nucleus to a ganglion globule. Out of 
the granular contents of the cell now mentioned is formed, 
first, a portion of the yelk around the germinal vesicle, and 
then, around the incipient yelk, the vitellary membrane — 
the "zona pellucida" of Mammalia — which arises in a semi- 
fluid form. 

The occasional presence of two or more ova in a single 
ovisac, is to be explained as follows. It sometimes happens 
that before the formation of the membrane of the ovisac, the 
nucleolus of the " cytoblast " has divided into two or more 
parts, each of which becomes a germinal vesicle : and then 
the membrane of the ovisac, subsequently formed, is made to 
include the whole of these, — and we have in one ovisac two 

* The Dog. Phil. Trans., 1838, Part ii., Plate 8, fig. 74, h. 
t " Researches in Embryology," First Series. Phil. Trans., 1838, Part ii 
§ 93. 

| Phil. Traas., 1841 ; Part ii. ; Plate 25, figs. 165 to 173. 

Notes on the Life of Arago. 51 

or more ova.* For out of the contents of the ovisac a yelk 
arises around each germinal vesicle, and then a vitellary 
membrane (" zona pellucida n ) around each yelk. This, as 
already said, explains the presence occasionally, not only of 
several ova in a Graafian follicle, but also of more than one 
" yelk " (ovum) in the Bird's " egg." 

Notes on the Life of the celebrated Dominique- Francois -Jean 
Arago, Perpetual Secretary of the Academy of Sciences, 
Member of the Board of Longitude, and Grand Officer of 
the Legion of Honour, §c. §c.\ 

The death of Dominique-Francois- Jean Arago has cast 
a gloom over the city; and the announcement of this melan- 
choly result, which we deplore and record with sadness, was 
received with a heavy, heartfelt regret by his fellow-citizens. 
The last of one of the bright ornaments of the true old school 
of science is now no more. The philosopher, the man of 
of science, the friend of truth, the judicious and wise coun- 
sellor, has left this earth full of years and full of honours, 
having devoted a life of fifty years with a steady determina- 
tion to improve his country, and to advance his fellow- 
creatures. Never during this long period has he allowed his 
activity to be interrupted, nor has he ever flagged or even re- 
coiled from anything that remained to be done. The lofty aim 
of the departed philosopher was ever to unfold the wonder of 
Divine skill, and to develop the laws of Divine government. 
His immortal writings will shed a light on the paths of science, 
as long as the world is governed by the same laws. 

It is our office to give ' ; honour due" to all such manifes- 
tations of intelligence; and whilst endeavouring to shew the 
extent to which the mental powers of M. Arago were effec- 

* An instance of this, met with in the ovary of a Bird, shewing two young 
germinal vesicles about to be included in the same ovisac (and thus to explain 
the presence of two " yelks " in the Bird's " egg,") will he found in the Phil. 
Trans, for 1841, Part ii., Plate 25, fig. 165, in the only body in this figure 
not marked by a letter. 

t From the Athenceum, Quarterly Review, Commonwealth Newspaper of Glas- 
gow, and Comptes Rendus, 


5d Notes on the Life of Arayo. 

tive in gaining for mankind new truths from Nature, — we 
have also to examine the degree in which such a mind as his 
was influential, by suggestion and by example, in elevating 
the spirit of his age. 

The long series of sufferings which brought M. Arago to 
the grave, at a not very advanced age, commenced by dia- 
betes, not very intense, but which rapidly exhausted his 
strength. The diabetes gave way to another malady, which 
continued slowly the lamentable work of decomposition and 
destruction, and which was terminated by dropsy in the 
chest, with suffusion and suffocation, swelling of the extre- 
mities, &c. Everything announced an early death ; but it 
was hoped that the efforts of science, and the devoted and 
tender care of an afflicted family, would prolong his precious 
existence some days longer. The illustrious patient rose on 
Sunday, 2d October, afternoon, and dressed himself. He went 
to bed again at five o'clock, and took a slight repast. Some 
minutes after, he asked to be raised a little, and to be placed 
in the middle of his bed ; then all at once he cried, pressing 
his breast, " I am suffocating ! I am suffocated !" His at- 
tendants hastened to him, and proceeded to light a lamp the 
better to ascertain his state ; but before this could be done 
the death-rattle was heard, and in less than five minutes 
after Francois Arago was dead. The great man has now 
drawn his last breath. The stillness of death surrounds him, 
accompanied with deep silence and pensive sorrow, sweetly 
mingled with the full assurance of hope. The close of such 
a. life is full of solemn and soul-subduing tenderness. The 
living soul has gone — it has gone to the sweets of eternity — j 
the eternal home of his God and his Saviour. His death is 
an act of his Maker, designed for the good both of the living 
and dead. 

During all his malady his lofty intelligence was not ob- 
scured for an instant. Scarcely three weeks ago, he was 
labouring at a new edition of his celebrated work on Thunder ; 
he recalled what he had read, dictated precious additions, 
caused difficult researches to be made, &c. ; and he asked M. 
Babinet to prepare for him a table of the best determined 
numbers of the length of undulations, in order that he might 
complete an important paper on Light ; he corrected the 

Notes on the Life of Arago. 53 

proofs of his Biographical Notice of Monge ; he terminated 
his Notice on Planets, &c. ; he discussed with perfect luci- 
dity ; he made profound remarks, &c. The pain of his malady 
affected him a good deal less ; every week there was a vio- 
lent conflict between his conscience — delicate to excess — and 
his physical weakness, the energetic refusals of physicians, 
and the pressing solicitations of his family ; more than once 
it was impossible to restrain him, and he was seen almost 
dying endeavouring to examine a voluminous correspondence, 
as if he wished to yield the last sigh at the post of duty. 

The funeral of M. Arago took place with much pomp. The 
remains of the deceased were transferred to a chapelle ar- 
dente, under the principal gate of the Observatoire, where 
his friends were permitted to sprinkle holy water over them. 
In the meantime a brigade of infantry, under the command of 
General Renault, drew up at both sides of the avenue of the 
Luxembourg, where they were shortly joined by 200 men 
of the 18th battalion of the National Guard. The rain, which 
had set in early in the morning, fell without ceasing, which, 
however, did not prevent thousands from assembling on the 
avenue and in the streets through which the cortege was to 
pass. At noon the procession began to move. It w T as opened 
by two companies of the 6th regiment of infantry, the band 
playing a solemn dirge ; next rode the General, accompanied 
by his staff, and an escort of horse chasseurs, attired in their 
new uniform, green and black, with woollen bonnets, which 
gave them the appearance of Cossacks. Then came two 
other companies of infantry, the detachment of National 
Guards, two mourning coaches, containing the clergy of St 
Jacques du Haut Pas, a modest hearse drawn by two horses, 
and followed by M. Emmanuel Arago, the son of the de- 
ceased, other members of his family, his numerous friends, 
the members of the Academie des Sciences, of which M. Arago 
was perpetual secretary, and a crowd of his political adhe- 
rents, among whom were M. Garnier Pages, his colleague of 
the Provisional Government in 1848 ; M. Pagnerre, one of 
its secretaries ; M. Bastide, Minister of Foreign Affairs in 
the Executive Government under General Cavaignac ; M. 

54 Notes on the Life of Arago. 

Gurnard, Colonel of the Parisian Artillery, who, having joined 
M. Ledru-Rollin in the demonstration of the Conservatoire 
des Arts des Metiers, on the 13th of June 1849, was sen- 
tenced to banishment, but was subsequently pardoned by the 
Emperor ; Messieurs de Lasterie, Jules Favre, Flandin, 
Lherbette, and other members of the late Legislative Assem- 
bly. Two Imperial state-carriages came next, in which were 
seated Marshal Vaillant, Grand Marshal of the Palace, and 
M. Ducos, Minister of Marine, who directs ad interim the 
department of Public Instruction in the absence of M. For- 
toul. Two battalions of infantry closed the march. The 
cortege descended the avenue of the Luxembourg, passing 
close to the spot where Marshal Ney was shot, and proceed- 
ed to the Rues de l'Est, Val de Grace, and St Jacques, to the 
church of St Jacques du Haut Pas. The edifice being small, 
very few except the family and immediate friends of the de- 
ceased could be present at the religious service, which was 
performed by the parish priest, assisted by a numerous body 
of the clergy. At one o'clock the cortege resumed its march, 
in the same order, for the cemetery of Pere-la-Chaise, passing 
through the Rues St Jacques and Soufflot, the square of the 
Pantheon, the Rues Clovis, Fosses, St Victor, and St Bernard, 
the Quay St Bernard, the Bridge of Austerlitz, the Place 
Mazas, the Boulevard Contrescarpe, the Place de la Bastille, 
and the Rue de la Rouquette. It was said that this morning 
when the Moniteur announced that the Government intended 
to honour the memory of the illustrious deceased, the chiefs 
of the Democratic party met, and resolved to recommend 
their friends not to appear at the funeral. Either their orders 
did not reach in time or were disobeyed, for the greatest 
number of those who formed the cortege belonged to that 
party, with whom M. Arago did not sympathise, and who 
were in arms against him in June 1848. They awaited the 
arrival of the procession in wine-shops and coffee-houses 
along the line of march, and joined it as it passed. 

M. Ranal, a former pupil of the Polytechnic School, and 
one of the young race of philosophers in whom Arago had 
taken a lively interest, pronounced over the tomb of his mas- 
ter the following brief but touching eulogium : — 

" Illustrious Master — Much-loved Master— Noble Citizen 

Notes on the Life of Arago. 55 

— -It is a duty, and at the same time a very sad honour, for me 
to express a sentiment which now fills every heart. Thy con- 
stant solicitude for the progress of human knowledge has 
always induced thee to take the young by the hand, and to 
inspire them with thy passion for science. On the eve of thy 
death, the last word which thou spoke to us was, ' Work ; 
work diligently.' 

" This sublime lesson will remain engraven on the heart 
of every young philosopher. They will feel compelled to fol- 
low the path which thy genius has opened. In falling asleep 
into immortality, thou hast desired to teach them that work 
is the only means of doing service to their country and hu- 
manity. Thanks on their behalf. Adieu, in the name of 
youth — in the name of its admiration of thee — of its love 
for thy memory — I tell it thee — you may count upon it. 
Adieu !" 

M. Arago was born in the village of Estager, near Perpig- 
nan, in the Pyrenees, on the 26th of February 1786, and he 
died at the Observatory in Paris on Sunday the 2d of Octo- 
ber ; consequently he was in the 68th year of his age. Gifted 
by nature with powers of a higher order than those which 
are usually bestowed on man, he possessed or acquired 
habits of industry which enabled him to develop them in all 
their fulness. Like the majority of really great men, he was 
the architect of his own fortune. He owed little to fortuitous 
circumstances ; and, indeed, achieved much when serious ob- 
stacles were put in his path. Suffering no difficulty to bear 
him back, he rose always superior to misfortune ; and, with 
great honesty of purpose and indomitable independence, he 
laboured towards the end which he had in view. From his 
boyhood this appears to have been his character. When a 
youth in the College of Perpignan, his ambition was excited 
by the appearance of, and the respect paid to, an engineer en 
chef. He learned that this honour might be obtained by 
means of the Polytechnic School, and that a searching exa- 
mination in mathematics must be gone through to ensure his 
admission to that institution. Francois Arago then seriously 
commenced mathematical studies, and in 1804 he entered the 
school in question with the highest honours. 

56 Notes on the Life of Arago. 

In 1806, when only twenty years of age, so much had he 
distinguished himself, that he was appointed a secretary of 
the Board of Longitude ; and almost immediately afterwards, 
his acquirements having attracted the attention of M. Monge, 
he was recommended as the fitting assistant to M. Biot for 
undertaking the measurement of an arc "of the meridian in 
Spain. This scientific labour was considerably advanced in 
] 807, when Biot returned to Paris, leaving Arago in charge 
of the important work. 

In the execution of this arduous work, MM. Biot and Arago 
were stationed on the summit of Mount Galatzo, one of the 
highest of the Catalonian branch of the Eastern Pyrenees, 
while MM. Chaix and Rodriguez established themselves on 
Mount Campecey in Ivica, one of the Balearic Islands. In 
this cold and desolate position the astronomers remained for 
several months, keeping up a constant communication with 
each other by means of fire signals, lighted up at particular 
intervals. Here they were exposed to various kinds of pri- 
vations and particularly to the fierce blasts which sweep 
over these lofty solitudes. The huts in which they dwelt 
were frequently blown down, and their lives endangered. 
But these calamities were nothing compared with the dan- 
gers to which they were exposed from the ignorance of the 
people. Before Arago had finished his work, his colleague, 
M. Biot, had returned to Paris, and war had broken out be- 
tween France and Spain. The fires which blazed at the 
signal-stations were regarded by the ignorant mountaineers 
as telegraphic despatches informing the invading army of the 
movements of the patriots. Arago was therefore denounced 
as a spy, and it required all the courage and skill which he 
possessed to escape the dangers to which he was thus ex- 
posed. Born near the Spanish frontiers, he spoke the same 
dialect which prevails round Mount Galatzo, and, disguised 
in the mantle and red cap of a Catalonian mountaineer, he 
effected his escape to Majorca, where he found shelter, along 
with his papers and instruments, in the fortress of Belver. 
After completing in this retirement his geodesical calcula- 
tions, he obtained liberty, on the condition of proceeding to 
Algiers, which lie did by the first opportunity. On his pas- 
sage from Algiers to Marseilles, in an Algerine frigate pro- 

Notes on the Life of Arago. 57 

cured for him by the French consul, the ship, when in sight 
of the French coast, was captured by a Spanish privateer. 
Arago was carried a prisoner to Catalonia, confined in the 
fortress of Rosas, and afterwards sent to the hulks at Pa- 
lamos. Indignant at the insult offered to his flag, the Dey of 
Algiers demanded and obtained from the Spanish Govern- 
ment the liberation of Arago, and the whole of the crew. 
Anxious to return to his country, Arago again set sail for 
Marseilles, but, when about to enter the harbour, a violent 
hurricane drove the vessel to sea, and cast it on the rocky 
shore of Sardinia, then at war with Algiers. Being thus 
prevented from landing, the vessel in a shattered condition 
reached Bougia, on the coast of Africa, about three days' 
journey from Algiers. Assuming the costume of a Bedouin 
Arab, and protected by a marabout, Arago, travelling on 
foot, reached Algiers in safety. Unfortunately, however, for 
our distinguished philosopher, the former Dey, who had res- 
cued him from the hulks at Palamos, had fallen a victim in 
an insurrection, and was succeeded by a man of brutal cha- 
racter, who refused to permit Arago to return to France. 
The French consul, however, succeeded in obtaining his re- 
lease, and Arago was safely landed at Marseilles, in the 
month of August 1809, the vessel in which he had embarked 
having narrowly escaped from an English cruiser, which had 
given it chase. 

Upon the death of the celebrated astronomer Lalande, in 
1809, Arago, though only twenty-three years of age, was, in 
opposition to the standing rules of the Academy of Sciences, 
appointed to the vacant place in the section of Astronomy ; 
and, after a few years, he entered upon that brilliant career 
of discovery which has immortalized his own name, and 
added to the glory of his country. Although Arago, when a 
pupil at the Polytechnic School, had voted against the as- 
sumption of the consulate for life, yet Buonaparte, who knew 
how to value an honourable man, never resented this act of 
hostility, and remembering the courage of the young philo- 
sopher, he appointed him one of the Professors of the Poly- 
technic School, and subsequently Director of the Imperial 
Observatory, in which he resided till his death. 

58 Xotes on the Life of Arago. 

Numerous researches, experiments, and inventions, have 
immortalized his name ; but his principal claims to renown, 
are, 1st, magnetic and rotatory polorization ; 2c?, magnetism 
by the action of currents ; 3c/, magnetism by rotation. Fran- 
cois Arago was an encyclopaedic genius. Sciences, letters, 
social economy, — his vast intelligence embraced all with an 
ever equal superiority. At the Ecole Polytechnique, the 
Academie, the Observatoire, and the Municipal Council, the 
extent and variety of his knowledge, and especially the as- 
tonishing faculty of assimilation, vulgarization, and applica- 
tion, with which he was gifted, placed him everywhere in the 
first rank. As an orator, he was distinguished by a marvel- 
lous lucidity of exposition — by the abundance, facility, and 
picturesque energy of his delivery. As a writer, he was dis- 
tinguished by clearness, elegance, and a sustained firmness 
of style — qualities which place him on a par with the most 
distinguished of our prose writers. " He possessed," says 
Timon, " the secrets of the language, as well as the secrets 
of the heart." " Never," says one of his biographers, " did 
human head undertake, without breaking, such an enormous 
mass of labour." Arago considered every man idle who did 
not work fourteen hours a-day. Days of that kind were, 
however, for him days of repose. He was engaged at the 
same time in chemistry, physics, mechanics, astronomy, na- 
tural history, philosophy, and literature. He was a member 
of all the scientific or industrial associations in the world ; 
his study was literally encumbered with plans to examine, 
and memoirs to analyse. The Government, the municipality, 
the establishments of public utility, and even private industry, 
found in him an active and disinterested counsellor and 
guide. His time was given to all things and to everybody. 
At the same time that he had an eye to what passes above, 
he had one to what takes place here ; and amidst all his ab- 
sorbing and varied occupations he found time to shew him- 
self one of the worthiest and most charming talkers in the 
saloons of Paris. 

Arago's first work was read before the Institute on the 
24th of March 1806. It was an investigation, in which he 
was assisted by Biot, " On the Affinities of Bodies for Light, 

Notes on the Life of Arago. 59 

and particularly on the Refracting Powers of different Gases." 
With M. Petit, Arago investigated " The Refractive Powers 
of certain Liquids, and of the Vapours formed from them. 
With Fresnel, he examined " The Action which the Rays of 
Polarized Light exercise upon each other :" — and on those 
subjects much valuable matter will be found in his Memoirs. 
Omitting from our list those Astronomical notices which 
regularly appeared in the Annuaire — and which, though 
forming a part of his official duty, manifest, nevertheless, the 
zeal of the Secretary and subsequent Director of the Bureau 
des Longitudes — we would refer to M. Arago's memoirs " On 
the Comets of Short Period ;" " On the Pendulums of MM. 
Breguet;" "On Chronometers;" " On the Double Stars;" 
and on the vexed question, " Does the moon exercise any 
appreciable Influence on our Atmosphere V 1 Passing from 
astronomical subjects, we find several memoirs : — " On Noc- 
turnal Radiation ;" " The Theory of the Formation of Dew ;" 
and on allied subjects — as " The Utility of the Mats with 
which Gardeners cover their Plants by Night;" "On the 
Artificial Formation of Ice ;" and " On the Fogs which form 
after the setting of the Sun, when the Evening is calm and 
serene, on the Borders of Lakes and Rivers." Indeed, the 
whole of the phenomena to which Dr Wells had directed at- 
tention in his excellent work " On Dew," was thoroughly 
investigated by M. Arago. 

When we add the memoirs on " The Ancient Relation of 
the Different Chains of Mountains in Europe, 1 '' " The Abso- 
lute Height of the most Remarkable Ridges of the Cordilleras 
of the Andes," " Historical Notices of the Steam-Engine," 
" On Explosions of Steam-Boilers," " Historical Notices of 
the Voltaic Pile," " those which are connected with the Po- 
larization of Light," " the Phenomena of Magnetic Rotation," 
and " On the Egyptian Hieroglyphics," we think we indicate 
labours of a most varied and important character. 

For many years, M. Arago, who was the Director of the 
Observatory at Paris, employed his position in the Chamber 
of Deputies and elsewhere, to obtain large grants from the 
state for the use of the institution over which he presided. 
M. Arago, on the 13th September 1852, proposed to the Aca- 


Notes on the Life of Arago, 

demie des Sciences an infallible method of finding out every 
planet which remained. Since that period several more 
have been added to the list.* 

The French nation may be justly proud of such a man as 
Arago. We cannot overlook his earnest desire to give to 
the public all the advantages of the discoveries of science 
with the least possible delay ; and with the utmost freedom 
from mere technicalities. In 1816, he established, in con- 
nection with M. Gay-Lussac, the Annates de Physique et 
de Chimie ; and on his pressing representation, on the 13th 
July 1835, the Academy commenced, in charge of its per- 
petual secretaries, Les Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires. 

In 1830, Arago was made Director of the Observatory ; 
and he succeeded Fourier as a perpetual secretary of the 
Academy of Sciences. His remarkable activity of mind and 

*1. 1801 


Piazzi . 


2. 1802 

Tallas . 

Olbers T. 



3. 1804 

Juno . . 




4. 1807 


Olbers II. 



5. 1845 

Astrea . 

Hencke I. 



6. 1847 


Hencke II. 



7. 1847 


Hind I. 



8. 1847 


Hind II. 



9. 1848 





10. 1850 

11. 1850 

12. 1850 

Ilygeia . 



De Gasparis 
De Gasparis 
Hind HI. 



13. 1850 

14. 1851 


De Gasparis 
Hind IV. 



15. 1851 

16. 1852 

17. 1852 

Psyche . 
Thetis . 

De Gasparis 
De Gasparis 



18. 1852 

19. 1852 


Hind V. 
Hind VI. 



20. 1852 

21. 1852 


i Chacornac 
\ De Gasparis 





22. 1852 


Hind VII. 



23. 1853 

Thalia . 

Hind VIII. 



24. 1853 

Phocea . 

Chacornac II. 


25. 1853 

De Gasparis 
Luther If. 



26. 1853 

Notes on the Life of A ray o. 61 

unwearying industry, led him without difficulty through an 
amount of labour which would have overwhelmed an ordi- 
nary man. There was a remarkable clearness in his percep- 
tion of these matters to which his attention was directed. 
He readily stripped them of any adventitious clouding or 
mystery by which they might be surrounded, and fearlessly 
and energetically expressed his convictions. As a writer, 
we may remark the strong evidences of the latter in bis 
firmness of style ; and the clearness of his perceptive faculties 
is shewn in his lucid eloquence. 

In 1834 Arago visited Edinburgh for the purpose of at- 
tending the meeting of the British Association. His friend, 
Professor Jameson, shewed him marked attention. The 
freedom of the City was granted to him by the Lord Provost, 
Magistrates, and Council, which he was highly proud of; 
and he also had conferred on him the honourable distinction 
of doctor of laws. 

It would have been well if Arago had devoted himself ex- 
clusively to the pursuits of science and literature, for which 
he was so eminently qualified. He found himself unable to 
resist the temptation presented by the revolution of 1830 of 
entering on the political arena. During the combat of the 
three days he did his best to stop, through his influence with 
Marmont, with whom he had long been on friendly terms, the 
effusion of blood. In the election which took place soon after 
the fall of the elder branch of the Bourbons, he was elected 
to the Chamber of Deputies by his department, and at once 
chose the party to which he attached himself, by taking his 
place between Laffitte and Dupont (de L'Eure) in the extreme 
left. From that period till the revolution of 1848 he acted 
with the same party. On questions of material interest to 
the country, such as public education, the navy, canals, rail- 
roads, &c, he often spoke, and effectively ; and it is not yet 
forgotten, that on the question of the fortifications of Paris 
his opposition against the detached forts was formidable. His 
speech in 1840, on the necessity of extending the electoral 
suffrage, produced great sensation at the time. In the midst 
of his scientific and legislative labours, he found time to at- 
tend to his duties as member of the Council- General of the 

()2 Notes on the Life of Arago. 

Seine, to which he was elected in 1840. The period is too 
recent to be forgotten when he appeared before the world in 
a still more prominent manner, and in the decline of his use- 
ful life he was flung into the midst of the revolutionary tem- 
pest. The republicanism of Arago had nothing sanguinary 
or violent in it. He was named member of the Provisional 
Government, and Minister of War and Marine ad interim, 
and exerted himself to stem the flood which rolled on with so 
much violence. From the first moment he did his best to 
allay the passions of the multitude, but without effect. His 
labours during that terrible but brief period which began 
with the flight of the royal family and closed with the tre- 
mendous struggle of June, gave him a shock from which he 
never totally recovered. His double capacity as Minister of 
War and of Marine, and his alleged want of acquaintance 
with the details of those departments, form one of the most 
amusing passages in the memoir of " Jerome Paturot," which, 
I presume, is in the recollection of those who read the sati- 
rical productions of the period. Whatever may have been his 
qualifications for ministerial functions, his courage as a citizen 
was not doubted. In the midst of the horrible carnage of the 
days of June he marched at the head of the troops against 
the barricades of the 12th arrondissement, and exhausted 
every effort, but in vain, to stop the slaughter. His name, 
once so popular in that quarter, had lost all its influence ; 
and it is said the insurgents directed their fire against him, 
when, advancing alone to a barricade, and waving a white 
flag, he implored the infuriated multitude to consent to terms 
of peace. That deadly struggle put an end to the political 
career of Arago. Broken down morally and physically, he 
never again assumed a prominent position ; and, though he 
still retained his place in the National Assembly, he gave his 
vote in silence. His altered features, and his form once so 
stately, but now bowed down less by age than by sorrow, 
gave token of his sad disappointments. 

The coup d'etat of the 2d of December completed the de- 
struction of all his fond illusions. Summoned as a public 
functionary to take the oaths to the new government, he re- 
fused, and prepared to resign the place he had occupied in the 

Notes on the Life of Arago. 63 

Observatory for so many years. The government, however, 
made an exception in his favour, and Arago remained to his 
last breath Perpetual Secretary of the Academy of Sciences. 
In this emergency he addressed the following noble letter 
to the Minister of Public Instruction ; and it had the happy 
effect of changing the decision of the Emperor, who allowed 
him to retain both his offices : — 

u Paris, May 9, 1852. 

" Monsieur le Ministre, — The government has itself ad- 
mitted that the oath prescribed by Art. 14 of the Constitu- 
tion ought not to be required from the members of a purely 
scientific and literary body like the Institute. I cannot see 
why the Bureau des Longitudes, an astronomical academy in 
which, when a vacancy occurs, an election ensues to fill it 
up, is placed in another category. This simple circumstance 
would perhaps have sufficed to induce me to refuse the oath, 
but considerations of another nature, I confess, have exer- 
cised a decisive influence on my mind. Circumstances ren- 
dered me, in 1848, as member of the Provisional Govern- 
ment, one of the founders of the Republic. As such, and I 
glory in it at present, I contributed to the abolition of all 
political oaths. At a later period I was named by the Con- 
stituent Assembly president of the Executive Committee ; my 
acts in this last-named situation are too well known to the 
public for me to have need to mention them here. You can 
comprehend, Monsieur le Ministre, that in presence of these 
reminiscences my conscience has imposed on me a resolution 
which perhaps the Director of the Observatory would have 
hesitated to come to. I had always thought that, by the 
terms of the law, an astronomer at the Bureau of Longitude 
was appointed for life, but your decision has undeceived me. 
I have therefore, Monsieur le Ministre, to request you to 
appoint a day on which I shall have to quit an establishment 
which I have been inhabiting now for near half a century. 
That establisment, thanks to the protection given to it by 
the Governments which have succeeded each other in France 
for the last 40 years, — thanks, above all, I may be allowed 
to say, to the kindness of the Legislative Assemblies in re- 

04 Note* on the Life o/Arago. 

gard to mc — has risen from its ruins and its insignificance, 
and can now be offered to strangers as a model. It is not 
without a profound sentiment of grief that I shall separate 
from so many fine instruments, to the construction of which 
I have more or less contributed ; it is not without lively ap- 
prehension that I shall behold the means of research created 
by me passing into malevolent, or even hostile hands ; but 
my conscience has spoken, and I am bound to obey its dic- 
tates. I am anxious that, in this circumstance, everything 
shall pass in the most open manner ; and in consequence, I 
hasten to inform you, Monsieur le Ministre, that I will ad- 
dress to all the great academies of Europe and America — for 
I have long had the honour of belonging to them — a circular 
to intimate my removal from an establishment with which 
my name had been in some sort identified, and which was for 
me a second country. I desire it to be known everywhere, 
that the motives which have dictated my determination have 
nothing for which my children can ever blush. I owe these 
explanations, above all, to the first-rate savans who honour 
me with their friendship, such as Humboldt, Faraday, Brew- 
ster, Melloni, &c. I am anxious, also, that these illustrious 
personages shall not be uneasy concerning the great change 
which this determination of mine will produce in my existence. 
My health has, without doubt, been much impaired in the 
service of my country. A man cannot have passed a part of 
his life going from mountain-peak to mountain-peak, in the 
wildest districts of Spain, for the purpose of determining the 
precise figure of the earth ; in the inhospitable regions of 
Africa comprised between Bougia and the capital of the Re- 
gency ; in Algerine corsairs ; in the prisons of Majorca, of 
Rosas, and Palamos — without profound traces being left be- 
hind. But I may remind my friends, that a hand without 
vigour can still hold a pen, and that the half-blind old man 
will always find near him persons anxious to note down his 
words. Receive, Monsieur le Ministre, the assurance of my 
respect. " Fit. Arago." 

"Monsieur, — In excusing yourself on May 9 on the score 
of ill health, for not attending with your colleagues of the 

Notes on the Life of Arago. 65 

Board of Longitude to take the oath to the Prince President 
and to the Constitution, you had authorized me to suppose 
that you would not decline an obligation imposed by the Con- 
stitution on all public functionaries. Your second letter, 
which bears the same date, but which I received at a later 
hour, does not allow me to entertain that hope. Without 
stopping to remark on the change of language, which it is im- 
possible not to be struck with, and on the terms — so little 
guarded — which I was surprised to meet with on this occasion 
from your pen, I considered it my duty to take the orders of 
the Prince before I accepted your resignation. The President 
of the Republic has authorized me to admit an exception in 
favour of a savant whose works have thrown lustre on France, 
and whose existence his government would regret to embitter. 
The publicity given to your letters will not change in any 
respect the resolution which I consider it an honour to 
transmit to you. Receive, Monsieur, the assurance of my 
distinguished consideration. " H. Fortoul. ,j 

In his capacity as perpetual secretary to the Institute for 
the Physical Sciences, an office to which he succeeded on the 
death of Baron Fourier in 1830, it became the duty of Arago 
to write the Eloges of its members, both foreign and domestic. 
Cuvier, as the perpetual secretary for the Natural Sciences, 
had in this respect distinguished himself as a powerful and 
eloquent writer ; but we venture to say that his eloges were 
equalled, if not surpassed, by the vigorous and eloquent bio- 
graphical sketches which came from Arago' s pen. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the most important of these Eloges, with 
the dates at which they were read : — 

1831 — Volta, Foreign Associate. 

1832 — Dr Thomas Young, Foreign Associate. 

1833— Baron Fourier. 

1834 — James Watt, Foreign Associate. 

1837— Carnot. 

1 841 — Condorcet . 

1844— Bailly. 

Of his qualifications as a legislator, the following and con- 
VOL. LVI. NO. CXI.— JANUARY 1854 t £ 

66 Xotes on the Life of Arago. 

eluding paragraph from a sketch by Cormenin (Les Orateurs), 
published in 1842, may give a good idea: — 

"Whenever Arago ascends the tribune, the Chamber, at- 
tentive and anxious, becomes still, and listens eagerly. The 
spectators hang over the galleries to see him. His stature 
is lofty, his hair is naturally curled and flowing, and his fine 
Southern head rises over the Assembly. In the muscular 
contraction of his temples there is a power of will and of 
thought which reveals a noble spirit. Unlike those speakers 
who address the house on every occasion, and who, nine times 
out of ten, are ignorant of what they talk about, Arago does 
not speak except on questions already prepared, and which 
combine the interest of the circumstance with the attractions 
of science. His speeches are therefore quite to the purpose 
as well as general, and appeal at once to the reason and the 
passions of his auditory. In this manner he soon comes to 
master them. The very moment he enters on his subject, 
he concentrates on himself the eyes and the attention of all. 
He takes science, as it were, between his hands ; he strips it 
of its asperities and its technical forms, and he renders it so 
clear that the most ignorant are astonished, as they are 
charmed, at the ease with which they understand its mys- 
teries. There is something perfectly lucid in his demonstra- 
tions. His manner is so expressive that light seems to issue 
from his eyes, from his lips, from his very fingers. He inter- 
weaves in his discourses the most caustic appeals to Minis- 
ters — appeals which defy all answer ; the most piquant anec- 
dotes, which seem to belong naturally to the subject, and 
which adorn without overloading it. When he confines him- 
self to the narration of facts, his elocution has all the graces 
of simplicity. But when he is, as it were, face to face with 
science, he looks into its very depths, draws forth its inmost 
secrets, and displays all its wonders ; he invests his admira- 
tion of it with the most magnificent language, his expressions 
become more and more ardent, his style more coloured, and 
his eloquence is equal to the grandeur of his subject." 

Arago stood the busiest man in a busy age — the great ex- 
positor of nature's truths as they were developed by the 
labours of experimentalists. The idea given, Arago saw at 

Notes on the Life of Arago. 67 

once its entire bearing, and advanced himself by rapid strides 
to the elucidation of the fact. His suggestions were the 
guiding stars of science in France ; his experiments were the 
foundations on which new sciences were to be built. Arago 
never allowed his thoughts to be involved in a theory; he 
accepted a theory as a means of advancing, but was ever 
ready to abandon it when it was found that facts favoured a 
contrary view. In the history of philosophy, his name will 
have enduring fame, not from the discoveries which he made, 
but from the aid which he gave to science in all its depart- 
ments by his prompt and unfailing penetration. A member 
of nearly all the scientific societies of Europe, he was the 
point uniting them in a common bond. In every part of the 
civilized world his name was regarded with reverence, and 
all scientific communities felt that they had lost a friend 
when they heard of the death of the Astronomer of France. 

The Funeral Speech of M. Flourens at the Grave of M: 
Arago on the day of his Funeral, which took place on the 
5th Octooer 1853. 

Gentlemen, — Death takes us in general by surprise. 
The severe indisposition that M. Arago has laboured under 
for the last six months ought to have stripped us of all hope 
of ever seeing him again amongst us ; but the blow which 
has now fallen upon us has thrown us into a state of deep 
consternation, as if it had never beenf oreseen. The reason 
is, that the void which certain people leave behind them is 
much greater than even our fears represented to us ; and we 
only find out its vast extent after it has actually taken place. 
Yes, the mind which has become eclipsed was that powerful 
intelligence which the Academy cherished so much ; a vast 
intelligence born to embrace in its grasp all the sciences, 
and to extend them, and in which seemed to be realized the 
noble vocation of our own Society, and its own motto, to dis- 
cover, to invent, and make perfect. 

At the very outset of his career, M. Arago had the good 
fortune, so desirable for a young man who desires to dream 

E 2 

68 iYofea ou Me Z?/d o/ Arago. 

of a distinguished future, to be connected with a grea.t work. 
He was appointed to go to Spain with M. Biot to complete 
the trigonometrical survey, a work which has given us a very 
precise measurement of our globe. His great capacity, and 
the ardent feeling with which he devoted himself to this 
beautiful undertaking, procured for him, on his return, the re- 
ception into the Academy. He was then scarcely twenty -three 
years old. In his youth he gained much affection ; and the 
Society which so early bestowed upon him its sympathies, 
soon perceived with pride that he justified them all. This is 
not the place to enumerate all the labours of a scientific life, 
which was alike active, devoted, and restless. M. Arago 
had a decided genius for invention. He opened new roads. 
His discoveries on polarization, the relations of magnetism 
and electricity, and his magnetism of rotation, are of a high 
order, and have laid open to our view unknown results ; 
nor was he less able or less fortunate in other kinds of 
discoveries. M. Arago often wandered out of his own pro- 
per sphere. He strove hard to raise the standard of the 
body that he belonged to. He was ever in search of ta- 
lented young men to enlist for the Academy, to add to its 
reputation. All his scientific contemporaries were attached 
to him by the ties of the deepest gratitude. In the year 
1830, M. Arago was called upon to replace M. Fourier as 
perpetual secretary. Since the time that he appeared at his 
post, the Academy seemed to become possessed of a more 
active life ; by familiarity, which was full of charm in a 
superior man like him, he knew how to secure confidence 
and lively attachments. This gift, this great art of success, 
he devoted entirely to the success of that body whose organ 
he had become. Never did the activity of the Academy ap- 
pear so powerful or so extensive. Science seemed to throw 
an unusual splendour, and to spread widely its brilliant light 
on all the productive powers of our country. Arago was 
gifted with a matchless penetration of mind, along with ex- 
traordinary analytical powers. The exposition of the works 
of others was to him a mere child's play. In his functions 
of secretary his thoughts were easy and rapid, with a turn for 
intellectual wit ; and his powerful expressions invariably 

Notes on the Life of Arago. 69 

gained for him the marked attention of his colleagues, who 
always, astonished to see so many happy talents united, 
listened to him with a feeling of pleasure mixed with admira- 
tion. When protracted illness had deprived him of sight, 
the resources of his vast genius became manifest to all 
those who surrounded him. "Works on the most difficult and 
complicated subjects were analysed by him in a clear, dis- 
tinct, and logical manner. Thanks to his unfailing memory, 
all his intellectual work was done easily, and without any 
visible labour. The very facility of its reproduction dis- 
guised from the listener the wonder of the intellectual pro- 
is r 


As the historian of the Academy, M. Arago manifested in 
this so difficult and formidable office of high priest, as it may 
be called — in which capacity he had to foretell the judgment 
of posterity — a conscientious study, a force of investigation, 
a desire to be completely impartial, which procured for his 
eloge a very high rank. In these writings of the eloquent 
secretary, we find all the qualities of the great mind : a bril- 
liant style, vigour, and enthusiasm, along with a charming 
good nature. As interpreter of the feelings of that Academy 
in which M. Arago had enjoyed a seat for nearly half a century, 
I was willing to speak of the man in so far as he belonged 
to us. He will live for ever, as one of the scientific illustra- 
tions of our country. The noble veterans of science in all 
parts of the civilized world, in Berlin, London, St Peters- 
burg, and Philadelphia, will mix their grief with ours. The 
generation of scholars who have followed each other for the 
last forty years will tell to that intelligent and patriotic 
youth which to-day occupy their places in our brilliant 
schools how much beloved he was, and what power there 
was in the kind sympathies of that master on whose tomb 
they lay down at this moment the homage of their grief. 
Arago knew well the sweets of filial piety. The ties of his 
affection became extended without getting weaker. His 
brother and sisters were along with him under the same pa- 
ternal roof; their children and his belonged to him alike. 
He also found a niece, whose touching and pious solicitude 
for him receives to-day the grateful tribute of the Academy. 

70 On the Introduction of the 

On the Introduction of the Magnificent Forest Tree, the 
Deodar, from India into England. 

The cultivation of this magnificent forest tree is about to 
engage the serious attention of the Government, and one or 
more of the royal forests are to be planted with it. Mr 
Jameson, Director, Botanical Gardens, North- West Provinces, 
India, sent home last season, by order of the Governor- 
General, upwards of two thousand pounds of Deodar seeds ; 
and in order that parties now cultivating the Indian Cedar 
on a large scale might see the dimensions the timber attains, 
he also sent home four planks twenty feet in length, four feet 
and a half wide, and four inches thick, procured in the forests 
of Kooloo, in the Kohistan of the Punjaub. For years past 
from five to six maunds (400 to 500 lb.) of seed have been 
despatched annually by him to the Court of Directors, by the 
overland route, for distribution to public institutions and pri- 
vate individuals ; and young plants which, ten or twelve years 
ago, used to sell for £5 and £6 each, may now be had of the 
nurserymen at twenty shillings per hundred. 

Cultivation of the Deodar in England. 

When, at the instance of the late Lord Auckland, at that 

time Govern or- General of India, the Court of Directors 

ordered a large quantity of seed of the Deodar to be imported 

annually* for distribution here, a service was rendered to the 

* 400 to 500 lb., which are liberally distributed to public and private 
gardens throughout the country. In addition to the seeds of the Deodar tree, 
seeds of the following coniferous trees are also sent to England from the Saha- 
rumpore Botanical Garden, being collected by the seed collectors of that noble 
institution in the Forests of the Himalayas, viz. — 
Pinus excelsa. 

P. (Abies) Smithiana. 
Picea Webbiana. 

. . . Pindrow. 
Cupressus torulosa. 
Juniperus excelsa. 
and lastly, Pinus Royleana, a magnificent new Pine discovered last season in 

Deodar from India into England. 71 

United Kingdom, the extent of which cannot, as yet, be esti- 
mated. Enough, however, has been seen to assure us that 
we have acquired in some abundance an evergreen tree of 
singular beauty, perfectly hardy in these latitudes, and so 
unlike any other coniferous plant in its manner of growth 
as to add a new feature to the rich vegetation of these 

We now learn with great satisfaction that the East India 
Company has ordered a ton weight of the seed of this tree 
to be placed at the disposal of Government for the service 
of the Woods and Forests, and that the first parcel has al- 
ready arrived. Should all this quantity vegetate, no fewer 
than 16,000,000 plants will have been acquired, and thus we 
may expect the hills of Great Britain to be speedily clothed 
with the sacred Cedar of the Brahmins ; or making every al- 
lowance for deteriorated seeds, the produce to be raised must 
necessarily be prodigious. The charge of rearing it having 
been confided to four eminent nurserymen — Messrs Glendin- 
ning of Chiswick ; Lawson of Edinburgh ; Skirving of Liver- 
pool ; and Waterer of Knaphill — we have security for the 
crop being skilfully managed.* 

Government will thus become possessed of a very large 
quantity of a fast-growing tree, the value of which cannot be 
over-rated, whether it is regarded as a nurse, most useful for 
protection, and profitable for thinning, or, according to the 
testimony of those who are familiar with it in India, strong 
and durable, as timber. 

Nepaul, at an altitude of 12 ; 000 feet. This fine Pine grows to a height of 100 
feet, and its timber is close-grained, and resembles much the Deodar; and as it 
is met with at a great altitude on the Himalayas, it will be found to be per- 
fectly hardy in Britain. In form, too, it is highly ornamental, and will thus 
prove a great acquisition. By the Director of the Botanical Gardens a large 
quantity of seed has been sent to the India House for distribution throughout 
the country. Another large supply will be forwarded shortly, and parties who 
have been hitherto disappointed, may procure seeds, by applying to Dr Royle 
at the India House. 

* We have consulted one of the above gentlemen to whom part of the 
seeds have been confided, and we have much pleasure in stating, from his 
authority, that the seed that was late in reaching this country was successful, 
and that which was early, unsuccessful. — Ed. 

72 On the Introduction of the 

We apprehend that no hardy tree yet known has the same 
high value as the Deodar, as a nurse. The Scotch Pine is so 
heavy and compact in its foliage that it keeps light off the 
deciduous trees which grow among it, and offers great ob- 
struction to the free circulation of air ; doing about as much 
harm in this way as it effects good by giving shelter from 
heavy gales. Its poles, too, are so bad that it must always 
bear a very low price in the timber market. Larch, which 
is a far better nurse, because its light airy foliage and pyra- 
midal form offer no hindrance to the action of light and the 
free circulation of air, and whose poles usually fetch a good 
price, has the fault of being destitute of leaves in the early 
spring, and is, moreover, subject to the mysterious and in- 
curable " rot." On the other hand, the Deodar combines the 
graceful form and rapid growth of the Larch, with the ever- 
green character of the Scotch Pine, without the faults of that 
species ; and we have the evidence of every observer who has 
seen it in India, that its timber is of excellent quality. As 
that is a very material point, and since we have occasionally 
heard it suggested that because the Deodar is nearly related to 
the Cedar of Lebanon, its timber will probably partake of the 
bad quality of the latter, it seems worth while quoting the 
opinions of those who are personally acquainted with it. 
That no inference can be legitimately drawn from its sup- 
posed relationship to the Cedar of Lebanon, is sufficiently 
shewn by the Scotch Pine and the Pinaster. They also are 
nearly related ; and yet the old timber of the first has great 
durability and strength, while the latter is at all ages worth- 
less for any purpose except firewood. A similar but more 
striking contrast is offered by the Pinaster and Pinus his- 
panica. species surely more nearly allied than the Deodar and 
Cedar of Labanon. Now we have the evidence of Captain 
Widdrington that the latter was largely used in the Spanish 
navy for deck-planking, a purpose to which Pinaster timber 
could never be applied. 

The positive testimony of Indian travellers seems conclu- 
sive as to the durability and excellence of Deodar timber. 
Baron Charles VonHugel,now Austrian Minister at Florence, 
a good judge of such matters, saw the tree in abundance, and 

Deodar from India into England. 73 

he calls it " the incorruptible Himalayan Cedar, the invalu- 
able Deodar." Major Madden, than whom no one has more 
carefully investigated the history of Himalayan Comers on 
their native mountains, quotes this very expression of Von 
Hugel, and evidently assents to it ; he even thinks it worth 
inquiry whether it really repels the white, and which seems 
to be a Himalayan notion. 

Moorcroft, — and there never was a more trustworthy re- 
porter, — in the first volume of his Travels, makes use of the 
following language : " The most valuable tree of Kashmere 
is, however, the Deodar, a variety of Cedar, the timber of 
which is extensively employed in the construction of houses, 
temples, and bridges." And he adds, that pieces of it had 
been found little decayed, although exposed to the action of 
water for four hundred years. 

We have, moreover, the high authority of Dr Royle, who 
long resided in the Deodar countries, that the timber is of 
excellent quality, and of great strength, as well as durability. 
It is universally employed in the building of temples, in which 
none but the best materials would be employed. The mode 
of using it is to construct a solid framework of the timber, 
and then to fill in the spaces between with stones, so that 
the main strength of the building is made to depend upon the 
Deodar, rather than the masonry. Thus used, it is exposed 
to a trial which nothing but timber of the best quality could 
support. This is in complete accordance with all that we 
have ever heard of the quality of Deodar wood ; and must be 
regarded as conclusive. 

The only subject of doubt in our minds as to the issue of 
the great undertaking now described is whether the gentle- 
men to whom the young Deodars will be finally entrusted, 
after they shall have been delivered up to Government by the 
nurserymen who are to rear them, will know either where, 
or when, or how, they ought to be planted. 


Remarks onMollusca and Shells * By Dr Augustus Gould. 

1. On the Zoological Regions. 2. Specific identity of Shells. 

3. Local aspect of Species and characteristic forms oj regions, 

4. Analogous species in co-ordinate regions. 

1. Zoological Regions. 

The doctrine of distinct zoological regions evidently apper- 
tains to the mollusks, and is well illustrated by them. In 
nearly every work containing any considerable catalogue of 
shells, the same species will be found quoted as being found 
in widely-distant regions, in different oceans, and even on 
opposite sides of the globe. The many thousand localities 
carefully noted on the records of the Expedition, go to prove 
beyond dispute, that no such random or wide-spread distribu- 
tion exists. The error has arisen from two principal causes. 
One is, that reliable notes of localities have not been taken. 
A voyage is made to the Sandwich Islands, and all the shells 
brought home by the vessel are said to be shells from the 
Sandwich Islands, though they may have been obtained at 
California, the Society Islands, New Zealand, and perhaps 
half-a-dozen other places quite as remote from each other. 
A sea captain purchases a collection at Calcutta or Valpa- 
raiso for his friends at home ; and all the shells are marked 
as denizens of the port where they were purchased, though 
they might not have lived within thousands of miles. Pur- 
chased shells cannot be relied on for localities ; for this end 
a shell must have been found containing the animal, or else 
dredged, or picked up on the shore, and labelled accordingly. 
There have been instances where New England shells, which 
had gone to the west coast of America in the way of ex- 
change, came back again as Pacific shells. 

2. Identity of Species. 

" Shells are regarded," says Dr Gould, " as specifically 
identical, which, on careful comparison, are found not to be 
so. And this is very likely to occur where some one very 
remarkable peculiarity exists. Thus, a Lutraria from Lower 

* United States Exploring Expedition, vol. xii. 

Remarks on Mollusca and Shells. 75 

California (L. undulata) has the thin, milk white, concentric- 
ally undulated valves so similar to those which characterize 
a shell from the coast of Carolina (L. canaliculata), that no 
one observing them separately would hesitate to pronounce 
them the same ; but place the two side by side, and it will 
be seen that in one the beaks are near the posterior, and in 
the other near the anterior end of the shell. Equally strik- 
ing resemblances and differences will be found when we com- 
pare Mactra nasuta and M. braziliana, Lutraria ventricosa, 
and L. carinata, the former of which are found in the Gulf 
of California, and their analogues in the Gulf of Mexico. 
So, too, we find on the catalogues Cytherea chione and 
Natica maroccana, Mediterranean shells, set down as found 
also in the Gulf of California ; but a direct comparison shews 
them to be quite different in form and coloration, and well 
entitled to the distinctive appellations of Cytherea biradiata 
and Natica Chemnitzii. Triton nodosum, of the West Indies, 
has also been regarded as identical with a Sandwich Island 
species (T. elongatum). We need not multiply examples of 
this kind. But if such confusion has arisen among strongly- 
marked species, how much more liable is it to occur where 
specific differences are slight 1 In many genera, as in Physa 
and Succinea, the form, surface, and colouring, are so uniform 
throughout, that undoubted species are distinguished by only 
the slightest differences. Indeed, there are even some 
genera, like Helix and Nanina, Patella and Lotiia, which 
cannot be distinguished but by an examination of the animal. 
When, therefore, we have before us shells from widely 
diverse regions, apparently identical, they should be sub- 
jected to the most careful scrutiny for structural differences. 
If no obvious ones are detected, we may not consider the 
question as settled, unless the animals have been compared ; 
and we may go even further, and require that their internal 
structure, as well as external features, should be ex- 
amined. The number of instances where this apparent 
ubiquity exists is fast diminishing, as in the cases already 
mentioned, in those of Cyprea exanthema, cervina, and cer- 
vinetta, &c. A large proportion of the shells inhabiting the 
eastern and western shores of the Atlantic have been re- 

76 Remarks on Mollusca and Shells. 

garded as identical, and many of them are really so. But 
the closer the comparison, the more it tends to diminish 
rather than increase the identical species. The same is 
found true in regard to other classes of animals. In fact, 
the doctrine of the local limitation of animals, even now, 
meets with so few apparent exceptions, that we admit it as 
an axiom in zoology, that species strongly resembling each 
other, derived from widely diverse localities, especially if a 
continent intervenes, and if no known or plausible means of 
communication can be assigned, should be assumed as dif- 
ferent, until their identity can be proved. Much study of 
living specimens must be had before the apparent exceptions 
can be brought under the rule. Some shells have undoubt- 
edly a very extensive range. The species of Cyprwa are 
remarkable for this, and more than any other genus would 
lead us to conclude that oceans present no limitations. Even 
among them, however, new distinctions are constantly ap- 
pearing. There are also some shells which may be called 
cosmopolite, at least they are erratic, and will be found 
wherever their pabulum is found. Thus, Helix cellaria, at- 
taching itself to water casks, is found in most seaports in 
all parts of the world. Helix similaris is found wherever 
the coffee plant grows ; and Helix vitrinoides in like manner 
accompanies the Arum esculentum or taro. Bulimus octona, 
or a closely allied species, is a parasite of the Banana. But 
exceptions of this kind confirm rather than militate against 
the conclusion. 

3. Local Aspect of Species, and Characteristic Form of Regions. 

There is a certain local aspect, or peculiar facies, which 
impresses itself upon us the more we study local collections ; 
just as we learn by a very little observation, to distinguish 
men of different nations and neighbourhoods. Thus we dis- 
tinguish the loose, horny, colourless structure of the northern 
marine species ; the stony, corroded, livid New Zealand- 
ers ; the polished, absolutely perfect specimens from the coral 
seas. Certain forms are so characteristic of certain regions, 
that we never expect to find them elsewhere. Thus we look 
for Clausilia in Europe and Asia; for Achatina in Africa; 

Remarks on Mollusca and Shells. 77 

for Cylindrella in the West Indies and their neighbourhood ; 
for Achatinella in the Sandwich Islands ; for Partula in the 
Pacific Islands, south of the equator ; to the United States 
of America we look for Helices with toothed apertures ; to 
the Philippine Islands for the ivory and beautifully painted 
species, &c ; and we venture to call them stragglers, if we 
are brought to us from any other quarter. 

Dr Pickering remarks, in relation to the Feejee Islands, 
" It was only here, in the midst of the coral sea, where I 
found myself surrounded by a great variety of Cone, Mitre, 
Olive, Coivry, Ovnla, Harpa, Terebra, Cassis, Strombus, 
Conoelix, Pyramidella, Tridacna, Vulsella, Lima, &c, that 
I became fully aware of the imperfect state of this science. 
We missed Patella, Eburna, Terebellum, Cancellaria, Hip- 
popus, Aneillaria, and Marginella. Bivalves seem to pre- 
vail less than at Tonga. Mactra proper was not met with. 
In fluviatile shells these islands are richer than the eastern 
ones, no doubt on account of their larger size, and the conse- 
quent greater abundance of fresh water. A fresh- water 
bivalve, Cyrena, was here met with for the first time among 
the islands. Among land-shells we missed Partula. The 
appearance of large Bulimi reminded one of the continent. 
The true Helices seem to be supplanted by Nanina. 

4, Analogous Species in co-ordinate Regions. 

Another point of interest, extensively elucidated by the 
collections of the Expedition, is the occurrence of analogous 
species in co-ordinate regions. It is now a received fact that 
the animals and plants of the northernmost zones are, for the 
most part, identical throughout the whole circuit ; and that 
the species gradually diverge from each other towards the 
equator, on the three continents ; and that after passing the 
equator towards the north, there is not a return to the same 
species, and rarely to the same genera, as we should expect 
if variation of forms depended mainly on difference of tem- 
perature. There is, however, a return to molluscs of a kin- 
dred character and form, and oftentimes to the same genera. 

The analogies of specimens from distant regions, are much 
stronger when reckoned by isothermal longitude, than by 

78 Remarks on Mollusca and Shells. 

isothermal latitude. In the latter case we may have analogous 
genera. Along our northern seas, some of the most charac- 
teristic shells are, Buccinum. Tritonum, Fusus, Terebratida, 
Iluiiula, &c. Around Cape Horn are shells of the same types, 
so closely allied that they have not yet been separated as dis- 
tinct genera, though peculiar in many important respects. 
But this resemblance does not descend to species. In the 
first case, however, not only have we the same genera, but 
the species seem to repeat each other ; so that species brought 
from great distances east or west are scarcely to be distin- 
guished upon comparison. As examples in illustration, we 
may place against each other the following species, from 
Oregon, and from the Eastern States ; — 

Mya praecisa. Mya truncata. 

Osteodesma bracteatum. Osteodesma hyalina. 

Cardita ventricosa. Cardita borealis. 

Cardium blandum. Cardium Icelandicum. 

Venus calcarea. Venus mercenaria. 

Alasmodonta falcata. Alasmodonta arcuata. 

Helix Vancouverensis. Helix concava. 

Helix loricata. Helix inflecta. 

Helix germana. Helix fraterna. 

Planorbis vermicularis. Planorbis deflectus. 

Planorbis opercularis, Planorbis exacutus. 

Lacuna carinata. Lacuna vincta. 

Natica Lewisii. Natica ferox. 

Trichotropis cancellata. Trichotropis borealis. 

Fusus fidicula. Fusus turricula. 

Lottia pintadina. Lottia testudinalis, &c. 

Mingled with these are others very different in type, which 
mark the two localities as constituting very different zoologi- 
cal regions. Where, for instance, have we the analogues of 
Parnopcea generosa, Lutraria ventricosa, Triton oregonense, 
on the one hand, and of Mactra gigantea, Fusus decemcosta- 
tus and Icelandicus, Pyrula canaliculata and carica^ Pando- 
ra trilineata, &c, on the other \ The same comparison holds 
good between the shells of the Gulf of California and the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

From a consideration of the land-shells collected on the 
Pacific islands, it seems possible to draw some fair inferences 

Remarks on Mollusca and Shells. 79 

as to the relations of the lands which once occupied the area 
of the Pacific Ocean, and whose mountain peaks evidently 
now indicate, or constitute, the islands with which it is now 
studded. By observation of the species, we think there are 
strong indications that some groups of islands have an inti- 
mate relation to each other, and belonged at least, to the peaks 
of the same mountain ranges, before they were submerged, 
while the indications are equally strong, that other groups 
had no such territorial connection. 

The Samoa, Friendly, and Feejee Islands are near to each 
other, and seem as if they must have intimate geological re- 
lations. The Samoa and Friendly Islands give evidence of 
such relation, the same forms and many of the same species 
occurring on both groups. But, if we may draw inferences 
from the land-shells, these two groups are more intimately 
related to the Society Islands, though at a much greater dis- 
tance, than to the Feejee Islands. Not a single species of land- 
shell found on the Feejees was collected on either side of the 
other groups. Several genera which are common to the 
other groups are wanting in the Feejees. Thus, no specimen 
of Succinea or Partula, genera so abundant in the Society 
and Samoa Islands, was found at the Feejees ; and the true 
Helix, especially the pyramidal forms, so remarkable in the 
other groups, seemed to be replaced by large species of 
Nomina. On the other hand, large and peculiar species of 
Bulimus occur abundantly on the Feejees, while nothing of the 
kind occurs on any of the other islands. Indeed, judging from 
the land-shells, the Feejees are more nearly allied to the 
islands to the westward, such as the New Hebrides, than to 
the Friendly Islands on the east, though so much nearer. 
When we examine the fluviatile shells, however, we do not 
find the same distinction. Many of the same species of Mela- 
nia, Navicella, and Neritina, seem to occur in all the groups, 
though the large coronated species of Melania prevail in the 
Feejees. There is some reason to suspect, moreover, that 
the fresh-water shells collected at those islands have acci- 
dentally become more or less mingled. It must also be con- 
sidered that the Navicella, and more especially Neritina, is 
oftentimes decidedly littoral, and even marine, in its habits. 

80 Remarks on Mollnsca and Shells. 

The little island of Metia, or Aurora Island, to the north- 
eastward of Tahiti, is one of peculiar interest. It is a coral 
island, which has been elevated 250 feet or more, and has no 
other high island anywhere near it. On it were found four 
small land-shells belonging to three genera, viz., Helix perte- 
nms, Helix dccdalea, Partula pusilla, and Helecina trochlea. 
None of these were found upon any other island. They seem 
to have originated there after the elevation of the island, and 
have a significant bearing upon the question of local and pe- 
riodical creations in comparatively modern times. 

As the genus Partula is characteristic of the groups just 
south of the equator, so Achatinella is the characteristic 
shell of the Sandwich Islands. Closely connected as the 
islands of this group are, they each have their peculiar forms 
of land-shells ; and, as the southern islands bear evidence of 
greater age than the northern ones, we may infer that, within 
these narrow limits, we have evidence of the appearance of 
some species subsequent to the existence of others now liv- 
ing. On the island of Kauai, the oldest of the group, we 
have Achatina adusta smdpyramidata, a form which does not 
appear on the other islands ; the Achatinella} are chiefly of 
the elongated glabrous form, which I have grouped under the 
name Lepiachatina ; the Helices are planorboid and multi- 
spiral. On Molokai, the species of Achatinella are large and 
beautiful, and peculiar in their form and colouring. On Maui, 
the Helices are small and glabrous, with some very curious 
hispid and ribbed species, with lamella) within the aperture. 
On Oahu, the species of both Helix and Achatinella are simi- 
lar to those on Maui. On Hawaii, Succinea seems to prevail 
in larger proportion than on the other islands, while Acha- 
tinella, which occurs so abundantly on all the other islands, 
either does not occur at all, or but very rarely. 


Report of the Maritime Conference held at Brussels for de- 
vising a Uniform System of Meteorological Observations 
at Sea. 

By carefully collating the observations on the direction of 
the wind, and of the currents of the ocean, from the log-books 
of upwards of 10,000 voyages, Lieutenant Maury, of the United 
States Navy, has been able to construct a series of wind and 
current charts, which have already proved of the highest value 
to navigation,— voyages have been greatly shortened, and 
their cost and risk much diminished. In constructing these 
charts, the ocean is divided into spaces of 5° of latitude and 5° 
of longitude, and the direction of the wind which is observed 
in one part of these districts is assumed to be that in which it 
is blowing in every other part of the district. A special chart 
is appropriated to each month of the year, and thus the navi- 
gator is able to see at a glance what are the prevalent winds 
in every part of the ocean at any time of the year, and is en- 
abled so to shapehis course as to avail himself of the favourable 
winds, and to avoid those which are opposed to his course. 
From this brief sketch of the principle upon which the wind 
charts have been constructed, it will be readily understood 
that the observations upon the direction of the currents of 
the ocean and their temperature, when collated in the same 
manner, will enable us to trace their circulation through every 
part of the ocean, and the causes which give rise to and per- 
petuate their movements; as the observations on the tempera- 
ture and pressure of the atmosphere will enable us to trace 
the origin and course of the great atmospheric currents. 

But when it is considered that even for spaces so large as 
5° of latitude and 5 C of longitude, the least number of observa- 
tions which are required for the three great oceans amounts 
to the enormous number of 1,669,200, the minimum number 
for each square being 100 ; and when it is borne in mind that 
certain parts of the ocean are more frequently traversed by 
the vessels of one nation than by those of another, and some 
parts very rarely traversed by any, it will be evident that this 
admirable system, so ably begun by Lieutenant Maury, can only 


82 On a Uniform System of 

be carried out effectually by the co-operation of all the prin- 
cipal commercial nations. To carry out this system, the 
conference whose report is subjoined was held, and it is a 
subject of sincere congratulation to know that not only our 
own Government, but the Governments of several of the other 
nations who were represented at that conference, are already 
taking active measures for carrying into effect the recom- 
mendations which are contained in this report. 

But as Lieutenant Maury very justly observes, " the impor- 
tance of concert among meteorologists all over the world, and 
of co-operation between the observer on shore and the naviga- 
tor at sea, so that any meteorological phenomenon may be 
traced throughout its cycle both by sea and land, is too obvious 
for illustration, too palpable to be made plainer by argument, 
and therefore the proposition for a general conference to ar- 
range the details of such a comprehensive system of observa- 
tion, addresses itself to every friend of science and lover of 
the useful in all countries." — (See Lieutenant Maury's Sail- 
ing Directions, 5th edition, p. 30.) 

These sentiments are fully participated in by the most 
eminent meteorologists in Europe, including Quetelet, Kup- 
ffer, Kreil, Dove, Lamont, Bravais, Hansteen, our own dis- 
tinguished Astronomer-Royal, and the officers in charge of 
the meteorological observatories in Spain, Holland, &c. ; and 
a second conference is now proposed to effect a system of co- 
operation for observers on land, similar to that which in the 
first conference has been recommended for observers at sea. 
We dare not speculate on the result to be obtained by so vast 
a system of observations, but we cannot doubt but that they 
will be of highest interest to science, and of the greatest 
benefit to mankind ; and we may congratulate ourselves on 
living in an era when scientific men in all nations, setting aside 
all petty national or selfish views, are prepared to combine 
their labours for the good of all — presenting a spectacle such 
as history cannot refer to. 


" In pursuance of instructions issued by the Governments 
respectively named below, the officers whose names are here- 
unto annexed, assembled at Brussels for the purpose of hold- 

Meteorological Observations at Sea* 83 

ing a conference on the subject of establishing a uniform 
system of meteorological observations at sea, and of con- 
curring in a general plan of observation on the winds and 
currents of the ocean, with a view to the improvement of 
navigation, and to the acquirement of a more correct know- 
ledge of the laws which govern those elements. 

" The meeting was convened at the instigation of the Ame- 
rican government, consequent upon a proposition which it 
had made to the British government, in reply to a desire 
which had been conveyed to the United States, that it would 
join in a uniform system of meteorological observations on 
land, after a plan which had been prepared by Captain 
James, of the Royal Engineers, and submitted to the Govern- 
ment by Sir J. Burgoyne, Inspector-General of Fortifications. 

" The papers connected with this correspondence were pre- 
sented to the House of Lords on the 21st of February last,* 
and have been further explained in the minutes of the con- 
ference. And it is here merely necessary to observe, that 
some difficulties having presented themselves to the imme- 
diate execution of the plan proposed by the British govern- 
ment, the United States availed themselves of the opportu- 
nity afforded by this correspondence, of bringing under the 
notice of the British government a plan which had been sub- 
mitted by Lieutenant Maury, of the United States Navy, 
for a more widely extended field of research than that which 
had been proposed, a plan which, while it would forward the 
object entertained by Great Britain, would, at the same time, 
materially contribute to the improvement of navigation and 
to the benefit of commerce. 

" An improvement of the ordinary sea route between dis- 
tant countries had long engaged the attention of commercial 
men, and both individuals and nations had profited by the 
advances which this science had made through a more cor- 
rect knowledge of the prevailing winds and currents of the 
ocean. But experience had shewn that this science, if it did 
not now stand fast, was at least greatly impeded by the want 
of a more extended co-operation in the acquirement of those 
facts which were necessary to lead to a more correct know- 
ledge of the laws which govern the circulation of the atmo- 

* See Parliamentary Papers, No. 115, 

84 On a Uniform System of 

sphere, ami control the currents of the ocean ; and that the 
subject could not receive ample justice, nor even such a mea- 
sure of it as was commensurate with the importance of its 
results, until all nations should concur in one general effort 
for its perfection. But, could that happy event be brought 
about, could the observations be as extensive as desired, and 
receive that full discussion to which they were entitled, the 
navigator would learn with certainty how to count upon the 
winds and currents in his track, and to turn to the best ad- 
vantage the experience of his predecessors. 

" Meteorological observations, to a certain extent, had long 
been made at sea, and Lieutenant Maury had turned to useful 
account such as had from time to time fallen into his hands ;* 
but these observations, although many of them good in them- 
selves, were but isolated facts, which were deprived of much 
of their value from the absence of observations with which 
they could be compared, and, above all, from the want of a 
constant and uniform system of record, and from the rude- 
ness of the instruments with which they had been made. 

" The moment then appeared to him to have arrived when 
nations might be induced to co-operate in a general system 
of meteorological research. To use his own words, he was 
of opinion that ' the navies of all maritime nations should 
co-operate, and make these observations in such a manner, 
and with such means and implements, that the system might 
be uniform, and the observations made on board one public 
ship be readily referred to, and compared with the observa- 
tions made on board all other public ships, in whatever part 
of the world ; and, moreover, as it is desirable to enlist the 
voluntary co-operation of the commercial marine, as well as 
that of the military of all nations, in this system of research, 
it becomes not only proper, but politic, that the forms of the 
abstract log to be used, the description of the instruments 
to be employed, the things to be observed, with the manipu- 
lation of the instruments, and the methods and modes of ob- 
servation, should be the joint work of the principal parties 

w These sentiments being concurred in by the Government 

* See Sailing Directions by Maury. 

Meteorological Observations at Sea. 85 

of the United States, the correspondence between ihe go- 
vernments was continued, and finally each nation was invited 
to send an officer to hold a conference at Brussels on a given 

" And that the system of proposed observation and of com- 
bined action might become immediately available, and be 
extended to its widest possible field of operation, it was de- 
termined to adapt the standard of the observations to be 
made to the capabilities of the instruments now in general 
use in the respective naval services, but with the precaution 
of having all these instruments brought under the surveil- 
lance of parties duly appointed to examine them and deter- 
mine their errors ; as this alone would render the observa- 
tions comparable with each other through the medium of 
their respective standards. 

" The conference opened its proceedings at Brussels on the 
23d of August 1853, in the residence of M. Piercot, the Mini- 
ster of the Interior, to whom the thanks of the conference 
are especially due. 

" M. Quetelet was unanimously elected president. 

" Before entering upon any discussion, it was the desire of 
all the members of the conference that it should be clearly 
understood, that, in taking part in the proceedings of the 
meeting, they did not in any degree consider themselves as 
committing their respective governments to any particular 
course of action, having no authority whatever to pledge 
their country in any way to these proceedings. 

{i The objects of the meeting having been explained by 
Lieutenant Maury,* the conference expressed its thanks to 
that officer for the enlightened zeal and earnestness he had 
displayed in the important and useful work which forms the 
subject of the deliberations of the conference. 

" In concerting a plan of uniform observation, in which all 
nations might be engaged, the most obvious difficulty which 
arose was from the variety of scales in use in different coun- 
tries. It is much to be desired that this inconvenience 
should be removed ; but it was a subject upon which the 
conference, after mature deliberation, determined not to re- 

* See the Minutes of the Proceedings of the Conference. 

86 On a Uniform System of 

commend any modification, but to leave to each nation to 
continue its scales and standards as heretofore, except with 
regard to the thermometers, which it was agreed should, in 
addition to the scale in use in any particular service, have 
that of the centigrade placed upon it, in order to accustom 
observers in all services to its use, with a view to its final 
and general adoption. 

" The advantages of concert of action between the meteor- 
ologist on land and the navigator at sea were so obvious, 
that, looking forward to the establishment of a universal sys- 
tem of meteorological observation upon both elements, it 
was thought that the consideration of scales could, with 
greater propriety, be left for that or some such occasion. 

" As to the instruments to be recommended, the conference 
determined to add as few as possible to such as were in 
common use in vessels of war ; but, regarding accuracy of 
observation as of paramount importance, the conference felt 
it to be a matter of duty to recommend the adoption of ac- 
curate instruments, of barometers and thermometers espe- 
cially that have been carefully compared with recognized 
standards, and have had their errors accurately determined, 
and that such instruments only should be used on board 
every man-of-war co-operating in this system, as well as on 
board any merchantman, as far as it may be practicable. 

" The imperfection of instruments in use at sea is notorious. 
The barometer having hitherto been used principally as a 
monitor to the mariner, to warn him, by its fluctuations, of 
the changes in prospect, its absolute indication of pressure 
has been but little regarded, and makers seldom, if ever, de- 
termined the real errors of these instruments, or, if known, 
still more rarely ever furnished the corrections with the in- 
struments themselves. 

" That an instrument so rude and so abundant in error as 
is the marine barometer generally in use, should, in this age 
of invention and improvement, be found on board any ship, 
will doubtless be regarded hereafter with surprise ; and it 
will be wondered how an instrument so important to meteor- 
ology, and so useful to navigation, should be permitted to 
remain so defective, that meteorologists, in their investiga- 

Meteorological Observations at Sea. 87 

tions concerning the laws of atmospheric pressure, are com- 
pelled in great measure to omit all reference to the obser- 
vations which have been taken with them at sea. The fact 
will, it is believed, afford a commentary upon the marine 
barometers now in use, which no reasoning or explanation 
can render more striking. 

" It was the opinion of the conference that it would not be 
impossible, considering the spirit of invention and improve- 
ment that is now abroad in the world, to contrive a ma- 
rine barometer which might be sold at a moderate price, 
that would fulfil all the conditions necessary to make it a 
good and reliable instrument ; and a resolution was passed 
to that effect, in order to call the attention of the public to 
the importance of an invention which would furnish the na- 
vigator with a marine barometer that at all times, and in all 
weathers at sea, would afford the means of absolute and ac- 
curate determinations. 

. " The conference is also of opinion that an anemometer, or 
an instrument that will enable the navigator to measure the 
force, velocity, and direction of the wind at sea, is another 

" The conference was of opinion, that the mercurial barome- 
ter was the most proper to be used at sea for meteorological 
purposes, and that the aneroid should not be substituted for 

" With regard to thermometers, the conference does not 
hesitate to say, that observations made with those instru- 
ments, the errors of which are not known, are of little value ; 
and it is therefore recommended, as a matter well worth the 
attention of co-operators in this system of research, whether 
some plan may not be adopted in different countries for sup- 
plying navigators, as well in merchantmen as in men-of-war, 
with thermometers the errors of which have been accurately 

" For the purposes of meteorology various adaptations of 
the thermometer have been recommended, such as those which 
refer to hygrometry and solar radiation ; and, accordingly, 
a space will be found in the columns for temperature by ther- 
mometers with dry, wet, and coloured bulbs. With these ex- 

#8 On a Uniform System of 

ceptions, the only instrument, in addition to those generally 
used at sea, for which the conference has thought proper to 
recommend a column, is that for specific gravity ; the cost 
of this instrument is too insignificant to be mentioned. 

" The reasons for recommending the use at sea of the wet, 
the white, and black bulb thermometers are obvious ; but with 
regard to the thermometer with a bulb the colour of sea- 
water, and the introduction on board ship of a regular series 
of observations upon the specific gravity of sea-water, it may 
be proper to remark that, as the whole system of ocean cur- 
rents and of the circulation of sea-water depends in some de- 
gree upon the relative specific gravities of the water in va- 
rious parts of the ocean, it was judged desirable to introduce 
columns for this element, and to recommend that observations 
should be carefully made with regard to it, both at and below 
the surface. 

11 With respect to the thermometer having a bulb of the 
colour of sea-water, it is unnecessary to say more in favour 
of its use on board ship than that the object is to ascertain 
whether or no such observations will throw any light upon 
the psychrometry of the sea, or upon any of the various inte- 
resting phenomena connected with the radiation from the 
surface of the ocean. 

" In bringing to a conclusion the remarks upon instruments, 
the conference considered it desirable, in order the better to 
establish uniformity and to secure comparability among the 
observations, to suggest, as a measure conducive thereto, 
that a set of the standard instruments used by each of the 
co-operating Governments, together with the instructions 
which might be given by such Governments for their use, 
should be interchanged. 

" The object of the conference being to secure as far as pos- 
sible uniformity of record and such a disposition of the ob- 
servations that they would admit of ready comparison, the 
annexed form of register was concerted and agreed upon. 
The first columns of this form will receive the data which 
the Government of the United States requires merchant ves- 
sels to supply, in order to entitle them to the privileges of 
co-operators in this system of research, and may therefore 

Meteorological Observations at Sea. 89 

be considered as the minimum of what is expected of them. 
This condition, which it may be as well to state here, requires 
that at least the position of the vessel and the set of the cur- 
rent, the height of the barometer, the temperature of the air 
and water, should each be determined once a-day, the force 
and direction of the wind three times a-day, and the observed 
variation of the needle occasionally. 

" Every abstract log kept by a merchant vessel should con- 
tain at least what is here recommended. Anything more 
would enhance its value and make it more acceptable. 

" The remaining columns are intended principally for men- 
of-war to fill up in addition to those above mentioned, but it 
is believed that there are many officers in the mercantile navy 
also who are competent to this undertaking, and who will, it 
is hoped, be found willing to distinguish themselves in this 
joint action for the mutual benefit of the services. 

" In the compilation of this form the conference has had 
carefully in view the customs of the service and the addi- 
tional amount of attention which these duties will require, 
and it is believed that the labour necessary for the purpose, 
at least to the extentspecified in the instructions for filling 
up the columns, is only such as can be well performed under 
ordinary circumstances, and it has considered it a minimum, 
and looks w r ith confidence to occasional enlarged contribu- 
tions from zealous and intelligent labourers in the great cause 
of science. 

" The directions for filling up the columns, and for making 
certain observations, it will be seen by the minutes, were 
limited to such only as seemed necessary to the conference 
to insure uniformity of observation. This subject received 
the benefit of much discussion before the meeting, and it was 
considered most advisable to confine the matter to hints, 
which it is hoped will be found sufficient, when embodied in 
the instructions which each nation will probably issue with 
the forms, to insure that most desirable end — uniformity. 

" The conference, having brought to a close its labours with 
respect to the facts to be collected and the means to be em- 
ployed for that purpose, has now only to express a hope that 
whatever observations may be made, will be turned to useful 

90 On Meteorological Observations at Sea. 

account when received, and not be suffered to lie dormant 
for the want of a department to discuss them ; and that, 
should any Government, from its limited means or from the 
paucity of the observations transmitted, not feel itself justi- 
fied in providing for their separate discussion, it is hoped 
that it will transfer the documents, or copies of them, to some 
neighbouring Power, which may be more abundantly provided, 
and willing to receive them. 

" It is with pleasure that the conference has learned that 
the Government of Sweden and Norway has notified its in- 
tention of co-operating in the work, and that the King has 
commanded the logs kept by his Swedish subjects to be trans- 
mitted to the Royal Academy of Science at Stockholm, and 
also that in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Portugal, mea- 
sures have been taken to establish a department for the same 
purpose, and that the Admiralty of Great Britain has ex- 
pressed its intention of giving instructions for meteorological 
observations to be made throughout the Royal Navy. 

" The conference has avoided the expression of any opinion 
as to the places or countries in which it would be desirable 
to establish offices for the discussion of the logs, but it is 
confidently hoped that, whatever may be done in this respect, 
there will be always a full and free interchange of materials, 
and a frequent and friendly intercourse between the depart- 
ments ; for it is evident that much of the success of the plan 
proposed will depend upon this interchange, and upon the 
frankness of the officers who in the several countries may 
conduct these establishments. 

" Lastly, the conference feels that it would but inadequately 
discharge its duties, did it close this report without endea- 
vouring to procure for these observations a consideration 
which would secure them from damage or loss in time of 
war, and invites that inviolate protection which science claims 
at the hands of every enlightened nation ; and that, as vessels 
on discovery or scientific research are by consent suffered to 
pass unmolested in time of war, we may claim for these do- 
cuments a like exemption, and hope that observers, amid the 
excitement of war, and perhaps enemies in other respects, 
may in this continue their friendly assistance, and pursue 

Mr H. M. Stoker on the China-stone, §■<?., of Cornwall. 91 

their occupation, until at length every part of the ocean shall 
be brought within the domain of philosophic research, and a 
system of investigation shall be spread as a net over its sur- 
face, and it become rich in its benefit to commerce, navigation, 
and science, and productive of good to mankind. 

" The members of the conference are unwilling to separate 
without calling the attention of their respective Governments 
to the important and valuable assistance which it has received 
from the Belgian Government. That the conference has been 
enabled to draw its labours to so speedy, and satisfactory a 
close is in a great measure owing to the facilities and con- 
veniences for meeting and deliberating which have been af- 
forded by His Majesty's Government. 

" Signed at Brussels, this 8th day of September 1853. 

Belgium / Q UETELET > President 

.Belgium, | Lahure. 

Denmark, P. Rothe. 

France, Delamarche. 

n , t> -a « f F. W. Beechy. 

Great Britain, ( H . James. 

Netherland, Jansen. 

Norway, Ihlen. 

Portugal, De Mattos Correa. 

Russia, Gorkovenko. 

Sweden, Petterssoi*. 

United States, Maury." 

An Essay on the China-stone and China-clays of Cornwall, 
with a Description of some Mechanical Improvements in 
the Mode of Preparation of the latter. By Mr H. M. 
Stoker, of St Austell, Cornwall. 

The China-stone and China-clays of our county, or the 
disintegrated granites, have of late years assumed a no less 
important than interesting feature in its history : not only 
to the capitalist, from the great addition the discovery of 
their use has made to its commercial importance ; to the 
working-classes, from the necessarily co-existent increase of 

92 Mr H. M. Stoker on the China-stone and 

employment ; to the shipping, from the quantity annually 
exported ; but also to the traveller, from the picturesque 
scenes, the preparation of these articles has added to the 
previously existing and unexampled ones offered him for con- 
templation in the various modes of raising and rendering 
available the mineral wealth for which we have been so long 
and so justly famed ; and not only to these, but to the prac- 
tical chemist as well, does it afford matter for speculation, 
inasmuch as the supply of the former of these articles is so 
limited, as to require, in the course of a very few years, 
some cheap and easily available substitute ; whether to be 
supplied from this or from some other county, is a questio 
to be determined only by the conjoined efforts of the miner, 
the geologist, and the analytical chemist. 

From these few remarks, any apology for the appearance 
of the present essay would only be out of place, especially 
when we take into consideration the paucity of information 
possessed even by such men as the jurors of the Exhibition 
of the past year, as proved by their indifference both to the 
purity and quantity of the raw material ; and this i3 now the 
more to be deplored from the contrast presented to us in the 
degree of attention paid by those jurors who investigated the 
merits of this article in its manufactured state, and by the 
observations necessarily made on other raw material, not 
less than from the fact that in no work with which I am at 
present acquainted has the preparation or the source of this 
article been fully described. 

These observations will be found to refer generally to 
those districts whence the greater amount is attainable, and 
from them I have reason to hope that some few general laws 
may be deduced, whereby, when the present source is ex- 
hausted, other localities may be found in the county for their 

Attention was first directed to the fact, that the disinte- 
grated granite and clays of our county, as well as those of 
Devon, when fused or burned, could be rendered available 
to the potter, in 1768, by the late Mr Cookworthy of Ply- 
mouth, who extensively exported them to the potteries of 
Staffordshire for that purpose from Devon ; subsequently to 

China-clays of Cornwall. 93 

which, large beds of a like description of clays were found in 
the parish of St Stephen's : and it having been ascertained 
that the decomposing granite, from which such beds are 
formed, was capable, when fused, of forming a suitable glaze 
for the articles made of the clay, a large trade was at once 
opened, which has continued progressively to increase till 
the present time. 

The disintegrated granite, under the name of China-stone, 
from the use to which it was applied, was exported at a later 
period than the China-clay or kaolin, — this article of com- 
merce not having been introduced till the year 1802, when 
it was first raised from a bed of great purity, containing no 
iron or manganese, but merely felspar, silica, and mica, in 
varying proportions. And this is at present the only source 
from which it can be obtained of a sufficient degree of purity 
for ordinary purposes ; though, from its price, and the efforts 
that have been made by chemists, both here and in the pot- 
teries, to gain a substitute for it, it is very doubtful whether 
it will long continue so ; more especially if the distance we 
are placed from Stafford be taken into consideration. 

Most of the granites from which the China-stone was 
formed, differ from ordinary granite only in the existence in 
the latter of plates of talc, hornblende, or diallage, the pre- 
sence of either of which renders the China-stone in which 
they are found, though but in small proportions, of not even 
the slightest use, from the black or brown-coloured slag of 
silicate of iron or manganese found on fusion. Some varia- 
tion, too, may be found in the amount of each of the ingre- 
dients which I have named, but this affects neither the clay 
formed on a continuation of the disintegrating process, nor 
is it supposed to exert any influence on the glazing properties 
of the stone. 

The places in which a search for this article would be in- 
stituted with the greatest probability of success, is in the 
proximity of fissured granite rocks, containing, or supposed 
to have contained, softened stone ; or in hills with rounded 
heavy summits, the beds of which are placed horizontally, 
and felspar (or feldspar) forming its predominating ingre- 

94 Mr H. M. Stoker on the China-stone and 

The bed from which it is obtained is about three-fourths 
of a mile in extent, on the contiguous borders of the parishes 
of St Dennis and St Stephens, occupying almost the centre 
of the central granite district of the county, and is sur- 
rounded by other primary rocks of igneous origin, which, as 
they stretch towards the coast on either side, merge into 
beds of killas or clay-slate. On the eastern and northern 
boundaries, the granite is more irregular and abrupt in cha- 
racter than on the other sides, is more porphyritic, and con- 
tains a much larger proportion of felspar, in large white or 
red opaque, cubic, or rhomboidal crystals ; while on the 
south it is separated from the neighbouring granite by a 
large elvan dyke. And it is worthy of notice, that, while on 
one side of this you may find China-stone perfectly pure, on 
the other, only from one to two feet distant, the stone is 
rendered useless by the presence of small plates of talc im- 
bedded in dense gray granite, which also forms a portion of 
the eastern boundary. 

Any one who has carefully studied the porphyry dykes, or the 
general nature of the primary rocks of our county, cannot but 
have noticed the difference in the temperature at which some 
of them have been upheaved, compared to that of others ; for 
while some of our granites are composed of substances which 
have in their crystals a certain amount of water that has not 
been lost, others have no trace of it, their felspar having 
become an amorphous-looking powder (kaolin) ; and others 
presenting the same waxy edge on fracture that is noticed in 
porcelain, particularly the elvan dykes : and from this it has" 
been conjectured, though tome it appears doubtful, that as the 
melting point of other minerals was considerably below that 
of these rocks, at the time of the extraordinary convulsion to 
which our county has been subjected, the China-stone was 
by this means freed from iron, &c. ; and that, on its having 
reached the surface, the water by which it was surrounded 
at once caused the crystals of felspar to split, lose their out- 
line and character, and become easily acted on by the solvent 
power of rain-water, which, by depriving it of a portion of 
its potash, leaves the crystals of quartz or silicic acid and 
plates of mica, glistening with a silvery hue, imbedded in a 

China-clays of Cornwall. 95 

mass of silicate of potash and alumina ; which, from the loss 
of crystallization, cannot be termed felspar, nor is it kaolin, 
for it has not been subjected sufficiently long to the causes 
which lead to its formation. 

Many have thought, and do still suppose, that the clay is 
gradually forming into granite, and confidently assert that 
the whole of the middle granite tract was undoubtedly formed 
from clay beds ; the geologist, I need scarcely add, will be 
able to estimate this at its proper worth : others also add, 
that this mass has been thrown up in the water, which at first 
covered it and fell back on itself, which they assert accounts 
for the flattened outline the tops of the hills of this district 

The chief causes which I believe to have led to its disin- 
tegration, and not only to the formation of China-stone, or 
China-clay, but to that of all the land at present in cultiva- 
tion or capable of being cultivated, are — 1st, external 
physical agents, proved by the fact that China-stone is very 
seldom found at a depth of more than from 20 to 30 feet 
from the surface ; the influence of the seasons ; the changes 
from hot to cold on a body composed of crystals possessing 1 
such different expansive powers as those of felspar and quartz; 
and the solvent power of rain-water : while, as chemical 
agents, we have, 2dhj, the influence of the excess of carbonic 
acid in the air, as well as that from the interior of the earth, 
of the influence of which we have abundant proof in the ex- 
cellent crops obtainable near lavas, or wherever this gas can 
gain access to the compound silicates of which the greatest 
portion of the earth's crust consists ; and by the influence of 
respiration in rooms provided with windows, which may have 
been exposed for a long period to its application. 

At present, while there is a great demand for the article, 
the spot from whence China-stone is procured presents the 
appearance of a large rabbit burrow, as there are no less 
than nine sets for the district, the proprietor of each of which 
has his portion of the hill covered with the mouths of pits, 
around which are stationed a number of men with their 
waggons, who, after the China-stone has been raised by quar- 
rying and the employment of powder, carry it to one of the 

96 Mr 11. M. Stoker on the China-stone and 

nearest ports to be shipped for the potteries of Staffordshire 
and Worcestershire. These ports are distant seven or nine 
miles from the quarries, entailing in this transport a con- 
siderable amount of land carriage, and a consequent increase 
in the price, which of late years has been raised from 12s. 
to 20s. free on board, at Par, Pentewan, or Charlestown ; 
still the demand has by no means diminished, and the pro- 
prietors of these sets have been obliged to fix a certain limit 
to their annual supply of 18,000 tons, which rate of consump- 
tion will have effected the removal of all the China-stone in 
these beds in rather less than fifty years. 

The number of people employed in its preparation are com- 
paratively few, as the operation of blasting requires but two 
or three persons in each pit ; and in loading the waggons the 
parties employed as carriers are but too eager to fill in order 
to gain a load. The before-mentioned reasons render the 
question of supply an important one, and one well worthy 
the attention of the land-owner as to future resources, and 
the influence the discovery of any large bed of good stone 
would exert on his pocket ; though, while the present sets 
of the China-stone Company of Cornwall hold out, they not 
only can but will maintain a monopoly. 

China-stone, in its present state, consists of a mixture of 
quartz, felspar, and mica, blended so as to form a homo- 
geneous mass which very much resembles granite, though its 
texture is not so compact ; the quartz exists in small bluish- 
white and transparent crystals, the edges of which, by the 
process of disintegration, are rendered more or less indistinct, 
and they have become more transparent than when in the 
form of granite. These crystals are imbedded in a mixture 
of white felspar which has lost a portion of its potash, and 
small opaque scales of mica having a lustrous silvery aspect 
and very thin : the granite from which it has been formed is of 
the simplest kind, the more common forms containing, in addi- 
tion to the mica, quartz and felspar, which may be either red 
or gray, crystals and scales of hornblende, diallage, or talc, 
with a more or less appreciable amount of iron, indicated by 
the black spots formed on fusion or calcination ; and as the 
chemical composition of this article, when pure, should indi- 

China-clays of Cornwall. 97 

cate an absence of these deteriorating qualities, until some 
cheap mode of separating these constituents from the other- 
wise vitrifiable granites of our county be found, the China- 
stone at present in use must retain its pre-eminence, consist- 
ing as it does of a pure double silicate of potash and alumina, 
which, when fused, forms a pearl-white translucent mass, 
firm and resonant, consisting of an opaque body of nearly 
perfectly formed kaolin, surrounded by and diffused through 
the glaze of silicic acid, to which its transparency is due : and 
not only does the foregoing deteriorating substances render 
the article useless, but should there be a very great excess of 
quartz crystals or silica the article will not, from the forma- 
tion of single silicates, be capable of fusion at any temperature ; 
though this fault may be remedied by the addition of either 
potash or soda, to which the vitrifaction not only of this, but 
of the various kinds of glass, is also due ; felspar, according 
to Liebig, containing 17*75 per cent, of potash. 

China-stone is used in the potteries for a number of pur- 
poses, the most important of which are, 1st, — in the forma- 
tion of clay bodies to form biscuit ware ; 2dly, — to strengthen 
clays rendered poor by the absence of potash ; and, 3dly f — in 
the preparation or construction of glazes, for the calcined 
biscuit ware, when mixed with other ingredients. 

The manufactured China-stone and China-clay is termed 
" pottery," of which there are several varieties, each contain- 
ing different proportions, of China-stone, clay, and other 
articles. In the porcelain series there is said to be but 3 per 
cent, of potash, but this I imagine, from the transparency and 
purity of the body, to be inaccurate : the Chinese used to em- 
ploy the ashes of ferns, which, from the amount of carbonate 
of potash they contain, gave to it that richness and blending 
of the body with the glaze for which it has been long remark- 
able : bone ash was also used, both by the Chinese and French, 
and is now employed by our potters in considerable quantity, 
for the sake of the phosphate of lime it contains, which 
during the process of fusion, adds considerably to the trans- 
parency of the ware without rendering the glaze liable to 
craze or peel off, as would be the case were lime alone em- 


98 Mr H. M. Stoker on the China-stone and 

ployed ; in fact at times, during a single firing, more than 
£5000 worth of pottery is rendered useless by the admixture 
of this earth, the surface of the services becoming covered 
with a congeries of cracks and fissures ; hence great care is 
necessary to prevent its addition. 

The terms employed to designate the kinds of calcined and 
fused wares, are : — Pipe-clay, the least used and least impor- 
tant ; Queen's ware ; Terra Cotta ; Basalts ; and Porcelain 
biscuit ; the whole of which were introduced by Wedgewood, 
to whose persevering, accurate, and scientific research, we 
are indebted for the position our pottery now holds ; and it 
should not be forgotten that the rapid strides by which we 
have gained it, and the discoveries that have of later years 
been made in this art, have been wholly derived from a good 
practical acquaintance with chemical analysis, the import- 
ance of which cannot be too strongly urged, on both the potter 
and the producer of the raw material. The other and more 
common wares are, porcelain ; pottery, an inferior kind of 
porcelain ; and earthenware ; to the description of which I 
shall for the present confine my attention, that of the before 
mentioned wares, as well as of Parian, biscuit china, &c, 
belonging more strictly to the province of the potter than to 
that of the writer of the present Essay ; though, from the 
history of the experiments to which their existence is due, 
the subject will be found fraught with interest to the chemist 
and geologist. 

Until a very late period pottery manufacture was com- 
paratively unknown in England ; in the eighteenth century 
we were indebted entirely to the Chinese for our best, and 
to the continental potteries for our commoner wares ; a cen- 
tury has but elapsed, and to the credit of the industrious, the 
persevering, the indefatigably speculating, Englishman, be it 
added, that from pole to pole, under any portion of the globe's 
equator, wherever the traveller may roam in search of adven- 
ture, no less than through the length and breadth of his happy 
little island home, he will find, in his cup, his plate, or his 
dish, a never dying testimonial to the enterprising character 
of the Englishman. 

China-clay of Cornwall, 99 

In porcelain or china and the coarser variety termed pot- 
tery, the ingredients are so combined as. to act chemically on 
each other, the decomposed felspar consisting of a fusible 
glass of silicate of alumina and potash, more opaque than 
that formed by the fused silex in which it is disseminated ; 
and when the body is formed of China-clay, infusible at the 
highest temperature, in the process of vitrifaction, it is so 
acted on, as to form a substance uniformly opaque, having a 
vitreous, waxy fracture, and when coloured by some metallic 
base is termed stoneware. 

There are two kinds of china or porcelain ; the one termed 
the hard china was formerly imported from France, though, 
of late years, it has been altogether superseded by the second 
variety, or soft china. The body of hard china may be con- 
veniently formed by a mixture of ingredients in the following 
proportions : — 

Kaolin, or China-clay 

70 parts 


14 ... 


12 ... 


4 ... 

which calcined, forms the biscuit : this, after being dipped in 
a mixture of potash and felspar, is again heated, when vitri- 
faction ensues, the article possessing a homogeneous trans- 
lucent structure, and not a mere glaze or coat as found on 
the common earthenware. In making soft china the English 
potters fully vitrify the ware by the first application of heat, 
the shape of the article being kept by ground flint, removable 
with ease after it is taken from the oven, and the glaze being 
subsequently applied is vitrified at a lower temperature than 
that used in the formation of the biscuit of soft china, the in- 
gredients used to form which, are, — 

Bone . . . . 46 parts 
Kaolin . . . . 31 ... 

China-stone . . . 23 ... 

In making the glaze, a frit is first formed, which renders the 
glaze more easily applicable to the surface of the biscuit, by 
calcining a mixture similar to the following : — 


100 Mr II. M. Stoker on the China-stone anl 

Chin a- stone ... 25 parts 

Soda . . . . 6 ... 

Borax .... 3 ... 

Nitre , . . . 1 ... 

Of this frit, when ground, 26 parts are taken, and added to 
or mixed with — 

26 of ground China-stone, 
31 ... white-lead, 

7 ... flint, 

7 ... carbonate of lime, &c., 

3 ... oxide of tin, 

in which the biscuit is dipped prior to the last application of 
heat. The colours to be laid on the ware are applied and 
burnt in prior to the formation of the glaze, an article often 
requiring a separate burning for each different colour, thus, 
especially in gilded articles, entailing an additional amount 
of cost and labour. 

The China-stone increases the strength and sonorosity of 
the article, while the ground flint gives whiteness and density 
to the base of plastic clay : earths are by themselves infu- 
sible, but on the addition of silex or silica, another name for 
quartz, we form a silicate, to which, if we add a third of earth, 
with an alkaline base, we form a body verifiable and uniformly 

As it may not be uninteresting to my readers, I shall briefly 
attempt to describe the mode in which the China-stone and 
China-clay are treated, prior to their being turned, twisted, 
and flattened, to form the numberless articles in which they 
greet the eye. 

The China-stone is ground to a fine powder by means of 
a number of stones which are kept rotating on the bottom 
of a paved vat, when it, as well as the clay and ground flint, 
are mixed with a certain quantity of water, by a process 
termed "bluging," till of the consistence of cream, when it is 
passed in a state of slop or slip through a series of cambric or 
lawn sieves kept rapidly revolving by a water-wheel, each pint 
of clay slip wcighingtwenty-fourounces, while that of the flint 
or China-stone weighs thirty-two ounces ; it is then passed 
through a very fine silk sieve, after which these ingredients 

China-clay of Cornwall. 101 

are mixed together in variable proportions in a large vat or 
tub, and, as soon as the mixture has attained its requisite 
consistence, the water is driven off by evaporation, which 
causing the slip to contain in its interstices an innumerable 
quantity of air globules, renders it necessary that it should 
be submitted to the process of kneading or beating, after 
which it was formerly thought necessary, though now aban- 
doned, that this mass should lie fallow for three or four 
months, when it is considered to be fit for the lathe. 

The proportions of the ingredients used in the different 
kinds of earthenware are as follow : — 

In cream colour or painted ware, — Dorsetshire clay, 56 
parts ; kaolin or China-clay, 27 ; flint, 14 ; and China- 
stone, 3 parts. 
In brown ware, — red clay, 83 ; Dorset clay, 13 ; flint, 2 ; 

and manganese, 2 parts. 
In drab ware, — Cane marl, 32 ; Dorset clay, 22 ; China- 
stone, 45 ; and nickel, 1 part. 
In jasper, — barytes, 32 ; kaolin, 15 ; Dorset clay, 15 ; 

stone, 33 ; and of lead, 3 parts. 
The glazes commonly used for the cream-coloured ware 
consists of varying proportions of white lead and China- 
stone, or, as these may craze, a frit of the following materials 
is often employed : — 

Of China-stone, 30 ; flint, 16 ; red lead, 25 ; soda, 12 ; 
and borax, 17 parts ; 26 parts of this are then mixed 
with 15 of China-stone, 10 of flint glass, 9 of flint, and 
40 of white lead ; which constitutes the fritted glaze. 
The composition of most of the bodies and clays now used 
is a secret confined to the walls of the mixing room, so that 
it is extremely difficult to ascertain, with any degree of ac- 
curacy, the influence of an excess of ingredients ; thereby en- 
tailing a co-existent difficulty on the part of the producer, in 
his endeavour to form or prepare a substitute for these 

The China-clay or kaolin of Cornwall was first brought in- 
to notice at a very late period, though the material itself has 
been long used ; in fact, not only were the Chinese well ac- 

102 On the China-stone and China-clay of Cornwall. 

quainted with it, both in a raw and manufactured state, from 
the most remote ages, but it is also probable, from the in- 
teresting evidences lately brought to light, through the in- 
dustrious exertions of Mr Layard, and from other sources, 
that the Egyptians knew somewhat of its uses. 

"When obtained by Mr Cookworthy, in 1768, from the Les- 
crowse and Trethose clay works, in the parish of St Stephens, 
a large supply was at once demanded for the Staffordshire 
potteries, which has gradually increased till the present 
time. The average annual export of late years, which I have 
been enabled to offer my readers through the kindness of 
the most influential shipping agents in the neighbourhood, is 
as follows : — 

At Charleston . 40,000 tons of China-clay. 

... Par . . 10,000 ... 

... Pentewan . 18,000 ... 

... other harbours . 12,000 ... 

Forming a total of 80,000 tons. 
From the little attention paid to former exports of this 
article, I have been unable to form an accurate estimation of 
them, though some idea of the increase maybe gleaned from 
the following estimates of the value of the exports of the 
manufactured article, to the various countries with which 
England has any commercial relations :— 

Shipped from Stafford in 1835 . £280,000 

1837 . 560,000 

1841 . 600,759 

... . 1851 . 1,210,000 

while adding to this the exports from Derby, Worcester, and 
other potteries, will give a total of £2,150,000 shipped during 
the past year ; in addition to which, of late years, a consider- 
able amount of crude kaolin has been exported to every pot- 
tery on the continent, and also to those of our inquiring 
American brethren, while a small portion has been used for 

(To be continued.) 


On the Analysis o/Euclase. By J. W. MALLET, Esq., Ph. D. 

Euclase, from its transparency, delicate shades of colour, 
and perfect crystallization, is one of the most beautiful mineral 
species with which we are acquainted ; and since it is at the 
same time a mineral of great rarity, good specimens of it 
form some of the most highly prized ornaments of mineralo- 
gical collections. 

Such of the characters of the mineral as can be examined 
■without injury to the specimens, have been pretty accurately 
studied, especially the complex crystalline forms under which 
it occurs, which have been described at length by Hauy, 
Weiss, Phillips, and Levy. Our knowledge of its chemical 
composition, however, the investigation of which involves the 
destruction of the specimens operated on, depends upon a 
single analysis by Berzelius, as the number given by Vau- 
quelin, the only other chemist who has examined the sub- 
stance, are almost valueless, presenting a loss of about 30 
per cent. 

Though from the high authority of Berzelius as an analyst, 
any other investigation could scarcely be expected to yield 
results of much novelty, or differing materially from those he 
has given, yet a second analysis possesses some interest, even 
if merely confirmatory of his. The results of one which 
I have recently made, I wish, therefore, to bring under the 
notice of the Society. 

The material employed for this analysis, consisted of four 
fragments of crystals, weighing together about 20 grains. 
Though this is rather a smaller quantity than is usually 
taken for a mineral analysis, it was in the present case quite 
enough, as the constituents to be determined were but few, 
and alumina and glucina form a large proportion of the 
whole. These fragments were perfectly clear and transpa- 
rent, three of them of a beautiful pale mountain-green, and 
one of a very light tinge of blue. They presented both na- 
tural crystal planes and faces of cleavage, and amongst the 
former were several adapted to the use of the reflecting go- 

104 J. W. Mallet, Esq., on the Analysis of Enclose. 

niometer. The mean results of some angular measurements 
over the obtuse lateral edges of four distinct vertical prisms 
were, 115° 6', 127° 51', 140° 44', and 149° 32', all of which 
agree nearly with numbers given by Phillips. The only 
cleavage I observed was that parallel to the terminal plane, 
replacing the acute lateral edge of the vertical prism, which 
is mentioned in mineralogical systems as the only cleavage 
easily obtained. 

The specific gravity of these fragments was 3-036. They 
were reduced to fine powder, and fused with the mixed car- 
bonates of potash and soda, and the analysis was then con- 
ducted according to the usual routine for silicates. The alu- 
mina and glucina were separated according to the old method 
by carbonate of ammonia, as from previous experiments I 
found the use of caustic potash, which has been more recently 
proposed for this purpose, both difficult and uncertain. The 
analysis gave the following constituents per cent. : — 














Peroxide of iron 




Peroxide of tin 


These numbers agree very fairly with those of Berzelius, 
and dividing by the atomic weights of the several constituents, 
give their equivalent proportions as in the second column. 
These are very nearly in the ratio : — 

Si0 3 : A1 2 3 : G 2 3 = 3:2:2. 
And hence we have the formula : — 

2(Al 2 3 Si0 3 ) +G 2 3 Si0 3 . 

Or if the two earths, alumina and glucina, be isomorphous : — 

4(Al 2 3 + G 2 3 )3Si0 3 . 

Scacchi, taking glucina as a protoxide, suggests an ana- 
logy between euclase and epidote, but if the corrected atomic 
weight of this earth be U3ed, the formulae of these two minerals 

J. W. Mallet, Esq., on the Analysis of Euclase. 105 

differ widely.* If, on the other hand, alumina and glucina be 
isomorphous, the composition of euclase coincides with that 
of andalusite. 

4 Al 2 3 3 Si 8 . 
part of the alumina being replaced by glucina. An impor- 
tant objection to the idea of any real connection between 
these minerals, however, arises from the fact, that they occur 
in different crystalline systems, andalusite belonging to the 
right prismatic, while euclase is in the oblique prismatic sys- 

There was one minor point in connection with Berzelius's 
analysis which it was interesting to examine with special 
care, namely, the occurrence or not of a small quantity of tin 
in euclase, and I, therefore, took particular pains in testing 
all the reagents for this metal before using them, and made 
a separate blowpipe experiment on the mineral itself, with 
the object of reducing the tin directly. Even by the latter 
method there was no difficulty in distinctly ascertaining its 
presence, and there can, therefore, be no doubt of its really 
existing in the pure mineral. 

The occurrence of traces of this metal in other silicates, 
as beryl, epidote, and a magnesian garnet, meteoric stones, 
and in several ores of titanium and tantalum, has been re- 
marked by different analysts, especially by Berzelius, and is 
certainly a very curious fact, when we consider the extremely 
small number of minerals in which tin forms a leading con- 
stituent, and the improbability of such minute quantities 
being essential to the composition of the species in which 
they occur. — (Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin, 
vol. v. part iii., 1853, p. 206.) 

* The angles of crystals of the two species also differ considerably. 

106 Dr J. G. Allman on the 

On the Anatomy and Physiology of Cordylophora ; a contri- 
bution to our knowledge of the Tubularian Zoophytes. 
By George James Allman, M.D., M.R.I.A., Professor of 
Botany in the University of Dublin, &c. 

The author, after pointing out the necessity of giving 
greater definiteness to the terminology employed in the de- 
scription of the true zoophytes, proceeds to the anatomical 
details of Cordylophora, a genus of Tubulariadoz. He de- 
monstrates that Cordylophora is essentially composed in all 
its parts of two distinct membranes inclosing a cavity, a 
structure which is common to all the Hydroida. For greater 
precision in description, he finds it necessary to give to these 
membranes special names, and he therefore employs for the 
external the name of ectoderm, and for the internal that of 
endoderm. Each of these membranes retains its primitive 
cellular structure. In the ectoderm thread-cells are pro- 
duced in great abundance ; these are formed in the interior 
of the ectodermal cells by a process of endogenous cell-for- 
mation, and are afterwards set free by the rupture of the 
mother-cell. The thread-cells in a quiescent state are minute 
ovoid capsules, but under the influence of irritation, an in- 
ternal sac is protruded by a process of evagination ; the sur- 
face of the evaginated sac is furnished with a circle of curved 
spicula, and from its free extremity a delicate and long fila- 
ment is emitted. The thread-cells of Cordylophora thus 
closely resemble the " hastigerous organs" of Hydra. The 
polypary is a simple unorganized secretion deposited in layers 
from the ectoderm. In the endoderm the author points out 
a distinct and well-developed glandular structure composed 
of true secreting cells, which are themselves produced in the 
interior of mother-cells, and elaborate a brown granular se- 
cretion which he assumes as representing the biliary secre- 
tion of the higher animals. He describes, as a system of 
special muscles, certain longitudinal fibres, which may be 
distinctly seen in close connection with the inner surface of 
the ectoderm. The tentacula are shewn to be continuous 
tubes communicating with the cavity of the stomach, and thus 

Anatomy and Physiology of Cordylophora. 107 

possess the same essential structure as those of Hydra; 
they are formed of a direct continuation of the ectoderm of 
the polype, lined by a similar continuation of the endoderm. 
The appearance of transverse septa at regular intervals, 
which is so very striking in these tentacula, must not be at- 
tributed to the existence of true septa. It is due to a pecu- 
liar condition of the endodermal layer, but the author has 
not been able to give a satisfactory explanation of it. |Through 
the whole of the canal which pervades the axis of the stems 
and branches, a constant though a regular rotatory move- 
ment is kept up in the contained fluid ; this movement is not 
due to the propulsive action of vibratile cilia, and is explained 
by the author as the effect of the active processes going on 
in the secreting cells of the endoderm, processes which can 
scarcely be imagined to take place without causing local al- 
terations in the chemical constitution of the surrounding 
fluid, and a consequent disturbance in its stability. 

The reproductive system of Cordylophora consists of ovoid 
capsules situated on the ultimate branches at some distance 
behind the polypes ; some of these capsules contain ova, 
others spermatozoa ; they are plainly homologous with the 
ovigerous sacs of the marine Tubulariadm ; they present a 
very evident, though disguised medusoid structure, having a 
hollow cylindrical body, whose cavity is continuous with that 
of the polype-stem, projecting into them below, and repre- 
senting the proboscidiform stomach of a Medusa, while a 
system of branched tubes which communicate at their origin 
with the cavity of the hollow organ, must be viewed as the 
homologues of the radiating gastro-vascular canals, and the 
proper walls of the capsule will then represent the disc. 
From comparative observations made on other genera of 
Hydroida, the author maintains the presence of a true me- 
dusoid structure in the fixed ovigerous vesicles of all the 
genera he has examined, and he arrives at the generalization, 
that for the production of true ova in the hydroid zoophytes, 
a particular form of zooid is necessary, in which the ordinary 
polype-structure becomes modified, and presents, instead, a 
more or less obvious medusoid conformation, Hydra being 
at present the only genus which appears to offer an excep- 

108 E. Hodgkinson, Esq., on the 

tion to this law, though the author believes that the excep- 
tion is only apparent, and that further observations will 
enable us to refer the reproductive organization of this 
zoophite to the same type with that of Cordylophora and the 
marine Ilydroida. The author has satisfied himself that the 
ova-like bodies contained in the capsules of Cordylophora 
are true ova, and not gemmce ; he has demonstrated in them 
a distinct germinal vesicle, and has witnessed the pheno- 
menon of yelk-cleavage ; and the paper details the develop- 
ment of the embryo to the period of its escape from the cap- 
sule in the form of a free -swimming ciliated animacule, and 
traces its subsequent progress into the condition of the adult 
zoophyte. — {Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, 1853). 

On the Elasticity of Stone and Crystalline Bodies. 
By E. Hodgkinson, Esq.* 

It is generally assumed by writers on the strength of ma- 
terials, that the elasticity of bodies is perfect, so long as the 
material is not strained beyond a certain degree. But from 
the experiments I. made several years ago, at the instance of 
the British Association, on the strength of Hot and Cold 
Blast-iron (vol. vi.), I was led to conclude that the assump- 
tion was very incorrect, as applied to cast-iron at least ; and 
further experiments rendered it probable that it was only an 
approximation in any. Among the bodies of most value in 
the arts, cast-iron holds an important place ; and I found 
that bars of that metal, when bent with forces, however small, 
never regained their first form, after the force was removed ; 
and this defect of its elasticity took place whether the cast- 
iron was strained by tension, compression, or transverse 
flexure. I subsequently found that in the first two strains 
(by tension and compression), the straining force might be 
well represented by a function composed of the first and se- 
cond powers of the change of length produced, — thus, 
w = ae — be 2 
w = a'c — b'c 2 

* Read before the Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science at Hull. 

Elasticity of Stone and Crystalline Bodies. 109 

where w is the weight applied, e the extension, c the com- 
pression, and a, a', b, b' constant quantities. If the elasti- 
city were perfect, the part depending on the second power 
must be neglected. The necessity of a change in the funda- 
mental assumption for calculating the strength of materials 
may be inferred from the fact, that in computing the break- 
ing weight by tension, from experiments on transverse flex- 
ure and fracture, we obtain the strength of cast-iron three 
times as great as from numerous experiments I have found 
it to be. The formulae of Tredgold give this erroneous result, 
and those of Navier are in accordance with them. 

Stone. — To obtain the elasticity of stone, I had masses of soft 
stone, obtained from various places, sawn up into broad thin 
slabs, 7 feet long, and about 1 inch thick. They were rubbed 
smooth, and rendered perfectly dry in a stove, and were bent 
transversely in their least direction by forces acting horizon- 
tally. The slabs, during the experiments, were placed with 
their broad side vertical, and had their ends supported, 6 feet 
6 inches asunder, by friction rollers, acting horizontally and 
vertically. It resulted from the experiments, that the defects 
of elasticity were nearly as the square of the weight laid on, 
or, consequently, as the square of the deflexion nearly, as in 
cast-iron. The ribs never regained their first form after the 
weight was removed, however small that weight had been. 
From other ribs of stone, obtained from various localities, 
and broke transversely by weights, acting vertically, and in- 
creased to the time of fracture, the ratio of the deflexion to 
the weights applied were found in various experiments to be 
nearly as below : — 






























The ratio represented by the numbers in each vertical co- 
lumn, are those in each separate rib of stone ; and they would 
have been equal if the elasticity had continued perfect, but 
they were increasing where the weights were increased in 

110 Classification and Nomenclature of the 

every instance. The change shewn by these experiments to 
be necessary would increase considerably the mathematical 
difficulties of the subject ; and they would be greater still, if 
the change of bulk and lateral dimensions in the bodies 
strained were included, according to the conclusions of Pois- 
son, or the experiments of Wertheim, which are at variance 
with each other. But these changes are so small in the 
bodies I am contemplating, that they may be neglected 
for all practical purposes. Thus, from my experiments, the 
utmost extension of a bar of cast-iron, 50 feet long, is about 
1 inch, or coo^h of the length, and therefore the change of 
lateral dimensions of the bar being only a fraction of this 
¥ £oth, according to either Poisson or Wertheim, it is too 
small to need including. The experiments in which I de- 
duced the utmost extension of cast-iron, are given in the 
" Report of the Commissioners on the Strength of Iron for 
Railway Purposes." If the body strained were wrought-iron, 
brass, or others of a very ductile nature, the change of late- 
ral dimensions might, in extreme cases, be included. I 
beg to mention, with great deference, that the profound work 
of Lame, lately published, on " The Mathematical Theory of 
Elasticity," in which the elasticity is considered as perfect 
only, does not appear to apply to such bodies as I have here 
treated of. — (Athenamm, No. 1353.) 

The Classification and Nomenclature of the Palaeozoic 
Hocks of Great Britain. By Professor Sedgwick.* 

The Professor stated that the fossiliferous rocks formed in 
reality only one great system, representing the whole succes- 
sion of events from the first appearance of organic life to the 
present day. But as it was convenient to divide history into 
chapters, so the strata had been divided into three principal 
series, — the Palaeozoic or Primary, the Secondary, and the 
Tertiary, each characterized by many families, genera, and 
species of peculiar fossils. The Palaeozoic strata might be 
again divided into an upper, middle, and lower series : the 

* Read before the Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science at I full. 

Palaeozoic Rocks of Great Britain. Ill 

first including the Permian and Carboniferous systems ; the 
second, theDevonian or Old Red Sandstone; and the third, the 
Silurian and Cambrian systems. These rocks were charac- 
terized generally by the entire absence of Mammalia, and even 
of reptiles in their lower division ; and by the presence of 
peculiar groups of shells (Orthocerata and Goniatites), 
crustaceans (TWfofo'tes), and corals (e.g. Graptolites). Very 
few specific forms ranged from one division of this system to 
another ; but they had great general resemblance. A few 
corals ranged from the Bala limestone to the Devonian, and 
one (Favorites Gothlandia) even to the lower beds of carbon- 
iferous limestone ; Terebratula reticularis was found in the 
Silurian and Devonian ; an&Leptaena depressa from the Bala 
limestone to the Carboniferous. Prof. Sedgwick then called 
attention to the grounds for separating the Cambrian and Si- 
lurian systems, which he said he had always maintained to be 
distinct. He had commenced his observations in the Cumber- 
land Hills, of which a section was exhibited, shewing the fol- 
lowing successions of rocks : — 1. Skiddaw, slate, usually with- 
out fossils, but containing graptolites in one locality ; 2. Con- 
iston limestone, abounding in fossils ; 3. Coniston flagstone 
and grit. The order of succession of the beds above these 
was difficult of determination in the Lake district. He had 
next investigated the structure of North Wales, between the 
Menai and the Berwyns, and had established the existence of 
a great system of rocks comparable to those of the Lake dis- 
trict, and had given to them the name of the Cambrian system. 
Meanwhile, Sir B. Murchison had discovered in " Siluria" 
tracts exhibiting the whole upper series, equivalent to the 
beds above the Coniston grit. And having made good sec- 
tions of the strata in ascending series, from the Llandelio flags 
to the Old Bed Sandstone, and given names to these rocks 
which were now generally adopted, this country had become 
the type to which all others were referred for comparison, 
because in it the order of succession was clearly made out. 
It then became a question what was the boundary line be- 
tween the Cambrian and Silurian systems % Sir B. Murchi- 
son had made the Llandeilo flags the base of his system, and 
considered the whole country westward of it to be Cambrian. 

112 Classification and Nomenclature of the 

It proved, however, that the rocks to the west of the Llan- 
deilo valley were newer, and not older than the flags; that 
in fact the Llandeilo flags werenotabove the Cambrian system, 
but an integral part of it. But, instead of adding the narrow 
belt of country occupied by these flags to the Cambrian system, 
Sir It. Murchison had wished to convert the whole breadth of 
the Cambrian region into Silurian. Prof. Sedgwick then re- 
ferred to the section of the Malvern strata, as determined by 
Prof. Phillips ; he contended that the Caradoc sandstone and 
conglomerate of this section belonged in reality to the Wenlock 
series, and proposed for it the name of " May-hill sandstone." 
The underlying black shales and " Hollybush sandstone," 
of Prof. Phillips he regarded as the true Caradoc sandstone, be- 
longing to the Cambrian system. Prof. Sedgwickfurther endea- 
voured to shew, by sections and lists of fossils, that the Silurian 
May-hill sandstone existed in a distinct form in the typical dis- 
trict of the Caradoc sandstone. With this correction the Cam- 
brian system would include the lower Silurian of SirR. Mur- 
chison. The distinctness of the Cambrian or Lower Silurian 
from the Upper Silurian was admitted on fossil evidence ; Mr 
Barrandehad found only 6 per cent, of fossils common to the two 
systems in Bohemia, and Mr Hall only 5 per cent, in America. 
In Westmoreland the per-centage was only 3%. Of 324 
species in the Cambridge Museum, not 15 per cent, were 
common to the two systems, including all the doubtful cases, 
and the real number was probably not above 5 per cent. 
Professor Sedgwick then read a letter from Professor Rogers 
in America, expressing his approval of this nomenclature, 
and his conviction that it would be eventually be adopted ; he 
also entered upon an explanation of the manner in which his 
various papers on this subject had been published in the 
Journal of the Geological Society, as it had been supposed 
that he himself had abandoned the term Cambrian at one 
time, whereas the alteration had been made in his paper 
by a former President (Mr Warburton) of the Society, with- 
out his knowledge. 

Mr Hopkins, late President of the Geological Society, ex- 
plained some of the circumstances referred to by Professor 
Sedgwick, and expressed a strong conviction that the Pro- 

Pakeozoic Rocks of Great Britain. 113 

fessor would succeed in establishing his nomenclature. Set- 
ting aside all personal claims, and looking solely at the merits 
of the case, he believed that the proportion of distinct species 
in the Cambrian and Silurian systems would prove to be as 
great as in other parallel cases. 

Professor Phillips stated, that it was more than thirty years 
since he first met Professor Sedgwick on one of his geological 
excursions ; and after so many years of labour, he was gratified 
to see that he had obtained a form of sound classification of 
the oldest fossiliferous rocks of the British Isles. He believed 
that if Sir R. Murchison were present he would put aside all 
points of difference, and also congratulate him on having pre- 
sented so good a view of the subject. As the development 
of our types was looked upon as the pattern for other countries, 
it would be unfortunate if we allowed it to be supposed that 
there was no basis for our classification, whereas no difference 
of opinion existed as to the main facts, viz., that the Cambrian 
rocks contained a large series of characteristic forms of life, and 
that the Silurian also contained a distinct series ; the question 
was, where to draw the line between them. A classification 
taken from the Malvern country alone would be incomplete, 
as regarded both the series of strata and the forms of life. It 
was extremely difficult to apply the doctrine of the succes- 
sion of life on the globe to minute cases, since the sets of 
fossils from adjacent quarries might differ, being determined 
by local circumstances. The term " system'' of rocks as now 
employed, had no such distinct character as when it was first 
used by Mr Conybeare, whose systems were distinguished by 
conformity and mineral character, as well as by fossils. He 
wished not to express a positive opinion or to adopt arrange- 
ments which he regarded only as provisional ; there had 
arisen before him a vision of a classification founded entirely 
on the succession of life, and he looked forward to the time 
when the nomenclature should express, not the local mineral 
changes,but those phenomena of organic life which extended 
over much wider areas. 

Mr Strickland argued, that there had been no period at 
which organic life was absent from the globe, and no such 
thing as an entirely new creation ; but that the changes in 


114 On the Surface Temperature and Great Currents 

organic life had all been gradual. He did not think that 
even zoological terms would be universally applicable any 
more than that the same species would be found everywhere 
at the same time. The nomenclature must ever remain to a 
certain extent arbitrary and conventional. The value of the 
Cambrian and Silurian systems was not to be determined by 
the pcr-ccntage of identical species so much as by the zoo- 
logical affinities of the genera and large groups of fossils ; and 
in this respect they were apparently more allied than the 
Silurian was with the Devonian, or the Devonian with the 
Carboniferous system. 

— — ■ — — — — ■ * 

On the Surface Temperature and Great Currents of the 

North Atlantic and Northern Oceans. By the Rev. Dr 


The author commenced by pointing out the great impor- 
tance to Physical Geography of the subjects which he pro- 
posed to discuss, particularly as they tended, in the economy 
of Nature, to furnish a compensating instrumentality against 
the extremes of condition to which the fervid action of the 
vertical sun in the tropical regions, and its inferior and more 
oblique action in the polar regions, were calculated to reduce 
the surface of the earth. Our knowledge of all the currents 
of the ocean, with perhaps one exception, the Gulf Stream, 
which had been, in its more important features, carefully ex- 
amined and surveyed, and more especially in the American 
Coast Survey, was derived from the comparison by naviga- 
tors of the actual position of the ship as determined from 
time to time, with its position as calculated from what sailors 
technically called the " dead reckoning," or the course steered, 
and the distance run as determined by the log, an instrument 
by no means perfect. The determination, however, of oceanic 
currents, to which the present communication referred, de- 
pends simply on induction from observation of temperature, 
and that mainly of the surface. Such observations, indeed, 
only become available under considerable differences betwixt 

* Read before the Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science at Hull. 

of the North Atlantic and Northern Oceans* 115 

the mean atmospheric and oceanic temperatures : and where 
they may seem to indicate the region from which peculiar 
qualities of the sea are derived, they can afford but little, if 
any, information as to the precise direction or strength of the 
current so indicated, yet still the general results are found 
important and useful. The researches of the author embrace 
those in the Greenland Sea, the North Sea, and a consider- 
able belt across the North Atlantic. To those in the North 
Atlantic he wished at present to direct attention ; and to a 
belt of it embraced within the limits of a series of passages 
chiefly by sailing vessels between England, or some European 
port, and New York. Of these passages, sixteen in number, 
four were performed by the author himself, and twelve were 
supplied by an American navigator, Capt. J. C. Delano, an 
accurate scientific observer. The observations on surface 
temperature discussed amount to 1153, gathered from a total 
number of about 1400. Usually Capt. Delano recorded six 
observations each day during the voyage, at intervals of four 
hours. Seven of the passages were made in the spring of 
the year, — two in the summer, — one in autumn, — and three 
in winter. Taking the middle day of each passage the mean 
day at sea was found to be May 18th or 19th, — a day fortu- 
nately coincident in singular nearness with the probable time 
of the mean annual oceanic temperature. The author had 
laid down the tracks of the ship in each of the voyages on a 
chart of Mercator's projection, and the principal observations 
on surface temperature were marked in their respective places. 
The observations were then tabulated for meridians of 2° in 
breadth, from Cape Clear, longitude 10° W., to the eastern 
point of Long Island, longitude 72° W.., — embracing a belt 
of the average breadth of 220 miles, or a stretch of about 2600 
miles across the Atlantic. The results were the following : 
— 1. Highest surface temperature northward of latitude 40°, 
74° ; lowest 32° ; range 39° : 2. Mean surface temperature 
as derived from the means of each meridional section, 56°, 
whilst the mean atmospheric temperature for the correspond- 
ing period was 54°-2 : 3. Range of surface temperature 
within each meridional section of 2°, 8J-° at the lowest, being 
in longitude 20-22° W., and at the greatest 36°, being within 

n 2 

ll<3 On the Surface Temperature and Great Currents 

the meridian of 62-G4° W. : 4. Up to longitude 40° the sur- 
face temperature never descended below 50° ; — the average 
lowest of the sixteen meridional sections being 51 0, 88, and 
the average range 1L°*3 : 5. In the succeeding fifteen sec- 
tions, where the lowest temperature was 32°, the average 
lowest was 37°1 and the average range 29°*7. This re- 
markable difference in the temperature of the eastern and 
western halves of the Atlantic passage, the author said was 
conclusively indicative of great ocean currents yielding a 
mean depression of the lowest meridional temperature from 
51°-88 to 37°1, or 14°*8, and producing a mean range of the 
extreme of temperature on the western side of almost thrice 
the amount of the extremes on the eastern side, — or, more 
strictly, in the proportion of 29°- 7 to 11°*3. The author drew 
attention to a diagram in which he had laid down along the 
entire belt curves shewing the whole range of the lowest de- 
pressions of temperature and highest elevation, with the means 
at each longitude distinguished by different shading ; and 
pointed out how the inspection of this as well as of the tabu- 
lated results affords striking indications of the two great cur- 
rents, one descending from the polar, the other ascending 
from the tropical regions, with their characteristic changes 
of cold and heat. In classifying the results, the author con- 
sidered the entire belt of the Atlantic track of the passages 
as divided into six divisions of 10° of longitude each, and these 
into meridional stripes of 2° each, omitting the first two de- 
grees next the European end, or about 80 miles westward of Ire- 
land to 72° W., or about the same distance west of New York. 
To each of these six divisions he directed attention, pointing 
out the conclusions to be derived from each. The curves 
approaching each other and running nearly parallel through 
the western half with great regularity, shewing the variations 
and range to be much less, while throughout the eastern half 
the widening of the distance, and the irregular form of the 
extreme curves shewed the influences of the two currents very 
remarkably. The author then proceeded to draw conclusions, 
shewing that sometimes the cold current from the north 
plunged beneath the warmer current from the south. Some- 
times they divided, — the colder keeping in-shore along the 

of the North Atlantic and Northern Oceans. 117 

American coast, the other keeping out and forming the main 
Gulf Stream. Sometimes where they met they interlaced in 
alternating stripes of hot and cold water ; sometimes their 
meeting caused a deflection, — as, where one branch of the 
Gulf Stream was sent down to the south-east of Europe and 
north of Africa, and another branch sent up past the British 
Islands to Norway and Scandinavia by the polar current set- 
ting down to the east of Newfoundland. The author next 
proceeded to consider the uses in the economy of Nature of 
these great oceanic currents. The first that he noticed was 
the equalizing and ameliorating influence which they exer- 
cised on the temperature of many countries. Of this he gave 
several examples. Thus, our own country, though usually 
spoken of as a very variable climate, was subject to far less 
variations of range of temperature than many others in simi- 
lar latitudes, — which was chiefly from the general influence of 
the northern branch of the Gulf Stream setting up past these 
islands. He had himself on one occasion, in the month of 
November, known the temperature to rise no less than 52° in 
forty-eight hours, having previously descended in a very few 
days through a still greater range ; while in these countries 
the extensive range between mean summer and winter tem- 
perature scarcely in any instance exceeds 27°, and in many 
places does not amount to nearly as much. Another advan- 
tage derived from these currents was, a reciprocation of the 
waters of high and low latitudes, — thus tending to preserve a 
useful equalizing of the saltness of the waters, which otherwise 
by evaporation in low latitudes would soon become too salt 
to perform its intended functions. Next he pointed out their 
use in forming sand-banks, which became highly beneficial as 
extensive fields for the maintenance of various species of the 
finny tribe, as in the great banks of Newfoundland. Next, 
this commingling of the waters of several regions tended to 
change and renew from time to time the soil of these banks, — 
which, like manuring and working our fields, was found to be 
necessary for preserving these extensive pastures for the fish. 
Lastly, bv bringing down from polar regions the enormous 
masses of ice which, under the name of icebergs, were at 
times found to be setting down towards tropical regions, they 

118 On the Influence of Climate on Plants and Animals. 

tend at the same time to ameliorate the great heats of those 
regions, and to prevent the polar regions from becoming 
blocked up with accumulating mountains of ice which, but 
for this provision, would soon be pushed down as extensive 
glaciers, rendering whole tracts of our temperate zones unin- 
habitable wilds. Dr Scoresby concluded by pointing out se- 
veral meteorological influences of these currents, by causing 
extensive fogs, and winds more or less violent. 

On the influence of Climate on Plants and Animals. By 
Dr Emmons of New York. 

It is difficult to determine the influence of climate on or- 
ganized beings. The influence of climate seems, however, 
to modify what exists ; it spends itself on those bounds, it 
does not form, but modifies varieties. Light, no doubt, should 
be regarded as an element of climate ; its duration and in- 
tensity are indications of its force, and measures its activity. 
We see the foliage of a forest becoming more deeply green 
as we go towards a tropical region ; the herbage of a species 
of forest tree becomes stiffer, rigid, and less leafy, as we go 
north, or ascend the mountains; and we may trace the changes 
in our ascent, until we find it a dwarf, a diminutive tree, a 
mere shrub, upon the heights of .a mountain, while in the plain 
at its base it is a lordly tree. Those changes are unques- 
tionably due to climate ; they are not those which charac- 
terize varieties, much less species : indeed it is important 
that we do not assign too much to climate. Some naturalists 
have supposed that climate produces varieties ; it seems, 
however, more consonant to facts to infer that varieties are 
independent of climate ; that the causes which have been 
operating in the production of varieties have belonged to in- 
dividuals. These forces or influences are begotten in a civil- 
ized state, or where many individuals are congregated. 

It is not agreeable to the principles of natural history to 
maintain that the peculiar vegetation under a tropical sun 
is due to climate, or that it is an effect of climate. The 
species of plants belonging to the tropics differ entirely from 

On the Influence of Climate on Plants and Animals. 119 

the temperate ; their characters are those of different species, 
not varieties. When we trace the changes in a species of 
maple, as it approaches the confines of a temperate region? 
we may estimate the extent of change which is induced by 
climate. We cannot compare dissimilar species with those 
which grow in the south ; and, seeing that their differences 
arise from the influence of climate, because those differences 
are specific, they should be different ; and they may be 
greener, straighter, and taller, because those characters be- 
long to them. But climate has influences, but not the in- 
fluences in kind by which permanent changes are continued 
and propagated by the usual modes by which individuals are 
multiplied, as by cutting, grafting, layers, or budding. Take 
off the pressure of a cold climate, and the plant which has 
been pinched and shrivelled, or dwarfed, will mount upwards, 
and spread itself under a genial sun. It is probable that 
climate favours the development of certain varieties more 
than others ; indeed, there can be no doubt of the fact that 
varieties reach a higher state of perfection in certain climates 
than in others. If we study the habits of certain fruits, we 
shall find, and it is a fact well known, that they are very in- 
ferior, and even valueless, in some climates. The plum is fine 
and very perfect along the Hudson River ; but a few miles 
distant from it, it becomes inferior in quality. While, how- 
ever, it is sufficiently manifest that varieties do not originate 
under the forces incident to climate, it is still difficult to point 
to causes which are directly operative in their production : it 
is, however, probable that a parental influence, those in- 
fluences perhaps which are implanted for wise purposes, are 
effective in their development. Those species which are re- 
presented under numerous varieties, as the fruits and domes- 
ticated animals, have implanted in them a susceptibility to 
undergo those changes in their constitutions — it is, in fact, 
a part of their specific character ; it is of a higher grade in 
some of the domesticated animals than others, and it is inci- 
dent to those animals only which can be domesticated ; and 
those which are easily domesticated have the power of mul- 
tiplying varieties in the greatest numbers, and display the 
widest differences in the extremes. These views apply to 

120 Dr Emmons on the Influence, of 

Man, who is more susceptible of change in his physical na- 
ture than any of the domesticated animals. Designed by the 
Creator to multiply and fill the whole earth, we find that his 
constitution is adapted to that end, to occupy all climates 
and adapt himself to a scorching sun or the frosts of a polar 
sky. Viewed in the extremes, the varieties in their physical 
character present differences which are very striking ; viewed 
however in their intellectual and moral aspects, the charac- 
ters are those of a unity. Their power of speech and lan- 
guage, the conveyance of ideas by speech is universal ; this 
oneness of mind, which displays itself all over the world, the 
religious sentiment which is universal, point with significance 
to the singleness of the species. It must be so, or else Man 
is an anomaly in creation. Those who have entertained the 
theory of a plurality of species, which in their aggregate 
compose the human race, rely wholly upon physical charac- 
ters to sustain their views. Considered even in this light, 
are the differences in the race so great that they would not 
have originated in the progress of time 1 Are the differences 
greater than in the breed of dogs and other domestic animals, 
which naturalists admit are of one species ? In all cases 
those differences are external ; they belong almost solely to 
the skin. If the bony skeleton is examined there are some 
differences it is true in their proportions, but those differences 
are found in each of the races respectively. The blacks have 
not all the flat noses, thick lips, and projecting jaws ; there 
are whites with the same configuration of bone. But there 
probably has not existed a greater error in natural history than 
in classing man with animals, notwithstanding the fact that 
in his physical organization he is not very dissimilar to them ; 
yet, in the common classification, his least important charac- 
ters are made the characteristics ; whereas really his higher 
attributes, those belonging to mind, and his moral nature, 
should have been made the characteristics. If this view be 
correct, we shall be troubled no longer with perplexities and 
doubts about the question of the plurality of species, inas- 
much as there is such a perfect uniformity in the characters 
of Man in his mind as to stamp the truth upon the heart of 
every candid inquirer. The thoughts of Man are like one 

Climate on Plants and Animals. 121 

broad river, they flow in one channel ; the speech of different 
races, which are widely separated, relate to subjects of the 
same kind; their belief in existence after death, of rewards 
and punishments, and all the strong castes of mind, move in 
one channel, and are harmonious in all their leading cha- 
racteristics. Being destined to dwell on the earth for a 
season, it w T as fit and proper that he should, for that end, be 
furnished with what may be termed an animal nature ; this 
nature belongs to the body, which is sustained, like that of 
animals, by food taken into the body, and air taken into the 
lungs, — a transient habitation for an immortal mind. The 
end required an apparatus adapted to the circumstances of 
his existence, and to the surrounding medium ; but to make 
that apparatus the all-important part of his nature, to draw 
his characters from that, so transient, while mind, speech, 
articulate language, moral and intellectual attributes, re- 
ligious sentiments, all of which are common to the races, 
does Man great injustice, and is an outrage upon his nature. 
This uniformity of sentiment is proved by an intercourse 
with all the tribes of men. If there were two or more 
species, we have a right to infer that this uniformity would 
exist. Of all the species which live, or have lived, is there 
any like it in the whole range of created beings, that two 
different species have intellects alike, or an ability to com- 
municate purposes and intentions ? If there are no cases of 
an analogous kind, it is plain that this uniformity of mental 
and moral views and feelings, and which are manifested in 
the same modes, should be taken as proof of the unity of the 
stock from which the races have sprung. 

This subject is noticed cursorily, because it is one which 
is exciting a great interest ; it is one of great importance, and 
it should be placed upon the right ground ; and it is hoped 
that better and more correct views of classification should 
be embraced than those which have hitherto prevailed, and 
if Man is to be placed at all in a zoological classification, his 
characteristics should be drawn from his more essential at- 
tributes, — his intellectual and moral nature. If this view is 
correct, then, our inquiries will be directed to those powers 
as they exist in the various tribes of men. Climate, when 

122 Dv Emmons on the Influence of 

considered in its relations to plants and animals, may be re- 
garded, as I have already had occasion to remark, as a modi- 
fier of the existing species and varieties ; but its modifica- 
tions are restricted and confined : it sometimes favours the 
more perfect developments of varieties or species, and some- 
times it operates in other locations where the climate is mo- 
dified to restrain development and perfection. Climate never 
intermeddles with specific characters ; it may for a time 
obscure those characters in a monstrous growth, when aided 
by a rich soil, or by over-feeding. A problem of great im- 
portance may be solved by observing what products are spe- 
cially favoured by certain climates, and what climates are 
unfavourable to the production of the same. Where we have 
climate in our favour, and have not to contend with it, the 
expense of production is materially diminished ; the certainty 
of the product is also increased, and its perfection secured, 
by which its value is also increased. As an element of 
climate, the temperature of the soil at different depths is one 
of great importance. The different soils may be said to 
enjoy different climates ; those which are sandy possess a 
climate unlike that of a clay soil, a due admixture of sand 
and clav combine elements which belong to a climate inter- 
mediate between the two. 

In pursuing our investigation in regard to species and 
varieties, it is highly important that we should be impressed 
with the fact that specific characters are permanent, and it 
will appear, on reflection, that this is a beautiful and wise 
arrangement. There is a fitness in the provision of indivi- 
dualizing species, as it were, both by corporeal marks and 
by intellectual and instinctive power. The intention or pur- 
pose which is fulfilled by this arrangement I do not intend to 
speak of now ; it is the fact which I wish to bring before the 
reader. Many persons, however, when they speak of grada- 
tions of character, and of the intimate relations of things, 
and the links which bind all together, seem to labour under 
a fallacy. Where are those gradations seen, and what is 
the idea which is thus prominently set forth ? What are the 
gradations of being ? Is it probable that in the gradations 
which are insisted upon there is anything like a coalescence 

Climate on Plants and Animals. 123 

of species 1 I suppose the phrase, gradation of being, is 
often used with too much looseness, and hence it frequently 
happens that confusion results from its use ; and it undoubt- 
edly arises from misunderstanding the nature of the changes 
which have taken place in some species, and especially those 
which are represented by numerous varieties. These varieties 
are never generic, but strictly specific. Take the apple, which 
runs into many varieties ; those varieties all retain the charac- 
teristics of the species. No apple has been found yet which has 
made the least progress towards the pear ; neither has the 
pear yet transformed itself, nrany of its varieties, into an apple ; 
each and every one of them are equally removed from the 
genus, and yet each branches out into hundreds of varieties ; 
and no one has the least doubt to which species any one of 
the varieties belong. The same is true of all the other 
species. There is no upward or downward movement in this ; 
there is, it is true, in the case of fruits, a difference in quality, 
but none of them can be said to have made any progress to- 
ward an allied species. The constitutive power to multiply 
varieties is only a part of their specific characters. If we 
turn our thoughts to the animal kingdom for illustration of 
the same principle, for example, we find the elephant is apt 
to learn, while the rhinoceros or hippopotamus rarely possess 
this aptitude in the smallest degree ; the positive character 
of the first is as important specifically, as the negative in the 
latter. If, then, by gradation of character, it is designed to 
convey the idea that species coalesce, by the resemblances in 
their varieties, the idea is erroneous ; if, however, the phrase 
is designed to convey or express the fact, that in the system 
to which they belong, some species occupy a higher position 
than others, or that there are grades of development, some of 
which are high and others low, it is undoubtedly true. The 
position which a species holds is positive and arbitrary ; 
species occupy a shelf or platform which is fixed, and it neither 
inclines downward nor upward ; the position of the shelf, or 
in otherwords, the species, isnearer one than another species, 
that is, a species more closely resembles certain species than 
others. Although the distance between neighbouring species 
is unequal, still the two which are nearest akin never coalesce 

124 Dr Emmons on the Influence of 

with each other through their varieties ; even in vegetables, 
where they are susceptible of being engrafted or budded upon 
each other, there is no tendency to coalesce, or to produce an 
intermediate variety ; the scion of the pear engrafted upon the 
quince is still a pear. There is, to be sure, a good reason 
for this : the pear is developed or formed in the cellular sys- 
tem, and really bears no connection with the quince, except 
by the sap, which flows upwards, and passes through the 
cellular system. The cells produced are only pear cells, yet 
it seems that if there were any tendency in the pear to be- 
come a quince, under any circumstances, the relation which 
the scion bears to the stock would be a favourable one. It 
appears necessary that a cell should be furnished from one 
of the parents, in order to produce an intermediate progeny, 
as is the case in the propagation of mules. But here we have 
unfailing test of the mixed parentage, from the sterility of 
the offspring, and although attempts have been made to prove 
the contrary position, still there is now no position better 
established than the one that the offspring of two different 
species of animals are sterile. It is true that, as in many 
other cases, there are no partial exceptions, still two mules 
cannot propagate a race. 

Specific character is unchangeable, and species are kept 
in consequence of this arrangement strictly apart. There is 
an application of this fact to the products of our fields, which 
by some farmers are supposed to undergo a change. Chess 
is a plant which has but a slight relationship to wheat, and 
yet the question has been discussed for years, and many in- 
telligent men in other matters have strenuously maintained 
that wheat changes to chess ; the change of course must be 
by a single leap, in a single season — a complete somersault, a 
perfect degradation of the species in a single period of growth. 
When and where does the change begin 1 The point which 
troubles farmers, is the appearance of chess where they have 
sown wheat, and clean wheat too. But it is also notorious to 
every observer, that Nature too has sown her seeds broadcast, 
and where there is land in a condition for seeds to germinate, 
there they will spring up; and it comes to pass, from a wise 

Climate on Plants and Animals. 125 

provision, the tenacity of seeds for the vital principle ;* and 
chess, while fond of a good soil, springs up by the side offences 
and fields, and scatters its seeds, which lie in the soil till 
favourable opportunities occur for their germination. The 
fact that chess grows where wheat is expected, is a trifling 
fact, which is easily accounted for on known principles, while 
the transformation of one species of plant into another is 
contrary to the laws which govern the growth and develop- 
ment of organized bodies. The only point which can be 
cited, and which is at all analogous to what appears a trans- 
formation, is the reversion of domesticated animals to their 
original appearance or condition ; as when the dog or hog is 
left to roam, and becomes wild in the forests, they resort back 
to their original condition, their original instincts returning as 
they become wild. Now, if it can be shewn that chess is the 
original of wheat, it might happen that where wheat springs 
up spontaneously and sows itself, it might in time become 
chess. But this hypothesis is unsupported by a single fact 
in the history of the two genera. The errors which have 
been entertained in regard to the transformation of wheat 
into chess have arisen solely from defective observation. 
Chess is observed in a wheat field, and becomes the more pro- 
minent and abundant when the wheat has been winter killed. 
Now it would be just as philosophical to maintain that the 
common wild cherry which springs up in our northern forests, 
whgre a windfall has occurred and swept down the pines, 
that the pines were changed into cherry trees ; these cherry 
trees cover the entire ground, and previous to the windfall 
not a cherry tree was to be found. The seeds of the cherry, 
however, lay in the ground, and when light and air was ad- 
mitted by the destruction of the old forest, they spring up 
and cover the ground. The occurrence is not strange, except 
in the great abundance of trees produced ; and the occurrence 
of chess would not be regarded strange if but few plants 
made their appearance ; but when they become numerous, 

* The phrase, vital principle, is used for convenience ; it is not designed by 
it to express an opinion in regard to the independent existence of something 
which presides over the movements of a living being. 

1 20 Dr Emmons on the Influence of 

the question comes up, where did all the seeds come from ? 
The case is one which is common, it becomes prominent only 
from the relation which the plants wheat and chess bear to 
each other ; looking like a grain in the midst of a grain field, 
being a hardy plant too, and springing up where it is not 
wanted, it has excited attention and imperfect observation, 
and in the end proving so worthless with its associates, it 
becomes prominent from its worthlessness. When we have 
ascertained the fact that seeds possess the power of retain- 
ing what is called vitality for a long period, that they may 
sleep in the ground for years, and then subsequently awaken 
into life, by heat and air, or favourable conditions ; that all 
this is true, and eminently so of some seeds, the fact of the 
appearance of chess in an old field, or in a field prepared for 
wheat, ceases to be a mystery. It is only a fulfilment of a 
law of vegetation ; it occurs in obedience to the characteris- 
tics which have been stamped upon organized beings by the 
Creator, in order that the earth shall be clothed with ver- 
dure, and not lie in a barren waste. 

It has been maintained that species have a tendency to rise 
in the scale of existence, that they may change their own 
proper natures and become something else. Such a view is 
analogous to that which prevails among farmers about chess, 
has originated from defective observation, and has its source 
and beginning from misunderstanding the relations of or- 
ganized beings to each other. It arises directly from^the 
fact which has already been stated, viz. the closer resem- 
blance which one species has to another than others of the 
same tribe. The pear has a closer resemblance to the apple 
than it has to the quince. The domestic dog has a closer re- 
semblance to the wolf than the fox ; and hence it has hap- 
pened that the idea of an advance or change has taken a deep 
hold on the minds of some men ; but there has been no change 
at all, not only are the species kept apart, but groups of or- 
ganized beings also. Species, in their individual capacity, 
do not advance towards a higher, neither do they retrograde 
to a lower species. Plants do not deteriorate, neither do 
animals ; but they retain all their specific characters. 

There is another view which is interesting, viz., the man- 

Climate on Plants and Animals. 127 

ner in which domesticated animals break up into groups : it 
is illustrated in the dog, and all the domestic animals ; but 
those groups retain the characteristics of the species, and of 
all the changes which take place not one affects the organi- 
zation. The groups or varieties constitute well-marked 
families, and are capable of preserving their identities as 
species. While species, as the dog and ox, possess a consti- 
tutional ability to change their external characters, which 
are not specific, the change itself is governed by a law which, 
while it marks the groups with characters transmissible to 
their offspring, still not one group, or an individual of a group, 
is merged in any of the near or remote species. I remark 
again, that specific character is never destroyed by external 
influences ; in those influences where a species is changeable, 
and readily breaks up into groups whose characteristics are 
transmissible from the parents to their offspring, the speci- 
fic character is never uprooted ; and in fact these external 
changes should be regarded as belonging to the specific cha- 
racters. It is true that this susceptibility cannot be esti- 
mated or measured, as these changes are regarded as acci- 
dents or occurrences which cannot be determined by law. — 
(Dr Emmons on the Natural History of New York.) 

On the Origin of Crystalline Limestones. By Professor A. 


M. Delesse, having just previously reviewed the general 
characters and mineral contents of different crystalline lime- 
stones, t commences this communication by defining " meta- 
morphic limestone" and " metamorphic rock," as a rock 
which has been subjected, at a period posterior to its forma- 
tion, to considerable modifications in its physical or chemical 
properties. These modifications are brought about by the 
development of diverse minerals, by changes in its structure 
of aggregation, or in its structure of separation, as well as 
in its chemical composition. The modifications in the physi- 

* Bullet. Soc. Geol. France. Deux ser. tome ix„ pp. 133-138. 
t Lot. cit., pp. 120-133. See also papers by MM. Delesse, Cotta, and Schee- 
rer, aupra, pp. 4, 15, and 19; et scq. — Ti-ansl. 

128 Professor A. Delesse on the 

cal properties of the rock result from the action of heat, 
electricity, magnetism, pressure, as well as of all the agents 
that can bring into play molecular attraction and repulsion. 
The modifications in its chemical properties arise from the 
introduction of new substances in the rock, by injection, sub- 
limation, secretion, cementation, and especially by infiltration. 

M. Delesse then observes : — " It appears to me that the 
crystalline limestones should be considered metamorphic, 
though certainly they are metamorphic to very different de- 
grees ; still they have all been subjected, since their deposi- 
tion, to modifications in their chemical, or at least their 
physical properties. There are, however, some limestones 
that form an exception, namely, those which have been de- 
posited by chemical precipitation, and which were originally 
crystalline. These are not to be confounded with the meta- 
morphic crystalline limestones, nor do they contain the 
mineral characteristics of the latter. 

The crystalline limestone of the gneiss of the Vosges, 
which, from its mineralogical and geological characters, M. 
Delesse considers to be a metamorphic limestone, is then 
particularly adverted to ; its characters are succinctly de- 
scribed ; and M. Delesse proceeds to say, that probably the 
limestone was originally deposited, either in mass from water 
charged with carbonate of lime, or as strata by the waters 
of the sea. The beds in which the limestone has been inter- 
calated belong without doubt to certain divisions of the 
Transition group ; and, moreover, all geologists who have 
studied the Vosges have regarded the gneiss inclosing the 
limestone as metamorphic. 

The phenomena that have produced the metamorphism of 
the gneiss are unknown ; but a group of strata could be 
transformed into gneiss only by the introduction of the quan- 
tity of alkalies necessary for the production of the felspar, 
one of the constituents of the gneiss. Further, heat must 
have been effective in the development of the crystalline 
structure of the limestone of the gneiss, since the limestone 
contains spinelle, chondodrite, garnet, amphibole, pyroxene, 
&c. ; that is to say, minerals of an igneous origin, since they 
are found in the limestones on the flanks of Vesuvius, or in 

Origin of Crystalline Limestone. 129 

the sphere of action of other volcanoes now active, such as 
those of Teneriffe, Ponza Isles.* On the other hand, there 
could not have heen complete fusion ; for in the crystalline 
limestone of Norway, MM. Naumann and Keilhau have ob- 
served fragments of corals. f 

The nature of the very numerous minerals of the crystalline 
limestone also gives great improbability to the hypothesis of 
complete fusion. It appears, indeed, that rocks which have 
been reduced to a fluid state, and which have had an igneous 
origin, such as lavas, have always a very simple mineralogical 
composition. They are essentially formed of two minerals : 
the one of the felspar class, in which are concentrated the 
alumine and the alkalies ; the other of the pyroxene or peri- 
dote kind, in which are concentrated the oxide of iron, mag- 
nesia, and lime. In " crystalline" limestone, on the contrary, 
there are various silicates, sometimes with a single base, 
sometimes with many ; and these silicates are often associ- 
ated either with free silex or with silicates, not saturated 
with bases. Moreover, together with these silicates, there 
are very energetic uncombined bases, such as magnesia 
(periclase), alumine (corindon). There are also metallic ox- 
ides, such as the oxides of iron, which, under certain circum- 
stances, appear to have been contemporary with the lime- 
stone ; and there are compound oxides, such as the spinelles, 
perovskite, in which the oxide, playing the part of an acid 
(alumine, titanic acid), is an acid much less energetic than 
the silex. We easily comprehend, then, that these minerals 
have been formed with the concurrence of heat, or of the 
molecular actions which it developed ; but it is difficult to 
admit that they result from a complete fusion of the crystal- 
line limestone. 

Moreover, many facts prove that felspar may be formed 
in rocks without the intervention of a great heat ; for exam- 
ple, in the Arkose of La Poirie (Vosges), crystals of felspar 
are developed in the clay lands (argilolites), which certainly 
have not been melted, and the stratification of which is quite 

* Dufrenoy, Ann. des Mines, 3 sec, tome xi., p. 385. 
t See also Translation of Professor Scheerer's Memoir, sujira, p. 7. — Ed. 

130 Origin of Crystalline Limestone. 

recognisable. At Morel, in the commune of St Laurent 
(Saone-et-Loire), crystals of pink orthose of an after develop- 
ment exist in a limestone with Gryphcea arcuata, which 
has a crystalline structure, but characterized by a grayish 
yellow tint somewhat different from its usual colour. Lastly, 
at Steinmal felspar crystals have been observed by M. von 
Dechan in the inside of the abdominal buckler of a Homali- 
notus. In the same manner, the transition graywackes in 
the neighbourhood of Thann, and to the south of the Vosges, 
are very often completely impregnated with felspar, and 
still we find in them numerous remains of plants which have 
been well preserved in spite of the later development of 
crystals of felspar of the sixth system. 

The intimate and mutual penetration of the limestone and 
gneiss, shews that both have been reduced to a plastic state, 
if not to actual fluidity ; and the dissemination of the felspar 
in the limestone mass, shews also that the gneiss must have 
been sufficiently pasty for the felspar to have been secreted. 

The penetration of the limestone by the gneiss, as also 
the undulations sometimes presented by both rocks at the 
line of junction, make it evident that pressure was brought 
into play to a great extent during the crystallization of the 
gneiss ; this has produced in the limestone fissures generally 
parallel to its line of contact with the gneiss, and compar- 
able to those formed in a book the leaves of which are 
squeezed or pressed back laterally. Those fissures have 
been immediately filled by the secretions of matter diffused 
in the limestone, and they have given place to the parallel 
zones of nodular concretions, whilst the same matter formed 
the veins or the lining in fissures of the gneiss. Although 
in most of the metamorphic limestones the minerals are 
especially developed in the natural joints, originating in 
stratification, these nodules, on the contrary, in the limestone 
of the gneiss of the Vosges, apparently owe their paral- 
lelism to pressure. 

Pressure, like heat, has been also effective in actuating 
molecular attraction, and in developing the different minerals 
disseminated in the limestone. 

Subsequently to the crystallization of the limestone and 

Biographical Sketch of Mr H. E. Strickland. 131 

of the gneiss, certain minerals have been, and probably are 
still being, modified by chemical action arising from infiltra- 
tion, so that new minerals are formed by pseudomorphosis ; 
as for example, the pyrosklerite. — (T. B. I. Quarterly Jour- 
nal of the Geological Society, Vol. ix., No. 36, p. 27.) 

Biographical Sketch of Mr Hugh Edwin Strickland. 

We have to announce, with deep regret, the death of Mr 
H. E. Strickland, who was killed by a railway train, whilst 
examining the strata of a railway cutting on the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire line. 

" Mr Strickland arrived at East Retford from Hull, hav- 
ing attended the recent meeting of the British Association. 
He was attached to the Geological Section of the Asso- 
ciation; and in pursuance of his practical investigations in 
that science, he proceeded on Wednesday afternoon to ex- 
amine the strata of the deep cuttings on each side of the 
Clarbrough Tunnel, about four miles distant from Retford. 
A little after four o'clock, a boy at work in the fields observed 
him standing between the two lines of rails, near the mouth 
of the tunnel, on the Gainsborough side, with a pocket-book 
in his hand, apparently engaged in making notes. At this 
time, a coal train was approaching on the down line, — to avoid 
which he stepped off the ' six feet' on to the up line ; — but 
unhappily he did so just at the moment when the Great North- 
ern passenger train was issuing from the tunnel. The train 
dashed upon him, — and the next instant he lay a shattered 
and shapeless corpse." 

Mr Strickland was in the prime of life, — at that age when 
the promise of youth is fast realizing itself. He was born at 
Righton, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, on the 2d of March 
1811. His father, Mr Henry E. Strickland of Apperley, in 
Gloucestershire, was a son of the late Sir George Strickland, 
Bart, of Boynton, in Yorkshire. He was a grandson on his 
mother's side of the celebrated Dr Edmund Cartwright, — 
whose name is so indissolubly connected with the manufac- 


132 Biographical Sketch of Mr II. E. Strickland. 

tatting greatness of England on account of his invention of 
the rower-loom. 

Mr Strickland's boyhood was spent under his father's roof ; 
where he was under the private tutelage successively of the 
three brothers Monkhouse, — one of whom is now a fellow of 
Queen's College, Oxford. From his father's house he was 
transferred to the late Dr Arnold, — who, prior to his appoint- 
ment at Rugby, took private pupils at Laleham, near Staines. 
He finished his education at Oriel College, Oxford. 

Although distinguished for his classical knowledge, Mr 
Strickland had early acquired a taste for natural history pur- 
suits ; and after the completion of his studies at college he 
resided with his family at Cracourt House, near Evesham, 
Worcestershire — where he studied minutely the geology of 
the Cotswolds and the Great Valley of the Severn. Some of 
his earliest published papers were on geology ; but his first 
effort as an author indicated a taste for the pursuits of his 
maternal grandfather. It appeared in the Mechanics' Maga- 
zine for 1825, — and was on the construction of a new wind- 

In 1835, Mr Strickland travelled in Asia Minor, in com- 
pany with Mr W. J. Hamilton, M.P., — who was then Secre- 
tary to the Geological Society. An account of this journey 
was published, in two volumes 8vo, by Mr Hamilton, in 1842, 
under the title " Researches in Asia Minor, Pontus, and Ar- 
menia." This tour resulted also in the publication of several 
interesting papers on the geology of the districts visited, both 
by Mr Strickland himself and conjointly with Mr Hamilton. 
The principal papers published by Mr Strickland singly were 
— " On the Geology of the Thracian Bosphorus," — " On the 
Geology of the Neighbourhood of Smyrna," — and " On the 
Geology of the Island of Zante." He early devoted his at- 
tention to the study of birds ; and during this journey he 
gave proof of his ornithological knowledge by adding to the 
list of birds inhabiting Europe the Salicaria Olivetorum. He 
subsequently devoted a large share of his attention to the 
study of birds ; — as his papers in the " Annals and Magazine 
of Natural History," and in Sir William Jardine's " Contri- 
butions to Ornithology," amply testify. His principal work, 

Biographical Sketch of Mr H. E. Strickland. 133 

however, on this subject, and the one which will give him a 
place amongst the classical writers on the ornithology of this 
country, is devoted to the history of the Dodo. Thie work was 
published, as our readers will remember, in 1848,- with the 
title " The Dodo and its Kindred ; or, the History and Affi- 
nities of the Dodo, Solitaire, and other Extinct Birds."" It 
was handsomely illustrated ; and was an example of how the 
difficult subject of the affinities of extinct animals should be 
dealt with. Mr Strickland was aided in the osteological 
portion by Dr Melville. Since the appearance of this work, 
he has twice published supplementary notices regarding the 
Dodo and its kindred, in the " Annals and Magazine of Na- 
tural History." One of Mr Strickland's last contributions to 
science was on the subject of ornithology, — when, in the Sec- 
tion of Natural History, the day before his death, he gave 
an account of the Partridge (Tetraog alius) of the Great 
Water- Shed of India, recently illustrated in Mr Gould's 
" Birds of Asia." 

Although as a zoologist ornithology was his strong point, 
Mr Strickland had an extensive knowledge of the various 
classes of organized beings. Thus, several of his papers 
were devoted to accounts of the Mollusca, both recent and 
fossil, in various districts. One of his papers at the last 
Meeting of the British Association at Hull was, as our readers 
will see elsewhere, " On the Peculiarities of a Form of Sponge 
(Halichondria taberea)." 

Mr Strickland paid a large share of attention to the ter- 
minology of Natural History, — and was the reporter of a 
Committee appointed by the British Association to consider 
the rules by which the nomenclature of zoology might be 
established on a uniform and permanent basis. These rules 
were principally drawn up by him ; and they have since their 
publication been very generally acted on, — and have contri- 
buted greatly to simplify Natural History nomenclature. 

The general principles of classification could hardly fail 
to interest a mind so discursive as his, — and accordingly we 
find him at various times publishing on this subject. In an 
early number of the " Annals and Magazine of Natural His- 
tory" he inserted a paper (i On the true Method of discovering 

134 Biographical Sketch of Mr H. E. Strickland. 

the Natural System in Zoology and Botany," — in which he 
displayed a great knowledge of the forms of animal and vege- 
table life. In the reports of the British Association for 1843 
he published a paper " On the Natural Affinities of the Inses- 
sorial Order of Birds;"" and again, in the " Magazine of Natural 
History," vol. ii., — " Observations on the Affinities and Analo- 
gies of Organized Beings." 

It must be obvious, that the labours to which we have al- 
luded imply an immense amount of industry, — but in the 
midst of all his practical investigations Mr Strickland found 
time for purely literary work. Thus, in 1847, he undertook 
to edit for the Ray Society a work, the collection of materials 
for which had cost Prof. Agassiz many years of labour, en- 
titled " Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise." Three volumes 
of this great work are published, and the fourth and last is 
now in the hands of the printer. Mr Strickland's labour 
here was not merely that of editing — it embraced the contri- 
bution of a large mass of additional matter, amounting to a 
third or fourth of the whole. He spared no pains to make 
this work complete ; — and it must ever be regarded by the 
zoologist and the geologist as a most valuable gift to the 
sciences which they cultivate. 

On the occurrence of the illness of Dr Buckland, and his 
withdrawal from the duties of the chair of Geology at Ox- 
ford, — every one felt the propriety of inviting Mr Strickland 
to deliver lectures in his place. Though young for so impor- 
tant a post, and with a reputation in other departments of 
science, he was found able to sustain the fame of his pre- 
decessor in this, — and brought to bear with great advantage 
the stores of his varied knowledge upon a science which is 
always susceptible of influence and amplification from the 
principles of other departments of science, however distant 
from it they may at first sight appear. The Reports of the 
British Association, the Transactions of the Geological 
Society, the papers of the Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society of London, and of the London and Edinburgh Philo- 
sophical Magazine, all testify to Mr Strickland's activity as a 
geologist. They contain a mass of valuable observations 
both on palaeontology and on the physical structures of rocks 

Biographical Sketch of Mr H. E. Strickland. 135 

in this country and other parts of the world, — which must for 
ever remain a part of the history of the science of geology, 
and constitute a permanent monument of the industry and 
earnestness of the man who made them. 

In several of his geological papers, Mr Strickland's name 
is connected with that of Sir R. I. Murchison ; especially in 
a work on "The Geology of Cheltenham and its Neighbour- 
hood." He assisted Sir Roderick in preparing for the press 
his great work on the Silurian system ; and the proof-sheets 
of his new work on Siluria all passed through Mr Strickland's 
hands, — the last of the work having been corrected at Hull. 

At the time of his death, Mr Strickland was engaged in 
working on his " Ornithological Synonymy," — the printing of 
which was delayed only to render it more full and complete. 
He possessed a very ample and useful library, — also exten- 
sive geological and ornithological collections, — which are now 
at his residence at Apperley Green, near Tewkesbury. 

In 1845 Mr Strickland was married to the second daughter 
of Sir William Jardine, Bart : — both of whom, with Mr 
Strickland's father and mother, survive to lament his prema- 
ture loss. 

In the above brief sketch we have spoken only of Mr 
Strickland's scientific career, — but he had moral qualities that 
endeared him to all who knew him. Few came in contact 
with him who did not recognize in him a conscientious, 
amiable, and excellent man. In him Oxford has lost a Pro- 
fessor whom she could ill afford to part with at this time. 
To him they who hoped for the wider culture of natural 
science at Oxford looked as to one who had the power and 
the ability to take a lead. The scientific societies have lost 
in him a member who was unwearied in his assiduity to 
carry out their objects in all their purity. His means made 
him independent of his labours ; — and all recognized in his 
exertions that love of science and its objects which constitutes 
the true philosopher. — (Athenceum, No. 152, p. 1125). 


Notice of an Attempt to Naturalize the Craw-Fish (Astacus 
fluviatilis) in the South of Scotland. Communicated by 
Dr Fleming. 

The following curious entry occupies a place in a volume 
of Adversaria (for 1770, p. 4), formed by Dr "Walker, Pro- 
fessor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh, 
the immediate predecessor of the present occupant of the 

" Cancer Astacus, Lin. (The Cray-Fish). 

" They abound in the rocky rivulets about Penrith, in 
Westmoreland, which run upon limestone. 

" They spawn in the months of June and July. They were 
brought from Penrith seven years ago, and planted in the 
rivulet which runs past the house of New Posso, where they 
still live. 

"Graham, who brought them, informs me that the best time 
for transporting them is about the 1st of May. He carries 
them in a close basket among wet grass, which he deposits 
in water at night. Three days and three nights is the longest 
time that they can be so carried with safety. He can carry 
on horseback about 1000. He took them to Kailzie in Tweed- 
dale for 13s. 6d. per hundred, but most of them died. He 
offered to bring them to Moffat for 8s. 6d. per hundred if 1000 
were taken. He feeds them sometimes with beels. 

" To Robert Graham at Penrith, to the care of Mrs Buchan- 
n an, at the Crown in Penrith. 

" The way to catch them or to know if they are in a rivulet, 
is to put in a lump of flesh or any carrion into it over night; 
they will be found preying upon it in the morning." 

It appears from the preceding statement that this crus- 
tacean, even in those days of difficult transport, was success- 
fully conveyed from Cumberland to the parish of Manor in 

* 8even volumes of these Adversaria which came into my possession, con- 
taining many important notices of interesting subjects in Natural History, have 
been deposited in the Library of the University. 

Apparent Visibility of Stars through the Moon. 137 

Peebles-shire, and that they outlived their translation through- 
out a period of at least seven years. 

The late distinguished zoologist Sir John Graham Dalyell, 
Bart., instituted, at my request, a series of inquiries for the 
purpose of ascertaining if the descendants of this stock were 
still to be found in the places referred to, but all traces of such 
animals had disappeared, and even tradition, usually a toler- 
ably faithful record, had preserved no memorial of the ex- 

It would be a very easy process at the present time, with 
the command of railway speed, to transport the animals from 
their native haunts to any of our suitable streams ; while such 
an addition to our luxuries would not interfere with any 
other source of enjoyment. 

Pennant, in his " British Zoology," terms the crustacean 
CuAW-FiSH ; but Berkenhont and later writers term it Cray- 
Fish. J. F. 

New College, Edinburgh, 
3d December 1853. 

On the apparent Visibility of Stars through the Moon imme- 
diately before their Occultation. By R. Edmonds Jun., 
Esq. Communicated by the Author. 

Eight years ago, when the cause of the occasional projec- 
tion of a star on the moon's disk for a few seconds before its 
occultation was, at one of the meetings of the British Associa- 
tion, and elsewhere, publicly discussed by eminent scientific 
men, I prepared a short paper, suggesting that it might arise 
from the telescope being on such occasions set to the star's 
focus instead of the moon's, in which case the imperfect image 
of the moon formed at the stellar focus would, of course, be 
magnified. But when the star is on the very edge of the 
moon, the image of the latter would not find room for being 
magnified without spreading itself over the star's image, and 
thus occasioning the apparent visibility of the star through 
the moon, the extent of this projection being equal to the 
excess of the radius of the magnified lunar image beyond that 

138 Apparent Visibility of Stars through the Moon. 

of its perfect image when brought to a focus. In the occul- 
tation of the star Aldebaran in 1829 the reason why eight of 
the thirty-one European observers did not perceive any pro- 
jection, and that the other twenty-three did, may be, that 
the telescopes of the former were suited to the lunar focus, 
and those of the latter to the stellar ; the eye being incapable 
of determining the exact focus. 

I did not, however, publish my remarks, nor shew them to 
any one until last month, when my nephew (Frederick B. 
Edmonds) being here on a visit, I desired him to read them, 
with a view to test by experiment the correctness of my ex- 
planation. He accordingly placed a candle in the furthest 
corner of the room close behind a card, through a small hole 
in which the light flowed to represent a star. At the distance 
of about two yards from the candle he placed an illuminated 
disc to represent the moon ; and then retiring three yards 
from the disc, with a powerful pocket spy-glass, having its 
focus set for the "star," looked at the " star," along the edge 
of the " moon," when the former appeared very clearly pro- 
jected on the latter, precisely as in the reality observed by 
astronomers. When the focus of the glass was set for the 
"moon" no projection whatever occurred. 

I immediately communicated this to Professor Airy, who 
very kindly informed me that the explanation would be satis- 
factory if the focal length of the telescope for the moon were 
sensibly different from that for the star. " It would be highly 
desirable, however, (he added,) to bear this consideration in 
mind in the case of another observation of the occultation of 
a bright star." 

The explanation now offered will therefore, in all proba- 
bility, ere long be fully tested ; and if the eye be unable 
directly to detect any difference between the lunar and stellar 
foci, the existence of a sensible difference between them 
would, I presume, be indirectly established, should the pro- 
jection disappear on lengthening the focal distance, and re- 
appear on shortening it. 


On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

(Continued from vol. lv., page 352.) 

Lode Formations. 

By the term lode formation is to be understood a small 
group of minerals usually associated together in lode fissures* 
and presenting distinctive characteristics in their mode of 
association. At the same time it must be added, that groups 
of minerals can only be regarded as constituting any one 
formation so long as the succession of the individual mine- 
rals in what is termed the lode structure, or banded arrange- 
ment of the minerals, remains the same. Repetitions or suc- 
cessive generations of a formation likewise occur. 

There is considerable difficulty in determining and distin- 
guishing the lode formations : thus, 1. Certain minerals oc- 
cur in different formations, and some one mineral, especially 
quartz, is often repeated, without ^the remaining members 
of the group. 2. Some minerals, as iron pyrites, some va- 
rieties of calcite, and copper pyrites, occur in so many for- 
mations, that they cannot be regarded as distinctive. Still 
formations are sometimes characterized by the quartz and 
the particular abundance of pyrites. 3. In some instances 
druses are very rare in lodes, and it is only in them that the 
structure and succession of the minerals can be recognised. 
4. Sometimes there are two or three formations in one lode, 
and then it is not always easy to determine whether a mi- 
neral belongs to one or the other. 

It appears that the minerals which serve best to distin- 
guish the lode formations are either some of those siliceous 
species which are not products of decomposition, or some of 
the true ores. There is still a want of some kind of scientific 
nomenclature for these phenomena, but the paragenetic rela- 
tions are perhaps too little understood, and the relative dates 
of lodes too little known, to warrant the adoption of one as yet. 
Nevertheless the paragenetic grouping of a few but constant 
minerals in lodes is too evident to escape notice. Such, for in- 
stance, is the case with minerals containing cobalt, nickel, bis- 
muth, and arsenic ; lead and zinc ; tin and scheel, and the very 

140 On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

frequent association, under similar conditions, of fluor spar 
and heavy spar. Undoubtedly it is not allowable to form an 
opinion on this subject from individual specimens in mineralo- 
gical cabinets ; it is the universal association of minerals in 
the different known lodes of one class which must be studied. 

Moreover, the determination of lode formations is not alone 
difficult in regard to the constituent minerals, but likewise 
in regard to the date of the several substances. When dif- 
ferent formations occur together in one lode, or in different 
lodes intersecting each other, some inference may be formed 
as to their relative dates ; but as yet there are only a few such 
instances of contact known, and therefore this branch of re- 
search, so important in its relation to mining, yet remains to 
be cultivated. 

The following description of lode formations comprises 
both such as have a practical interest, and such as at present 
have only a scientific interest ; they are likewise arranged 
according to probable relations of date, commencing with the 

I. Pyroxene, garnet, pyrites, and blende formation. — This 
is undoubtedly one of the oldest, perhaps the oldest, of all 
lode formations, although want of acquaintance with its con- 
tact phenomena renders this still uncertain. The character of 
these lodes is not very distinctive, since the lode planes are 
frequently parallel with the strata adjoining ; for which rea- 
son they are very generally regarded as beds. Again, the 
banded structure is almost altogether wanting. The forma- 
tion, however, is marked by the occurrence of silicates, some- 
times in considerable masses ; a circumstance which strongly 
indicates a very remote date. It is probable that the lode 
substance of this formation bears a relation to the adjoining 
rock similar to that of amygdaloid rock to old red sandstone, 
where it has penetrated the latter, and yet occurs in parallel 
layers. Thus the date of the lode substance would be much 
the same as that of the adjoining rock; and indeed, in a 
geognostic point of view, it appears to resemble the eruptive 
rocks, as if it had been injected, which may be the reason of 
the absence of banded structure. 

This formation occurs in Saxony, Bohemia, and Scandi- 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 141 

navia. Its constituent minerals are specifically different from 
the same minerals occurring in rocks. Pyroxene appears to 
be the oldest member, idocras and garnet more recent. Pseu- 
domorphs are by no means wanting. It is further remark- 
able, that at different parts one or other mineral predomi- 
nates considerably. Thus the accumulations of galena, iron, 
copper pyrites, tin ore, and even limestone, have been found 
sufficient to admit of being worked. 

The general features of this formation present great ana- 
logy with those of the " kalkstbcken," previously spoken of. 
While in these latter, limestone predominates, and in some 
localities there is a much greater diversity of imbedded mi- 
nerals, and the lode form appears less marked, the occur- 
rence of limestone in the former is only exceptional ; but, 
on the other hand, there is an abundance of pyroxene, garnet, 
and pyritic minerals, which is foreign to the " kalkstbcken," 
and the lode character is more distinctly marked. 

II. Titanium formation. — This is probably little inferior 
in antiquity to the last, not only because it occurs in the 
oldest known rocks, but because the essential constituent mi- 
nerals, containing titanic acid, do not occur in any other forma- 
tion, with the sole exception of the " kalkstbcken " and diver- 
gent zones. Felsite is likewise found upon them, which cer- 
tainly indicates a very remote date. 

The phenomena presented by the lodes of this formation 
appear to admit of the following inferences : 1. That the 
felsites are in all instances older than the compounds of ti- 
tanic acid, or of titanic and silicic acid together. 2. Quartz 
is generally more recent than the above minerals, except 
rutil, with which it appears contemporaneous, and sometimes 
even older than it. 

III. Noble quartz formation. — This occurs in Saxony, espe- 
cially in mica-slate, sometimes in gneiss, both rocks being 
much altered. It is older than the porphyry veins with which 
it comes in contact, but these veins appear to bear some re- 
lation to the richness of the lodes. The principal lode sub- 
stance is quartz, frequently converted into hornstone, gene- 
rally adhering firmly to the adjoining rock, and ramifying 
into it. Large masses of ore never occur in these lodes, 

142 On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

which are therefore worked only in virtue of the silver and 
gold present in the minerals they contain. The Saxon lodes 
of this formation are especially characterized by a variety of 
mispickel, in small crystals with a brilliant lustre, generally 
imbedded in quartz, and very rarely implanted upon it. There 
is always some gold in this ore, although, in most instances, 
not sufficient for profitable extraction. It is, indeed, very pos- 
sible that the presence of argentiferous blende and glance, 
as well even as that of metallic silver, was determined by 
this mineral. 

There are good reasons for the opinion that the lodes of 
this formation are intimately connected, as regards their ori- 
gin, with metamorphic phenomena in the adjoining rocks, and 
that they are on a larger scale essentially the same as the 
small and sometimes metalliferous quartz veins in felsite 
rock and porphyry. 

Antimony, tellurium, and arsenic, constitute, by reason of 
their analogy, a mineralogical and chemical group, and their 
natural compounds frequently appear to belong to one and 
the same lode formation. Antimony glance always contains 
traces of gold and silver, in some localities sufficient for ex- 
traction, and it is very probable that the Transylvanian lodes 
bearing quartz with auriferous and argentiferous tellurium 
minerals, and even metallic gold, are of this class. 

The gold occurring in lodes of this formation is very recent, 
being implanted upon antimony glance, iron pyrites, calcite, 
realgar, and even gypsum. In like manner, silver appears 
to be the most recent member of the formation ; consequently 
it is hardly to be doubted that these metals have originated 
by some mode of extraction from compound minerals. 

IV. Pyritic lead and zinc formation. — This very closely 
resembles the last- mentioned formation, from which it is se- 
parated only on account of the peculiar character communi- 
cated to it by the considerable masses of galena, black zinc- 
blende, arsenical iron, sulphur, and magnetic pyrites, and 
the absence of any considerable quantity of gold or silver in 
them. Generally speaking, these minerals have been converted 
into pseudomorphic bisulphurets. The presence of copper py- 
rites is likewise distinctive ; the edle quartz of Freiberg is, 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 143 

moreover, intersected by porphyry, while this formation in- 
tersects porphyry. Assuming the porphyry to be of the same 
date, this would support the opinion of miners who regard 
the formations as different. Still there are no grounds for di- 
viding the pyritic lead and zinc formation into so many parts 
as Werner did. On the other hand, it cannot be doubted 
that there are several formations of galena and zinc-blende, 
for instance, the clinoedritic and the barytic. But these 
two minerals frequently occur together elsewhere without 
any recognisable relations to other minerals as regards date 
having yet been ascertained, therefore the possible future ne- 
cessity for further subdivision must not be altogether denied. 
The zinc-blende is almost always the black variety, especially 
when associated with arsenical pyrites, and indeed whenever 
pyritic minerals preponderate. is of a brown or red 
colour there is seldom much if any pyrites near. It is well 
known that black zinc-blende contains an essential admixture 
of sulphuret of iron, and has a lower specific gravity than that 
of any other colour. 

The clineodritic lead and zinc formation sometimes di- 
rectly follows the present one ; however they must neverthe- 
less be regarded as distinct. 

Sometimes the heavy spar formation is likewise present with 
and without the noble quartz ores, which are, however, less 
abundant the greater the quantity of pyritic minerals, and 
in this case belong to a more recent formation which has been 
sporadically imbedded in that of the latter, as is the case in 
the noble quartz formation, where such lode substances are 
generally absent. 

The pyritic ores are met with, although quite in miniature, 
in the fissures of argillaceous spherosiderites, the lode veins 
of coal strata, and even in the cavities of limestone petrifac- 
tions of still more recent date. 

The minerals constituting this pyritic lead and zinc forma- 
tion are frequently mixed together in coarse masses, no con- 
stant succession being observable except in the druses which 
sometimes occur where the lode bellies out, when galena and 
zinc-blende present themselves as the older, and pyrites as the 
younger members. Two generations have likewise been ob- 

144 On the Paragenctic Relations of Minerals. 

served, thus upon galena and blende — mispickel, and then 
again galena and mispickel. Derivatives of galena are rare, 
those of copper pyrites unknown. 

This is perhaps the most important formation for the min- 
ing of Freiberg, for only a small part of the silver which is 
obtained there is derived from the true silver formation, the 
principal part being extracted from the galena of this forma- 

It is in connection with this formation that we first meet 
with a phenomenon called by the miner, the iron hat, gossan. 
It has been universally found that iron ores, especially brown 
iron ore, red hematite, and even specular iron ore, are met 
with only at the upper part and outcrop of the lodes, which, 
when worked deeper, yield ores of more valuable metals. 
There is indeed historical evidence that the working of iron 
ores has laid bare ores of silver, lead, copper, cobalt, and 
nickel, and in many districts the proverb is still in use — 

" Der Gang hat einen eisernen Hut, 
Undthut darum in der Teufe gut." 

It is scarcely probable that this phenomenon can in all 
cases be accounted for in a similar manner. It is met 
with in lodes of the pyritic lead and zinc formation in some 
of the Freiberg mines, and there it may have originated 
from the action of the atmosphere upon pyritic minerals. 
There are brown iron ores which are remarkable for contain- 
ing silver sometimes in available quantity, called in Germany 
" edle Braunen" and " Gilben," in Mexico " Pacos." It is 
possible that in the earlier periods of mining in Germany, the 
belief in the " eisernen Hut " was more universal than at the 
present time ; but in Mexico and South America it still main- 
tains its ancient authority, and has recently received a con- 
firmation in the discovery of the lead and silver mines at 
Jarosa, near Alicante in Spain. Eut the presence of silver 
in the iron hat is not essential. Probably the knowledge of 
its occurrence has contributed to the confirmation of the 
opinion that the deeper a lode is driven the greater is the 
probability of finding rich deposits of ore, although in this 
instance there is another genetic reason for the belief than 
that previously spoken of. 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 145 

At other places the large number of pyritic minerals are 
wanting, and are replaced as at Prizebram by spathic iron. 
Here the "hut" may originate from the alteration of spathic 
iron. In the neighbourhood of Prizebram, the lodes of iron 
ore are leased to private individuals only to a certain depth, 
because the more valuable pyritic ores occur below that depth, 
and these are worked by the government. 

At other places, the various iron and manganese ores of 
the " eisenen Hut*' are certainly more recent than other 
minerals on the same lodes, and present a genetic character 
distinct from them. 

Although it is true that most lodes of iron ore continue as 
such to all accessible depths, still some of the deposits of 
ferruginous minerals ought not to be altogether overlooked 
or disregarded, especially when they occur in true lode dis- 
tricts, for it is probable that in many instances such a depo- 
sit may be the iron hat of a lode. 

V. Cobalt and Nickel formations in general. — Not only 
are minerals containing these elements very generally as- 
sociated together, but in almost every mineral which con- 
tains one of them as an essential constituent, at least traces 
of the other enter its composition. Arsenic enters more 
largely than sulphur into the composition of the more fre- 
quent of these minerals, so that it might be termed the co- 
balt, nickel, and arsenic formation. Metallic arsenic has 
even been found. Bismuth minerals are in some localities 
such constant associates that they might be regarded as es- 
sential, while in others they are altogether absent. How- 
ever, they occur unaccompanied by cobalt and nickel minerals, 
although the arsenik-kies of Altenburg contains nickel, and 
bismuth glance is a frequent associate of copper pyrites. 

Copper pyrites, and sometimes its ordinary products of 
composition, especially malachite, kupperfecherz, accompany 
the minerals of this formation. Linneite is never without cop- 
per pyrites, although large masses of it have not been found. 
Arsenical iron pyrites occurs, though not largely. The uran- 
pecherz occurs sporadically, especially in one group of this 

The principal lode substances (gangarten) are spathic iron 


146 On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

of twelve periods, and partly converted into brown iron, prin- 
cipally as support, pearl spar, fluor spar, heavy spar, quartz, 
(three generations), calc spar (three sub-species), brown spar 
and tantokline. 

It has been ascertained that only those arsenical pyrites which 
are accompanied by chlorite, contain nickel with traces of 
cobalt. The cobalt minerals of Chili occur in chlorite slate. 
The schaal stein of Nassau bearing lodes of cobalt and nickel 
is a greenish clay-slate, approximating closely to chlorite 
slate, and perhaps actually passing into it. It is considered, 
perhaps correctly, as clay-slate, altered by the adjoining chlo- 
rite slate. The metallic bismuth of the tin formation is ac- 
companied by chlorite, and a number of facts lead to the in- 
ference that these formations are peculiar to the chloritic 

Diorite, one of whose principal constituents is amphibole, 
contains gelbnikelkies at Gladenback (Darmstadt), — only in- 
deed disseminated, but so abundant as to be worked. The 
spathic and brown iron lodes at Lobestein bear nickel and 
cobalt minerals principally when they cut through or pass 
near diorite, while in the clay-slate they are either scarce or 
absent. The principal deposits of nickel and cobalt are chiefly 
in amphibolic rocks. The magnetic pyrites of Lillehammer 
(Norway) and Klefwa (Sweden), containing 3 to 4 per cent, 
nickel, and nearly 1 per cent, cobalt, occur in amphibole and 
diorite rocks. Breithaupt has found that these magnetic 
pyrites closely resembled that from the Adlers mine (Bava- 
ria), and Plattner found in it 1 per cent, cobalt and a trace of 
nickel. The magnetic pyrites of Lillehammer and Neufang 
contain fragments rather than crystals of amphibole, which 
leads to the conjecture that they are the contents of lodes. 

It is further remarkable that even in meteorites, magnetic 
pyrites accompanies the iron containing cobalt and nickel. 
Traces of nickel have been found in olivine ; and peridotes 
are present in many meteorites. 

The numerous instances of the paragenesis of minerals 
containing cobalt and nickel in amphibole and dioritic rocks, 
are not less remarkable, and must not be overlooked, as is 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 147 

sufficiently indicated by the above-mentioned occurrence of 
cobalt and nickel in magnetic pyrites. 

However, this formation occurs in true clay-slate, and 
likewise in mica-slate, gneiss, and granite, although only 
sporadically. Its occurrence in zechstein and cupreous slate 
is altogether distinct from its appearance in lodes in the 
above-mentioned rocks. 

Older Cobalt formation in Chili. — This formation is stated 
to have been discovered near Huasco in chlorite slate. The 
Schneeberg cobalt nickel lodes likewise bear axinite, and 
these two instances of association induced Breithaupt to ex- 
mine the arsenical pyrites of Thun, sitting upon axinite, 
for cobalt, which it was found to contain. It would there- 
fore be advisable to examine pyritic minerals associated 
with axinite, in order to ascertain whether they contain an 
available quantity of cobalt and nickel. 

Glaucodot likewise occurs porphyritically in chlorite slate, 
with precisely the same characters as the mispickel in Frei- 
berg mines, except that here the adjoining rock is disinte- 
grated, which is not the case with Chili chlorite slate. 

VI. Tin formation. — The principal representatives of this 
formation are tin ore (cassiterite) and the two wolframites, 
ferro- wolframite and mangano-wolframite. These minerals 
are associated wherever tin ore is worked, and the isolated 
occurrence of one or other is a great rarity. The scheel- 
spar is without doubt to be regarded as a product of the de- 
Composition of wolframite. Beryl and topaz occur together 
and separately, the former as a very old member of the 
group. Quartz is never absent. The formation likewise in- 
cludes such pyritic minerals as contain an essential admix- 
ture of arsenic, rarely such as are free from that element. 
Molybdenum glance is a frequent mineral. Calcite and most 
carbonates, so frequent in other formations, are here very 

One especial characteristic of this formation is the very 
limited number of rocks in which its lodes occur. These 
are — granite, gneiss, mica-slate, and a few clay-slates. Tin 
and wolfram lodes have never been observed in diorite, dia- 

148 On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

base, sandstone, or limestone. Such kind of negative facts 
must not be disregarded ; this one, for instance, indicates 
that these lodes are of very remote date, apparently that of 
the protrusion of the older granite. 

The existence of alluvial deposits of tin ore must not be 
overlooked. These are, in fact, to be regarded as the result of 
gigantic natural ore washings. The absence of wolframites is 
probably owing to the more easy mechanical and chemical 
destruction of these minerals as compared with the tin ore. 
Even in lodes, instances of the chemical destruction of wol- 
framites, and production of scheelspar, have been observed, 
unaccompanied by any pseudomorphs after tin ore. 

A remarkable feature is presented by the lodes of this for- 
mation where they come in contact with those of red haema- 
tites. It has been observed at Altenberg (Saxony), that at 
the points of contact both lodes are poorer, and frequently 
the tin ore is altogether absent. 

The lodes of this formation generally possess in a very 
marked manner the banded structure, especially in the mica 
slate at Ehrenfriedersdorf (Saxony). 

VII. Clinoedritic lead and zinc formation. — Under the 
term clinoedrites, Breithaupt understands a mineralogical 
genus comprising the various kinds of fahlerz, tennantite, 
copper-blende, &c. 

These minerals are distinguished chemically by their very 
complicated, although characteristic composition, containing, 
on the one hand, copper, mercury, silver, zinc, iron, cobalt, 
and nickel ; on the other hand, antimony, arsenic, and tin. 
All these metals exist as sulphurets ; those of copper and 
mercury with two equivalents to one of sulphur; those of 
silver, zinc, iron, tin, and probably cobalt and nickel, with 
equal equivalents ; those of antimony and arsenic with two 
equivalents of metal to three of sulphur. 

The clinoedrites occur in very definite paragenetic rela- 
tions ; bournonite is frequently associated with them. In 
many places this formation occurs alone, sometimes together 
with the older pyritic, or with the more recent fluo-barytic. 

When felspar or iron spar occur in the pyritic lead and 

On the Paragenetxc Relations of Minerals. 149 

zinc formation, it is to be regarded as terminated, and the 
same may perhaps be said of the second generation of quartz ; 
therefore quartz and iron spar are frequently found to sup- 
port the clinoedritic formation. Since, however, iron rose 
and manganese spars possess a close mineralogical relation, 
and protoxides of iron, manganese, &c, replace each other 
chemically, they are frequently found alone or associated in 
the lodes. When pearl spar occurs, it is the oldest of the car- 
bonates. It is remarkable that the galena implanted upon 
rose spar presents imperfect crystal forms, rounded edges, 
broken planes, &c. While all these carbonates appear as the 
supporters of this formation, still they are tolerably contem- 
poraneous in formation with galena, zinc-blende, and the 
clinoedrites, although these minerals are obviously the more 
recent, from their distinct superposition. Arsenical pyrites 
are no longer found, nor indeed in any more recent formation. 
Magnetic pyrites is likewise wanting. Pyritic minerals, on 
the whole, are less abundant, and the smaller their quantity 
the greater the amount of silver in the galena and clinoedrites. 
When copper pyrites is altogether wanting, weissgultigerz 
occurs, with thirty-one per cent, of silver. The minerals are 
likewise more argentiferous when the formation occurs alone, 
and when the lodes ramify. In this case, even antimonial 
silver-blende and eugenite occur. When the formation lies 
over the pyritic, it is poorer in clinoedrites, and the per- 
centage of silver is smaller. 

In this formation, as in most others, one or other of its sup- 
porting minerals, and sometimes all of them, are wanting, 
the mineral then being implanted upon the adjoining rock. 
Sometimes this deficiency is owing to subsequent decompo- 
sition, with production of quartz pseudomorphs ; thus, at 
Kapnik the whole of the manganese spar, and at Freiberg the 
rose spar, have been removed, while the other associated 
minerals are well preserved. 

The formation has sometimes heavy spar superposed, but 
belonging to more recent formation. At the contact of the 
clinoedritic with the heavy spar and ccelestine formation, the 
galena and fahlerz of the former have a large amount of 

150 On the Paragenetlc Relations of Minerals. 

VIII. Iron spar formation. — There are a great number of 
lodes whicl i consist solely of iron spar and products of its 
decomposition. When other minerals occur, it is only in a 
subordinate manner. The most usual associates of iron 
spar are quartz and felspar, always older ; heavy spar always 
more recent. Examples of the paragenetic relation of these 
minerals are, however, by no means frequent. 

IX. Copper formation. — This includes those associations 
of the more usual sulphurets, without galena and blende, but 
generally with iron pyrites. There may be several other 
groups w T hose relative age is to be determined by future ob- 
servation. The group here understood is such a one as oc- 
curs under circumstances similar to those of the clinoedritic 
lead and zinc formations. The chief representatives of such 
a group are — copper pyrites predominating, then sulphuret of 
copper, variegated pyrites, and clinoedrites. Metallic copper 
is rare, except in lodes, almost always accompanied by red 
copper, malachite, and other products of decomposition. It is 
highly probable that such lodes have been formed by the al- 
teration of sulphurets ; and however much the physiognomy 
of the individual lodes may vary in respect to the cupreous 
minerals, they were perhaps originally but little or not at all 
different. The fine modifications of red copper, malachite, 
and copper lazure at Chessy, near Lyons, have been proved 
by Fournet to result from the washings of copper pyrites 
lodes. The same is probably the case with the immense 
masses of malachite at Nischne Tagilsk and other parts of 

It has been very generally observed, that cupreous mi- 
nerals containing oxygen occur at the surface or in the up- 
per parts of the lodes, while at greater depths they consist 
almost entirely of glance and pyritic minerals. At Bakura- 
nao, in Cuba, malachite and copper lazure have been found, 
which, when worked to some depth, were found to cover 
copper pyrites, cuban and magnetic pyrites. Enormous 
quantities of malachite, tile ore, copper lazure, and metallic 
copper are obtained from the mines of Burra Burra, which, 
when further worked, will most probably be found to yield 
sulphuretted minerals. The metallic copper may very pro- 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 151 

bably have been formed by cementation during the vitriol- 
essence of iron pyrites, and the accompanying copper pyrites, 
&c, were influenced by this process of decomposition. Per- 
haps ferruginous minerals acted upon solutions of sulphate 
of copper during hundreds of centuries, in the same reducing 
manner as metallic iron acts in a few moments. The 
natural cupreous springs of Neusohl in Hungary, Altenberg 
in Saxony, Biotinto near Seville, &c, afford evidence that 
such processes of vitriolescence still take place in the depth 
of lodes. 

There is in the "Wernerian Museum at Freiberg, a frag- 
ment of metallic copper, in which a splinter of wood is im- 
bedded, found in " Old Man."* Taking all circumstances 
into consideration, it is very probable that native metallic 
copper has been produced by cementation. 

The lodes of the copper formation do not often form druses, 
and the known succession of their minerals presents no 
great variety. The derivative products are more numerous . 
Sometimes, however, the cupreous minerals are accumulated 
in large masses under peculiar conditions of the lodes, for 
instance at the points of intersection. Uniform distribution 
of the ores for considerable distances of length and depth is 
not frequent. 

At the mine " Junge Hohe Birke" (Saxony), the copper 
formation is decidedly more recent than the pyritic lead and 
zinc, especially in the lodes with a south-westerly direction, 
and where they intersect vertical lodes, and in these latter, 
where the former lodes adjoin them. The galena of the old 
formation, especially in masses with a hexaedral cleavage, 
is imbedded in copper pyrites, iron pyrites, and sometimes 
in fahlerz. In one instance, these fragments of galena have 
been found completely converted into fahlerz, with very con- 
siderable diminution of volume, the individual hexaeders ob- 
tained by cleavage consisting of a number of small crystals 
of gray copper united in a divergent manner, so as to form 
small druses. This pseudomorph is a very remarkable one. 

Near Freiberg this formation is represented by coarse 

* The technical German term for an old working which has been long aban- 
doned and again resumed. 

152 The Ocean — its Currents, Tides, Depth, 

masses of copper glance, and variegated copper sometimes in 
the form of galena. The copper glance is both compact and 
friable, but contains variegated copper, and the whole is co- 
vered by quartz. Iron pyrites occur in small hexaedral crys- 
tals upon other varieties of copper glance, and porphyriti- 
cally imbedded in it. 

The gray copper occurring in some places contains a good 
per-centage of silver ; but the bournonite associated with it 
contains very little, and indeed gray copper appears to be 
poorer in silver when accompanied by bournonite. 

It has already been remarked that bismuth glance never 
occurs without indications of the previous existence of cop- 
per pyrites, and the same may be the case with the as yet 
imperfectly known bismuth, silver, and lead ores which occur 
at Wolfach in Baden, for the most part disseminated through 
quartz, and accompanied by copper pyrites, heavy spar, fluor 
spar, &c. 

The Ocean — its Currents, Tides, Depth, and the Outlines of 
its Bottom.* 
When, a short time ago, I was conversing upon compara- 
tive or ancient geography with a friend whose mind ranges 
over all subjects, from the epic to the abstrusest mathemati- 
cal problem, I was reminded by him that those who are 
acquainted with the writings of the ancients would see with 
admiration how often a piece of knowledge, or a thought be- 
longing to those bygone days, emerges with an applicability 
to our new geographical views which is truly astounding. 
Take, says he, the Homeric view of the ocean ; it was an 
ocean, and yet an ocean stream. It covered the immeasur- 
able earth, and yet it ran round the boundaries of all known 
lands. Thus, the most learned of our popular poets has also 
spoken of the region 

" Where jealous Ocean, that old river, winds 
His far extended arms, till with deep fall 
Half his waste flood the large Atlantique fills." 

When the poet goes on to pour his flood into 

" Slow, unfathom'd Stygian pool," 

* From Sir R. I. Murchison's Address at the Anniversary Meeting of the 
Koyal Geographical Society, 23d May 1853. 

and the Outlines of its Bottom. 153 

we have only to vary the reading, as Dr Whewell suggests, 

" Half the broad Pacific's tideless pool."* 

But the point for us is not merely to occupy ourselves with 
finding that the ocean, as the ancients imagined, does " wind 
its extended arms" like those of a river. However we may 
regard this as a flight of imagination, or admire it as the 
foreknowledge of our ancestors, our duty is more stern, and 
we must pass from the myth, to ascertain what arms this 
jealous ocean has, how far they extend, where they wind, 
and where they end in " l steep fall ;" which last words, 
brought down to our geographical prose, means merely an 
accelerated current. Now, although we have had many ad- 
mirable contributions to answer these questions, and above 
all comparison those of the illustrious Kennel, who led the 
way in all these inquiries, there still remained a vast deal 
to be accomplished. The memoir of Mr Findlay, recently 
read before the Society, illustrated as it was by a series of 
admirably constructed large charts, in which all the cold or 
polar currents were marked in a blue colour, and the warm 
currents in a red tint, is certainly the most complete general 
view which has been taken in our day of this grand subject 
— a full and accurate acquaintance with which is of such im- 
portance in the intercourse between distant nations. In 
these valuable documents, and particularly in the work of 
the same author to which I called your attention last year, 
we not only see the extent of our present knowledge as to 
the nature and distinction of upper and under currents, but 
also the desiderata which remain to be filled up. I cannot 
here, indeed, attempt to convey to you an adequate view of 
Mr Findlay's labours of compilation and deduction, and must 
restrict myself to saying that, taking into account the known 
currents of the Atlantic and Pacific, and having regard to 

* Though there are many tides in the Pacific, this idea of a tideless pool may 
be correctly applied to the central Pacific around Tahiti. Geographers will do 
well to refer to the Appendix to Captain Fitzroy's second volume of the Sur- 
veying Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, to see the value attached by that 
successful navigator to the essays of Dr Whewell, and also to appreciate the 
importance of the views of so experienced and scientific a seaman. 

154 The Ocean — its Currents, Tides, Depth, 

additional observations, he reduces the motions of each of 
the two oceans to systems of revolving, re-entering currents ; 
one such circle, or orbit, existing in each case to the north 
and south of the equator. 

The currents of the ocean are so complex and numerous, 
that it is not to be expected we can obtain all the requisite 
materials to form a correct view from ordinary navigators 
who are occupied in trade and commerce. And this brings 
me back to a point on which I dwelt last year : — or an ex- 
pedition ad hoc, and entirely devoted to the survey of the 
Tides of the Ocean. Such an expedition, connected as it 
must be with a special attention to the currents, would, 1 
repeat, be truly worthy of this maritime nation, and all geo- 
graphers would rejoice if its conduct were confided to our 
associate Captain Fitzroy, whose tried capacity as a naval 
surveyor and sound nautical accomplishments particularly 
qualify him for such an employment. For we must recollect, 
that in addition to the researches of Sir John Lubbock in this 
country, and those of Professor Bache in the United States, 
the able, consecutive, and elaborate investigations of Dr 
Whewell, founded on real data, have led far towards the 
establishment of definite laws respecting the tides. It is 
therefore much to be desired that the naval authorities of 
Great Britain, honouring these skilful gratuitous labours, 
should without delay accede to the prayer of the British 
Association, and send out such an expedition as is here pro- 
posed — one which would enable Dr Whewell to complete a 
generalization worthy of this age of inquiry, and of the great- 
est utility to navigation. 

In the meantime it is a subject of congratulation that a 
peer of the realm distinguished for his acquirements in astro- 
nomical science, sustaining the same objects for which we 
are contending in common with the British Association and 
the Royal Society, should have brought this important sub- 
ject before Parliament, directing specially the attention of 
the Upper House to the very great importance of such obser- 
vations and generalizations as those of Lieut. Maury of the 
United States Navy. This meritorious officer, some of whose 
researches were adverted to by my predecessor, has recently 

and the Outlines of its Bottom, 155 

issued a circular which calls for the co-operation of the princi- 
pal maritime nations in collecting materials for wind and 
current charts. The prayer of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, and of the Royal Society, that 
a more extended and systematic direction be given to meteoro- 
logical observations at sea, as prepared by Lieut. Maury, 
will, I trust, meet with favour in the eyes of the British 
Government. The Royal Society says truly, that, short as 
the time is that the system has been in operation, the results 
to which it has led are of very great importance to the in- 
terests of navigation and commerce ; and it is earnestly to 
be hoped that the system of co-operative observation may be 
zealously promoted. In short, when Lord Wrottesley ex- 
plained in Parliament what enormous spaces of the ocean 
were still blanks as to any records of the winds, or of the 
currents and temperatures of the sea, the words which he 
added will find a response in the breasts of all whom I now 
address : — " That these blank spaces are a reproach to the 
civilization of the present age ; that it is our duty not to rest 
satisfied until we know all that can be known about the globe 
we inhabit that can be rendered in any way profitable to our 
common species ; and that, therefore, the principal maritime 
nations should share the labour of exploring these vacant 

Our neighbours the French* have indeed shewn their desire 
to promote useful surveys of distant seas by the addition 
they have recently made to our knowledge of the hydro- 
graphy of the Chinese seas, resulting from the researches of 
the " Capricieuse" corvette, under the command of Captain 
Roquemaurel, who has trigonometrically surveyed the eastern 
coast of Corea and Chinese Tartary for an extent of 130 
leagues. One of the results is the ascertainment of an ex- 
cellent port in the Golfe d'Anville, nearly in the same parallel 
as the strait of Matsmai, from which it is about 130 leagues 
distant ; parallels in which it is suggested some profitable 
whale-fishing grounds may also be met with. 

* Since our last anniversary the Meteorological Society of Paris has heen 
estahlished, and is now organized in so satisfactory a manner, that I have joined 
it myself, and trust that many of my countrymen may do so likewise. 

156 The Ocean — its Currents, Tides, Depth, 

As the phenomena of tides, currents, winds, and the con- 
dition of the atmosphere and ocean are in great measure de- 
pendent on the outline of the solid portion of the earth, so 
has this year brought with it the most remarkable hydro- 
graphical observation of modern times, in the detection of an 
abyss in the ocean said to be nearly double the depth of any 
of which we previously had a conception. 

Hitherto, indeed, it had been the prevalent belief (an 
opinion supported by Laplace himself), that the depressions 
of the crust beneath the ocean were probably of about the 
same extent as the elevations above the sea. Some obser- 
vations of our scientific associate, Captain Denham, R.N., 
have, however, gone far to modify if not to set aside this 
hypothesis. By soundings* in the ocean, midway between 
the Cape of Good Hope and Tristan d'Acunha, he has con- 
cluded, after several times dropping the plummet, and by 
finding the line always stop at the same point, that the sea 
has there the enormous depth of 7706 fathoms, or double 
the height of Chimborazo, the giant of the Andes. 

It is also a triumph of nautical skill and perseverance 
that the " Herald," and her companion the " Torch" steamer, 
should have been enabled to lie at anchor more than three 
weeks on the comparatively shallower banks in the middle of 
the wide Atlantic ocean, such a position having greatly 
astonished those mariners whose course happened to cross 
these new and unheard-of anchoring grounds. When so 
stationed Captain Denham further ascertained, by sending 
down thermometers, that, whilst the surface-water was at 
90°, the cold never exceeded 40° at any depths which were 
sounded. In addition to important magnetical observations, 
he has excited great interest amongst geologists by proving, 
that, within one cast of the lead, coral reefs rise suddenly 
like a wall, from no bottom at 200 fathoms to 19 fathoms 

* The soundings were made with peculiar lines given to him by Commodore 
M'Keever of the United States Navy. But I must state that some naval sur- 
veyors are of opinion, that the results may have been more or less deceptive, in 
consequence of the line not lying in a straight direction between the ship and 
the plummet, whether by the vessel drifting during so long an operation, or by 
the influence of currents and other causes. 

and the Outlines of its Bottom. 157 

from the surface ; thus illustrating one of the phenomena on 
which Mr C. Darwin has thrown so much light. 

In looking at the statement of Captain Denham, and at the 
vast number of desiderata that remain to be inquired into, it 
is not, therefore, too much to affirm, that until our submarine 
knowledge shall have been vastly more extended than it is ; 
until, in short, we know as much of the earth beneath the 
waters as of that which is above them, we are wanting in 
several of the most essential elements to explain the proxi- 
mate causes of the deflection of the great oceanic currents to 
which we have been adverting, as well as of the origin of 
many climatal peculiarities. 

The geologist, meteorologist, and geographer, are indeed 
each of them equally interested in the determination of grand 
problems like these, which will teach us the forms of the 
submerged lands around which run the various streams deli- 
neated in the maps of Mr Findlay : such, for example, as 
that which, with its superjacent floating masses of " Sar- 
gasso," or sea-weed, circles in the North Atlantic, or the 
great whaling grounds of the North Pacific, around which 
the North Equatorial and Japanese currents flow ; or, again, 
that mass between New Zealand and Australia which is en- 
circled by the Australian current. 

In this last instance the geologist again steps in to help to 
solve the problem. The discovery of the enormous bird, the 
Dinornis, in the comparatively small tract of New Zealand, 
has naturally led him to suppose that there was once a much 
larger adjacent mass of land to provide for the sustenance of 
such huge creatures ; and hence it is a fair inference, that 
the nucleus around which the Australian current runs, is 
the central and higher portion of what was a large continent 
once united with New Zealand.* 

In the meantime, passing from such theoretical views, I 

* The same reasoning may be applied to the island of Madagascar, where 
eggs of bird3 have been found, which contain the substance of 240 hen eggs. 
This isle may be the remnant of a former vast Eastern continent now submerged. 
See Professor Edward Forbes's proofs of the existence of such ancient conti- 
nents, derived from the present insulation of certain groups of plants and ani- 
mals. — Memoirs Qeol, Surv., vol. i. 

158 The Ocean — its Currents, Tides, Depth, fyc> 

seize on 'he one great submarine phenomenon indicated by 
Captain Denham, to assure you- that however it may be modi- 
fied, I view it as of singular importance in enabling natur- 
alists to account for the marked separation of the tribes of 
marine beings which at present exist in regions widely 
separated from each others. For vast depths are to many 
inhabitants of the sea (including all the mollusca) what great 
and snowy heights are to the animals of the land — perfectly 
impassable barriers. Now, whilst we have in the profundity 
of parts of the present ocean a distinct reason for the sepa- 
ration of aquatic races in our times, the near approach, on the 
contrary, to a general and uniform distribution of marine 
mollusca in primeval periods, as registered in the ancient sea 
bottoms which have been raised to form our present conti- 
nents, compels me to believe that the earlier geographical 
outlines of our planet were infinitely more simple than the 
present. In other words, that the oceans were then broader 
on the whole, the lands of less altitude, and the cavities in 
the sea bottom by no means so deep as those of our actual 
highly diversified outlines. For, had such very varied out- 
lines prevailed in primeval periods, most unquestionably the 
same land-plants which are found in the old coal formation 
could not have lived from Spitzbergen and the Polar regions 
to temperate and even warm latitudes, and in nearly all 
longitudes ; nor could the same tribes, and often the small 
species of shells and other animals, have inhabited the most 
distant seas at the same period. 

It is this varied outline, as brought about after many re- 
volutions and changes of the crust of the globe, which presents 
to the meteorologist that mass of complicated problems, so 
few of which have yet been sufficiently solved to enable us to 
arrive at definite laws respecting weather, or the causes of 
its seemingly capricious changes. But still, notwithstand- 
ing all its variations, there is a mean distribution of heat 
and cold which restricts certain groups of creatures to each 
continent and sea ; and the more we can approach to a cor- 
rect delineation of these zones beneath the waters, as well 
as those above them, and comprehend the nature of all tides 
and currents, the more perfectly shall we attain some of the 
highest aims of the physical geographer. 


On Some Points in the Physical Geography of Norway, 
chiefly connected with its Snow-Fields and Glaciers. By 
Professor James Forbes, D.C.L., F.R.S., Sec. U.S. Ed., 
Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. 

[We insert the ninth chapter of an admirable work that has 
just appeared from the pen of Professor James D. Forbes, 
on Norway and its Glaciers, visited in 1851 — followed by 
Journals of Excursions in the High Alps of Danphine, 
Berne, and Savoy. This invaluable work, so deeply in- 
teresting and important, reflects great honour on our dis- 
tinguished friend, and shews his usual profound knowledge 
of the various subjects treated of, and is a valuable addi- 
tion to the scientific world. It ought to be carefully 
studied by every traveller.] 

Introductory Remarks. § 1. On the Configuration of Norway — Its 
Ground Plan — Its Mountainous Districts or Fields are usually Pla- 
teaux — Large proportion of elevated Area — The Kjolen Mountains — 
their existence denied by some Geographers — Three Sections of Nor- 
way. § 2. On some peculiarities of the Climate of Norway — Less 
severe than commonly supposed, or than any other land in the same 
parallel — The causes of this — The Summer and Winter curves of equal 
temperature — Contrast of the two sides of the Peninsula. § 3. On the 
position of the Snow -line in Norway — Mainly determined by the Sum- 
mer temperature—Particulars of observations on the subject — Of the 
limit of growth of the Birch — Influence of the Sea in depressing the 
Snow-line — Table of Results. 

Amongst the many questions w T ith which a stray traveller 
is sure to be addressed by the peasantry of a remote 
country, one of the most puzzling to answer is, as to the 
pleasure or information he can find in looking at their hills 
and waters, and woods and snows. Has he not enough of 
such things at home % What value have stones and plants, 
which lie utterly concealed from the eyes of the inhabitants 
to whom they belong, but which can tempt the wealthy 
stranger to lose his time, his money, and his comfort, in 
examining, perhaps in collecting them.* The naturalness of 

* The inability of the peasantry to ascribe any other motive than interest or 
compulsion to such journeys, is amusingly experienced by every traveller off 

160 On the Physical Geography of Norway. 

the inquiry, the reality of the paradox, makes the answer 
often difficult. There are very many persons of opportuni- 
ties far superior to these poor peasants who can form nearly 
as little idea of the motives for such toilsome journeys. To 
them, the country is the country everywhere, its stones are 
stones merely, its glaciers and its lakes are accidents, which 
suggest no particular conclusions except as they give a mo- 
mentary variety to the landscape, or as they affect the value 
of the soil. 

What comparative anatomy is to the study of living beings, 
physical geography, or the comparison of different countries, 
is to the study of the earth we live on. The interest of each 
part is beyond measure increased by comparing it with other 
parts ; and the more such comparisons we are enabled to 
make, the more distinct meaning can we attach to even a few 
slight and seemingly isolated observations in a country 
wholly new to us, as when Owen reproduces the skeleton of 
a long extinct bird from a few imperfect bones brought 
from the antipodes. 

To construct the orographical map (map of mountainous 
regions) or skeleton of a country, is a more difficult task than 
it might at first appear to be. The materials for a complete 
relief or model exist for but a few limited portions of 
the globe. The materials for maps are gathered from com- 
paratively limited observation. The tact necessary for per- 

the beaten tracks, in the theories which are formed as to his vocation. This is 
nowhere the case more than in the more secluded parts of France. I once 
amused myself by reckoning up the conjectures as to my business, and the 
motives ascribed to me, during a journey of no very great extent, which in- 
cluded, as well as I recollect, the following, besides guesses nearer the mark : — 
An engineer of mines, a Government surveyor, a garde forestier, a tax-gatherer, 
the descendant of a confiscated noble of the first revolution surveying his pater- 
nal acres, a criminal escaping by bypaths from justice, an iron-merchant, a 
stone-mason, and a gold-finder. Of these various aliases, the last is probably the 
most inconvenient. I recollect travelling through the mountains of Cogne with 
a half-witted fellow, a sort of cretin, for a guide, who, after hearing all the 
explanations I had to give of my journey, constantly returned with a malicious 
leer to the loss the country suffered by ignorance of the treasure which lay 
about iu it, particularly under the glaciers, and which more knowing strangers, 
assisted, he insinuated, by mystic arts, could turn to an excellent profit. 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 161 

ceiving the peculiarities of the configuration of a country is 
only to be acquired by practice ; and when acquired, it leads 
to skilful and interesting generalization. A general com- 
manding an army, a geologist exploring a district, and a fox- 
hunter pursuing his sport, each in their way acquire a facility 
analogous to that of the comparative anatomist just referred 
to, in apprehending the whole from a part, in predicting what 
will be the probable course of a mountain ridge, or of a river 
which he has not yet seen, and in finding a practicable pas- 
sage across an intricate and difficult country, by which even 
a native might be bewildered. Since then even the mere 
base or skeleton of a country possesses so much distinctive 
character, and offers so many subjects of interesting contrast 
and comparison, it is very obvious that the details of struc- 
ture, as well as of the various plants which embellish it, 
animals which live upon, as well as rational beings which 
people it, with their peculiarities of occupation, habits and 
dress, furnish an exhaustless field, in which the most restless 
curiosity may expatiate. But to explain all these sources 
of interest to the more ignorant class of peasantry is impos- 
sible, though here and there intelligent men may be found, 
even in the humblest class, and in all countries, who possess 
that spark of divine mind which only requires to be roused, 
and which sometimes unexpectedly responds to the well- 
meant effort of the traveller to enlighten him as to his occu- 
pations and interest. 

The only part of the physical geography of Norway of 
which I intend here to offer the slightest sketch, is what re- 
gards the distribution of perpetual snow and of glaciers, be- 
ing the objects of my chief observations recorded in the pre- 
ceding pages. A comparison in this respect with the Alps 
offers much interest, and though my contribution may be 
slight and inconsiderable, it will, I am persuaded, lead the 
way to systematic inquiry by those more favourably placed 
for pursuing it. Norway itself -assuredly does not want for 
persons thoroughly qualified to obtain and make use of the 
information thus desired. 

The existence of perpetual snow, the elevation at which it 
begins above the sea level, and the formation of glaciers 


162 On (he Physical Geography of Norway. 

depending for their origin and nutrition upon these snow- 
beds, are complicated phenomena, referable by analysis to a 
variety of causes or conditions. Of these, the most impor- 
tant are the configuration of the soil and the climate, which 
last is itself a complex and somewhat undefined fact. 

I shall, for greater distinctness, reduce my remarks to dif- 
ferent heads ; and under some of these I shall endeavour to 
classify several of the facts incidentally referred to in the 
previous chapters. 

§ 1. On the Configuration of Norway. 

As there are few parts of the world where snow lies in 
summer at the level of the sea, the existence of perpetual 
snow depends in Norway, as elsewhere, upon the greater or 
less elevation of the mountains. The general height of moun- 
tains in Scandinavia is inferior to that of the Alps, Andes, 
Caucasus, or Himalaya, and is therefore so far in accordance 
with the generally received opinion, that the elevation of the 
land diminishes from the equator towards either pole. The 
highest ground in Norway is 8500 feet above the sea level, 
in latitude 61J° ; but whilst the country is justly accounted 
a mountainous one, it is so rather in respect of its general 
elevation than from the conspicuousness of its isolated sum- 
mits. Sweden is comparatively low and tame ; Norway de- 
fends it, like a huge breakwater, from the invasion of the 
North Sea, whose force is indeed still tremendous, but which, 
from the traces of former convulsions, would appear to have 
been the seat of powers still more energetic. The ragged 
outline of the coast, the depth of its inlets or fiords, the bold- 
ness of its headlands, the multitude of its islands, often al- 
most undistinguishable from the mainland, are facts fami- 
liarly known. They seem to shew that the boundary of sea 
and land has been decided only after a prolonged struggle, 
and that great masses of the latter have gradually been un- 
dermined or abraded, so that a tolerably permanent condi- 
tion has only been obtained when, after the crumbling of 
ksser obstacles, the mountains themselves have become the 
buttresses of Scandinavia. 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 163 

The configuration of Norway may be conveniently con- 
sidered in two portions ; the comparatively narrow district, 
extending from near Throndhjem to the North Cape, a dis- 
tance of above 600 English miles, and the more expanded 
part, 400 miles in its greatest dimension, from Throndhjem 
to the Naes of Norway. Throughout the former, the moun- 
tains cling, as it were, to the coast, and the boundary be- 
tween Sweden and Norway is only one-fourth of the breadth 
of the peninsula distant from the North Sea, which yet in- 
cludes all the more considerable elevations. South of the 
Syl-field (lat. 63°) the high ground occupies by far the greater 
part of the breadth of Norway in its widest extension, and 
fully half the breadth of the peninsula in the parallel of the 
Dovre-field. This is due chiefly to the expansion of the coast 
to the westward, where mountains of enduring crystalline 
rocks form that prodigious lobe of land dividing the North 
Sea form the Skagerack, which, bearing the whole brunt of 
forces which appear to have come from the north, not only 
defended the entire north of Europe from the shock, but 
probably furnished by their attrition the material of which 
the low grounds of the continent of Europe are mainly com- 

In this general disposition of the mountainous masses of 
Norway we see a strong analogy to the west coasts of our 
islands, and likewise to those of North and South America. 
It appears almost certain that a common cause has devas- 
tated the western shores of nearly every continent. 

The forms of the Norwegian mountains have been very 
generally mistaken by geographers. They do not constitute 
either unbroken chains rising from the low grounds and form- 
ing a ridge, nor are they a series of distinct detached eleva- 
tions, but, in the southern division of the country especially, 
they form plateaux or table-lands of great breadth, and 
generally more or less connected together, though occasion- 
ally separated by deep but always narrow valleys. In the 
description of the view from Sneehattan I have endeavoured 
to convey a clear idea of these wonderful expansions of moun- 
tains, often so level, that upon what may almost be called their 
summits, a coach and four might be driven along or across 


164 On the Physical Geography of Norway. 

them for many many miles, did roads exist, and across which 
the eye wanders for immense distances, overlooking entirely 
the valleys, which are concealed by their narrowness, and in- 
terrupted only by undulations of ground, or by sm.aH moun- 
tains which rise here and therewith comparatively little pic- 
turesque effect above the general level. 

These table-topped mountains are the Fields, or more pro- 
perly the Fjelds, of Norway, which, in their less interrupted 
or more elevated parts, have acquired specific names. They 
have been very erroneously supposed by map-makers to form 
a continued ridge serpentining through the country, though 
preserving a general parallelism to the coast, of which the 
chief (from north to south) are the Dovre-field, the Lange- 
field, the Sogne-field, the Fille-field, and the Hardanger- field. 

The error in question is easily traced to the usual method 
of constructing a map from rude and imperfect observations. 
The river-courses are first determined with a certain ac- 
curacy,* and from analogy (rather a precarious one, how- 
ever) with other countries, the origin of these is traced to a 
watershed or ridge, assumed to be comparatively narrow, 
along which the chief summits are to be sought, and supposed 
to be extended merely by spurs or lateral ranges of small 
extent between the valleys. To such a theory the construc- 
tion of the common maps of Norway may be easily traced, 
and the tradition of this unbroken chain may be found in 
nearly every map. 

Thus, the general surface of the country is in reality com- 
posed of elevated and barren table-lands. The proportion of 
arable land (land which might be tilled), to the entire extent 
of Norway, is not, according to the competent authority of 
Professor Munch, more than 1 to 10 ; and if we exclude a 
few local enlargments of the plains near the capitals, it would 
not even exceed 1 to 100. By a rude estimation on Professor 

* The river-courses preserve a surprisingly exact parallelism on the south- 
eastern slope of the peninsula from the Skagerack to near the head of the 
Gulf of Bothnia. The direction of these lines of fissure is about 30° with the. 
meridian in Southern Norway, but above 40° in Lapland. In neither case, 
probably, does it coincide with the direction of greatest declivity of the general 
surface of the continent. 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 165 

Kielhau's map, I find that the portion of the surface of Nor- 
way, south of the Throndhj em-fiord, which exceeds 3000 feet 
above the sea, amounts to very nearly 40 per cent, of the 
whole ; and when it is recollected that only one summit 
exceeds 8000 feet, and that the spaces exceeding 6000 are 
almost inappreciable on the map, it will be more clearly 
understood how completely the mountains have the charac- 
ter of table-lands, whose average height probably rather falls 
short of. than exceeds 4000 feet.* 

The centre of gravity of the elevated country preserves a 
rough parallelism to the coast, although from the prodigious 
indentations made by the larger fiords, the bases of the 
higher mountains are often washed by salt or at least brack- 
ish water. Of the outlying portions which approach nearest 
to the sea, the most remarkable are the mountains of Justedal 
and the Folgefond, both of which are covered with perpetual 

In the northern district of Scandinavia, where the theory 
of a ridge is in some respects less inaccurate than in the 
south, its insufficiency was clearly discovered by the difficulty 
or impossibility of defining the line of demarcation between 
Norway and Sweden by that of a continuous water-shed. 
Such a ridge, if it exist at all, must be held in some cases 
to run up to the very coast of Norway, or even beyond it 
into the islands ; in other places it dies out altogether, and is 
resumed with a change of direction. \ The present boundary 
between Norway and Sweden was defined by a joint com- 
mission of engineers in the middle of the last century, and is 
represented on nearly every map as the exact direction of a 
slightly zigzag chain of mountains called the Kjolen or 
Kcelen. This is assumed, in most maps, to be prolonged 

* These estimates refer to German or Rhenish feet, which are about 3 per 
cent, longer than English. 

t Pontoppidan was not unaware of this, for he states, that in Finmark the 
Kcelen ridge in many places breaks into large valleys, and consequently is not 
so continued as farther towards the south, and that it seldom reaches above 
four leagues in a continued chain. (Nat. Hist, of Norway, i., 40.) The worthy 
Bishop of Bergen, though not unjustly accused of credulity, was evidently well 
read in the science of his time in several departments. 

166 On the Physical Geography of Norway. 

along the border of the two countries, considerably to the 
south-east of Throndhjem, and it was even long maintained 
that a mountain mass existed there of prodigious elevation, 
from which a great many rivers, particularly the Glommen, 
the Gota, and the Dal, take their rise. The height of this 
fabulous mountain was even assumed to be 12,000 feet. It 
is, however, only a slight and lower extension of the plateau 
of the Dovre-field beyond the deep valley of the Glommen, 
and its greatest height does not amount to 5000 feet. 

Perhaps, however, those Scandinavian geographers go too 
far who insist that the existence of the Kjolen is purely 
mythical, and that they must be " hunted and expelled " 
from our maps. The able researches of Wahlenberg, Keilhau, 
Vibe, and Munch, and the improved charts of the coast, have 
thrown the greatest light on the form of the country. The 
contoured map of Keilhau, though, of course, in many places 
conjectural, gives us a tolerably accurate picture of the gene- 
ral relief; and though the Kjolen range be broken, sometimes 
almost annihilated, now pushed inland, and now bounding the 
very shore (as at Fondal, lat. 66%°, and Lyngen, lat. 70°), it 
must, I think, be admitted, that it is worthy of being classed 
amongst mountain ranges.* It has not in the far north the 
peculiarly tabular form of the southern mountains, and is 
distinguished by many summits of noble forms, and a grandeur 
disproportioned to their absolute elevation, as the Seven 
Sisters, the Lofoddens, and the Peppertinderne. It attains 
its greatest elevation (I speak now of the northern division) 
at Sulitelma, in lat. 67&°, being no less than 6200 English 
feet. Sulitelma is not an isolated mountain, but forms part 
of a wild and extensive group, first visited and clearly de- 
scribed by Wahlenberg, who justly characterizes it as the 
centre of the Alps of Lapland. 

It is true that there are at intervals passes across the 
Kjolen mountains, which are extremely low, such as the 
frequented road from Throndhjem to Sundsvall on the Baltic, 

* Wahlenberg, surely a most competent authority, continually speaks of the 
" alpium jugum" in describing the course of the mountains between Norway 
and Sweden. 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 167 

the ascent of which is everywhere easy, and which attains a 
height of only 2000 feet above the sea. About lat. 64°-3, 
there appears to be a distinct depression in the chain, near the 
Namsen river. In lat. 68 0, 3, which is that of the Lofoddens, 
there is a pass across the peninsula by the lake of the Tornea 
Trask, which is elevated no more than 1300 French feet, 
whilst the well-known track from Alten to the head of the 
Gulf of Bothnia, by Kautokeino, does not exceed 864 French 
feet, according to Von Buch, and beyond this the mountains 
never resume their continuity. A detached summit (Raste- 
kaise) reaches 2700 feet; the North Cape itself (on the island 
of Mageroe) attains little more than 900 feet. From this 
point eastwards the country becomes tame and level, nor do 
the northern parts of Russia or Siberia offer, probably, any 
considerable elevations, with the exception of the more de- 
pressed part of the chain of Oural. 

That the elevation of the Kjblen mountains is the result 
of forces exerted parallel to an ideal axis, is illustrated 
by the general uniformity of the declivity on the side of 
Lapland. A very remarkable chain of lakes, one or more of 
which occur upon almost every river emptying itself into the 
Bothnian Gulf, and nearly equidistant from the coast, at a 
level also tolerably uniform, it is believed, at from 1200 to 
1500 feet, point out a symmetry in the fall of the ground 
throughout nearly the whole extent of the peninsula. 

The map which accompanies this work, though on a small 
scale, has been coustructed with great care, from a variety 
of authorities, principally Norwegian. An attempt has been 
made to represent the elevated plateaux which constitute the 
high land of Norway, and to annihilate that stiff ridge of 
mountains which figure in almost every map from the Lin- 
desnses to the North Cape. 

I close these remarks by referring to three sections which 
I have carefully made from the best data I could find, and 
chiefly from the map of Keilhau already referred to, shewing 
the transverse section of Scandinavia at three characteristic 
places — the first or most northern (corresponding to the line 
A B on the general map) is from the Bergs-fiord, in lat. "70'2°, 
to Tornea, at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia. Here the 

168 On the Physical Geography of Norway. 


Ihomonbru of Stadt 




Entrance of 
Throndhjem Fiord 


Stetbo Lake 



>Syl. Field 


o I 


G-ulf of Both. i 
i.i.f. 1 1 

IP » 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 169 

axis of the range has entirely passed to the coast. The 
second section (from C to Don the map) passes through 
Throndhjem and part of the Syl-field to the Gulf of Bothnia, 
about 2° north of Stockholm. The third section, E F, is 
made to pass through some of the most elevated ground in 
Southern Norway, including the Justedal mountains and the 
Fille-field. It begins at the conspicuous headland of Stadt. on 
the western coast (lat. 62° 10'), and terminates at Drammen, 
on a branch of the Christania-fiord, being very nearly parallel 
to the marked direction of the river-courses of Norway 
already referred to. In all these sections the elevations are 
to the horizontal measures in the proportion of about thirteen 
to one. These are all prominent sections. They shew the 
character of the elevations when well developed. That there 
should be profound valleys intersecting the mountain ranges, 
or even occasional discontinuities, cannot fairly be urged 
against the existence of mountain chains altogether. Though 
the boundary of Sw r eden and Norway be often fanciful, and 
the maps founded on its supposed physical meaning be egre- 
giously wrong, a certain continuity of elevation is still to be ob- 
served. And, indeed, the same error which has prevailed in 
maps of Scandinavia, applies in a measure to those of better 
known countries. The construction of maps by river-courses 
instead of by lines of elevation is general ; and geologists are 
well aware thateven the chain of Alps, which is remarkable for 
its continuity, is arranged in groups rather than in a denned 
ridge. Many of the passes seem to let the traveller through 
the chain as it were by stealth, and really mark the boundary 
between two conterminous blocks of mountains, or massifs, 
as they are termed by foreign writers. Such is the pass of 
the Little St Bernard, as well as the Col de la Seigne, and 
still more strikingly that of the Finstermunz in Tyrol (Reschen 
Scheideck, 4600 feet), between the huge Oertler Spitz 
and the glacial mountains of the Oetzthal. Some of the 
highest and most imposing summits, instead of occupying 
the crown of the ridge, are found in lateral subordinate ranges, 
or even in the mere spurs or offsets of. the great chain 
of Alps. Such are the massifs of Mont Pelvoux in Dauphine, 
13,500 feet above the sea, communicating with the Cottian 

170 Ordnance Survey of Scotland. 

Alps by the Col de Lauteret, which is only 6700. Such 
the entire range of the Bernese Oberland, whose culminating 
point is 14,100 feet, and whose isthmus is the Grimsel (7200 
feet); and such the majestic summit ofMischabelhbrner, form- 
ing a mere outline of Monte Rosa, between the narrow valleys 
of Saas and Zermatt, which, though almost unseen by tour- 
ists, are giants of the second class. Dr Thomson, in his 
lately published and curious work on the Himalaya, justly 
remarks that the universal notion of parallel and continuous 
mountain ranges is, to a great extent, a delusion of perspective. 

Ordnance Survey of Scotland. 

We insert for our readers a very valuable table, containing 
an abstract of replies to the Treasury respecting the scales 
for the Ordnance Survey, presented to both Houses of Par- 
liament by command of Her Majesty. In this important table 
will be found the names of the individuals who approve of the 
different scales, such as the Lord Advocate of Scotland, Mem- 
bers of Parliament, Provosts of Cities, Commissioners of Sup- 
ply, County Gentlemen, Presidents of Societies, Engineers, Di- 
rectors of Surveys, Land- Agents, &c. &c. We append to the 
tables a summary of the whole for rural districts and for tow r ns. 

It will be seen from Sir Charles Trevelyan's letter that the 
undermentioned table was drawn up from a series of docu- 
ments sent to the Treasury by the different individuals men- 
tioned in the table. The whole of this correspondence be- 
tween the Treasury and Ordnance in 1840, and the replies to 
the Treasury circular, in favour of the six-inch scale and of 
other scales, has been printed by Government. 

Letter from the Treasury transmitting the foregoing Correspondence. 

" Treasury Chambers, April 16, 1853. 
" The accompanying correspondence and memoranda de- 
scribe — first, the grounds upon which it was determined, in 
1840, to publish the Ordnance map on the scale of six inches 
to the mile for the country, and five feet to the mile for 
towns ; and, secondly, the opinions now given on the ques- 

Ordnance Survey of Scotland. 


tion, whether the purposes which a national survey ought to 
subserve would be more fully provided for by an increased 
scale ; and how far such increased scale would involve in- 
creased expense. 

" The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury re- 
quest that after having attentively read these papers, you 
will state, in the annexed form, what scales you would re- 
commend for any national surveys which may henceforward 
be carried on at the public expense ; and that you will add 
any special observations you may have to make in support of 
your opinions. 

" It is assumed that the results of the Ordnance Survey will, 
under any circumstances, be separately published on the re- 
duced scale of one inch to the mile ; and the question upon 
which an opinion is solicited is merely between the scale of 
six inches and any larger scale. 

(Signed) C. E. Trevelyan." 

Abstract of the Replies to the Treasury Circular ■, 16th April 1853. 

1. — In favour of the Six-inch Scale. 
2. — In favour of other Scales. 

1. In favour of the Six-inch Scale. 




Party replying. 

Scale recommended. 

Rural Districts. 










Inches t( 

) a Mile. 



May 2 

Hon. T. F. Kennedy, Commissioner 

of Woods, &c. 

6 ' 





Mr A. Keith Johnston 





... 4 

Vice-Chancellor Stuart . 






... 6 

Commissioners of Supply, Clack- 
mannanshire . 





... 7 

Secretary to Society of Arts, 







Messrs Stewart and Kincaid, 

(6 or 8) 

(60 or 80) 



Com. of Supply, Banffshire 





.'.'.' *9 

Com. of Supply, Elgin, . 





Com. of Supply, Stirling, 







Com. of Supply, Ross-shire 




Com. of Supply, Caithness • . 







... 10 

Mr William Shadwell Milne 





Mr Charles Rowcliffe 





(«) Erron 

eously prin 

ted 1 in the Parliamentary Paper. 


!>) " Not 1 

ess than 



Abstract of Replies to the Treasury Circular 










May 12 



... 13 



... 19 


... 21 




... 23 


... 27 


June 3 


... 23 


July 8 


... 25 


Aug. 27 


... 31 



Sept. 2 


... 30 

Party replying. 

Mr James M. Rendel 

Sir Philip Egerton, M.P. 

The Lord Provost of Edinburgh 

Sir James Matheson, Bart., M.P. 

The Principal of Glasgow College 

Admiral Sir F. Beaufort, Hydro- 

Com. of Supply, Zetland 
Town-Council of Perth . 
Professor Forbes . 
Mr David Stevenson 
The Deputy Clerk-Register 
Com. of Supply, Buteshire 
Mr G. B. Greenough 
Sir Denham Norreys, Bart., M.P 
Mr A. Hunter 
Mr J. F. Bateman 
The Provost of "Wigtown 
Mr John Dickson 
Mr William Fairbairn 

Scale recommended. 

Rural Districts. 


En \ Draft. En * 
graved. graved, 

Inches to 





























2. In favour of other Scales. 




Apr. 26 







... 28 







... 29 



May 2 







... 3 







... 4 













The Registrar-General . 

President of the Geographical Soc. 

Mr H. Bellenden Ker . 

Lord Beaumont . 

Mr A. Dunlop, M.P. 

Mr E. Ellice, jun., M.P. . 

Copyhold, Inclosure, and Tithe 

Mr G. S. Duff, M.P. 

Mr Richard Hall, Land-Agent . 

Mr J. Lancaster, Land-Agent 

Com. of Supply, Kirkcudbright 

Rev. R. Jones, 'Cathedral Commis- 
sion . ; 

Com. of Supply, Aberdeenshire 

Mr J. Duff. M.P. 

Mr J. M. Herbert, Judge of County 
Court ... 

Com. of Supply, County of Lanark 

Com. of Supply, Argyllshire 

Mr J. T. Danson, Barrister-at-Law 

Pickering & Smith, Estate-Agents 

Sir Henry T. de la Beche, C.B. . 

(a) To be varied according to the size of the towns. (b) The largest convenient scales, 

(c) " The larger the better." 






































26 § 







on the Ordnance Survey of Scotland. 
























r 10,080 






May 4 


21 i 

Party replying. 

R. J. & H. Clutton, Estate- Agents 

Sir W. C. Trevelyan, Bart. 

Mr Charles Bailey, Land- Agent 

Lord Rosebery . 

Mr I. K. Brunei, Mr R. Stephenson, 
M.P., and Mr J. Locke, M.P. . 

Mr A. C. Ramsay, Director of Geo- 
logical Survey 

Com. of Supply, Fifeshire 

Chairman of Quarter Sessions, Had- 

Mr E. W. Wilmot, Estate-Agent 

Lord Hatherton 

Com. of Supply, Perthshire 

Mr George Dundas, M.P. 

Provost of Dundee 

Mr Jonathan Pym 

Com. of Supply, Berwickshire 

Trustees of the Harbour, Dundee 

Mr J. Hope, Deputy -Keeper of the 
Signet . . 

Daniel Smith & Son, Land-Agents 

President of the Geological Society 

Mr T. Smith, Woodley, Land-Agent 

Com. of Supply, Linlithgowshire 

Davis and Vigers, Land- Agents 

Mr S. Eddy, Land- Agent 

Society for promoting the Amend- 
ment of the Law 

Mr C. L. Bradley, Land-Agent . 

Mr S. Vessey, Land-Agt. & Valuer 

Mr James Johnstone, M.P. 

Com. of Supply, Dumfriesshire 

Mr A. E. Lockhart, M.P. 

Com. of Supply, Roxburghshire 

Metropolitan Commis. of Sewers 

Ecclesiastical Commissioners 

Viscount Ebrington 

Mr John Meadows White 

Mr C. Neale, Land Agt. and Valuer 

Mr Thomas Sopwith 

Com. of Supply, Dumbartonshire 

Com. of Supply, Renfrew 
Poor-Law Board 

Local Director, Geological Survey 
of Ireland 

Scale recommended. 

Rural Districts. 






























Inches to a Mile. 

































































(40 or 


(a) " Larger than 5 feet." 

(&) A measured skeleton triangulation only. 

(c) As large as can be granted. 

(d) Such as to admit of accurate admeasurement of the areas. 

174 Abstract of Replies to tJie 'Treasury Circular 





















May 26 
... 27 

... 28 
... 30 
... 31 
June 1 

... 14 
... 16 
... 20 

... 24 
... 29 
... 30 
July 7 
... 14 

... 25 
... 26 
... 27 
... 29 
Aug. 1 

... 9 
... 11 

... 16 
... 23 


Sept. 2 
... 3 

Party replying. 

Mr A. Smollet, M.P. 

Colonel Hunter Blair, M.P. 

Com. of Supply, Ayrshire 

Lieut.-General Arbuthnot, M.P. 

Highland and Agricultural Society 

Mr J. E. Elliot, M.P. 

Lord Wrottesley 

Com. of Supply, Co. of Edinburgh 

Com. of Supply, Kincardine 

Duke of Devonshire 

Com. of Supply, Peebles 

Sir G. G. Montgomery, Bart., M.P. 

Com. of Supply, Nairnshire 

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster .... 

Messrs Stevenson, Salt, and Sons 

Mag. and Town-Council, Aberdeen 

Lord Lovat 

St Andrews University 

Board of Supervision for Relief of 
the Poor 

Lieut.-Col. Hon. L. Maule, M.P. 

The Earl of Rosse 

Mr Walter Coulson, Q.C. 

Marquis of Tweeddale 

Hon. Charles Gore, Commissioner 
of Woods, &c. 

Sir David Brewster 

Mr E. H. J. Craufurd, M.P. 

Mr James MacGregor, M.P. 

The Lord Advocate 

The Rev. Dr Dewar, Principal of 
Aberdeen University . 

Mr Thos. Huskinson, Estate-Agent 

Mr A. Doull, Civil Engineer 

Mr J. Macquorn Rankine, Civil 
Engineer, &c. . 

Mr Thomas Woollcombe 

Mr Philip Park, Civil Engineer 

Mr C. Piazzi Smyth, P.R.S.L.&E., 

Mr James Jerwood 

Mr James Forsyth 

Mr Lewis D. B. Gordon 

Mr liobert Dawson 

Mr R. B. Grantham 

Colonel Stopford Blair . 

Scale recommended. 

Rural Districts. 





Inches to a Mile. 



(24 to 





































60 to 


























































(a) " Larger than 6 inches." (6) " Larger than 5 feet." 

(r) Not less than 20 in low country and 6 in hill country. 

(d) " 120 in special cases." 

(«) " 120 for first-class towns, 60 for second-class towns." 

on the Ordnance Survey of Scotland. 






Party replying. 

Scale recommended. 

Rural Districts. 









Inches to a Mile 



Sept. 6 

Mr H. M'Lauchlan 







... 7 

Mr James J. Beattie 







... 10 

Mr J. R. Wright 







Mr J. H. Williams 







... 12 

Mr W. Ranger, C.E. 







... 14 

Mr William Murton 





... 15 

Messrs Fox, Henderson, & Co. 







... 22 

Mr Charles Osborn 







... 23 

Viscount Dalrymple, M.P. 






... 28 

Com. of Supply, Forfarshire 





... 30 

Mr G. W. Carrington 







Oct. 10 

Mr J. W. Nicoll 





... 14 

Mr W. E. Gaine 







Mr Lucius H. Spooner . 





... 28 

The General Board of Health 


24 & 6 





Mr John McMillan 





Nov. 5 

The Statistical Society . 





(a) A 

s large as w 
wge enough 

ill render it available and useful for plans 
to give correct measurements of fields, & 

of estates, railways, &c. 

The following Table contains a Synopsis of the above. In 
the upper column is given the number of inches to a mile, as 
recommended to be drawn or engraved ; and in the under 
column is given the number of replies in favour of each sepa- 
rate scale. 

For Rural Districts. 


Inches to Mile. 










Replies in 
favour of the above 












Inches to Mile. 










Replies in 
favour of the above 











Note. — From the Replies of the Commissioners of Supply of the different Counties, it appears that 
fourteen counties are in favour of having County Maps engraved on the Scale of 6 inches to a mile ; 
four in favour of 12 inches to a mile ; and four in favour of 1 inch to a mile. No Replies appear to 
have been received from the other counties. 


Scientific Intelligence, — Mineralogy. 

For Towns. 


Inches to Mile. 












Replies in 

favour of the above 














to Mile. 















plies in 

of the 
















N.B. — Fifteen have not mentioned the Scale, but it appears from the notes 
appended, that they are all in favour of a larger Scale than the Six-Inch. 

Note. — Replies received from four County Towns, three in favour of tho 
6-inch Scale and one in favour of the 1-inch Scale. 



1. On the Formation of Crystallized Minerals. By Aug. Frever- 
mann. (Annalen der Chemie 9 1853, vol. lxxxviii., p. 120.) — A se- 
ries of experiments with which I have been lately engaged seem to 
throw some light on the formation of crystallized minerals from 
aqueous solutions. I started upon a conviction that crystals found 
in geodes could have been formed neither by evaporation nor by re- 
frigeration of saturated solutions, and I think I have suceeded in dis- 
covering the mode of formation of such minerals. The method is 
equally applicable to very soluble or slightly soluble bodies, and 
admits of an infinite variety of modifications in its mechanism. Its 
principle is nothing else than a gradual alteration of the affinity of 
the solvent to the dissolved body, so that the precipitation occurs 
very slowly. The gradual change of chemical force is obtained by 
the diffusion of one liquid into another, such as in mixing produce 
a solid precipitate. The arrangement of the apparatus is the same 
as in Graham's experiments. Powdered chromate of potash was 
placed in the bottom of a long glass cylinder, and powdered nitrate 
of lead in the bottom of another ; both were then filled with water, 

Scientific Intelligence. — Mineralogy. Ill 

and placed in a large beaker-glass, which contained water enough to 
cover the two cylinders. In a few months the nitrate of lead had 
diffused out into the beaker-glass, and formed several beautiful amor- 
phous compounds on the edge of the cylinder in which the chromate 
had been placed. In the interior of the cylinder, beautiful pink, 
highly refractive needles of Rothbleierz (Pb 0, Cr 3 ) were depo- 
sited, also little dark-red rhombic plates of Melanochroit (3 Pb 0, 
2 Cr 3 ). The needles of neutral chromate found in this manner 
attained to three or four millimetres, and then fell to the bottom of 
the cylinder, where the conditions of their development were want- 
ing. Had it not been for this circumstance, they would, no doubt, 
in three or four months, have got to half an inch, or even more. 
Some crystals of Weissbleierz (Pb 0, C0 2 ) formed in the same 
vessel, owing, no doubt, to the circumstance that the chromate con- 
tained some carbonate of potash. In a similar manner I obtained 
crystals of calc-spar, also rhombic plates of 2 CaO, HO,PO g + 4 HO, 
and some shining needles, which I believe to be 3 CaO, P0 5 . 

As this method is perfectly general in its principle, and proves 
applicable to such compounds as carbonate and chromate of lead, we 
may safely affirm, that the insolubility of a compound will no longer 
prevent its being prepared in a crystalline form. It appeared in these 
experiments, as if the great length of time which elapsed before the 
crystals formed, was owing to the salts not diffusing out rapidly 
enough ; I therefore modified the form of experiment by placing a 
vessel full of dry salt inside a large vessel, containing a solution just 
sufficient in quantity to cover the inner vessel. A large precipitate 
formed on the undissolved salt, and in a few days little crystals were 
perceptible in the amorphous mass, which continued to grow as long 
as the materials lasted. In this way I hope to obtain good-sized 
crystals of lieavy-spar, calc-spar, sulphate of lead (Schwerbleierz), 
pyromorphite (3 (Pb 0, P0 5 ) + Pb CI), apatite, &c. By diffusion of a 
solution of silicate of potash into one of aluminate of potash, I hope to 
obtain felspar. The crystallization of very soluble compounds may be 
accomplished by a similar process. Thus, if a solution of sulphate 
of iron in a beaker-glass is covered with a thin stratum of water, 
and alcohol gently poured on the top of that, a good and rapid crys- 
tallization is obtained. It is probable that in like manner crystals may 
be prepared from an acid, an alkaline, an alcoholic, or an ethereal 
solution ; and that the separation of two bodies by alteration of the 
solvent, so often employed in organic chemistry, may thus be com- 
bined with a separation by means of crystallization. 

The above-mentioned crystals were identified with the minerals, 
without the aid of chemical analysis; but as in each experiment the 
number of possible results was limited, and as the crystals agreed in 
their general chemical deportment and in their physical properties, 
as well as in their mode of aggregation and geometrical forms, with 
the minerals named, chemical analysis could hardly have increased 


178 Scientific Intelligence. — Geology. 

the certainty of my conclusions. — (Quarterly Journal of the Geolo* 
gical Society, vol. ix., No. 36.) 

2. Artificial Production of Diamond Powder. — Some consider- 
able sensation has been produced in the scientific circles of Paris, by 
the announcement of the artificial formation of diamond powder. M. 
Despretz has made two communications to the Academie des Sciences 
upon carbon. In these, he states, that placing at one, the inferior, 
pole of a voltaic battery, a cylinder of pure charcoal (its purity being 
secured by preparing it from crystallized white sugar-candy), and at 
the superior pole a bundle of fine platinum wires, so arranged that, 
the charcoal was in the red portion of the electric arc, and the plati- 
num in the violet ; he found the carbon volatilized, and collected on 
the platinum wires in a changed state. In these experiments, the 
current has been continued during a month in activity, and the powder 
collected on the wires has been found to be sufficiently hard to polish 
rubies with great rapidity, and when burnt, it left no residue. M. 
Despretz asks himself, Have I obtained crystals of carbon which I 
can separate and weigh, in which I can determine the index of re- 
fraction and the angle of polarization, without doubt 1 No. I have 
simply produced by the electric arc, and by weak voltaic currents, 
carbon crystallized in black octohedrons, in colourless and trans- 
lucent octohedrons, in plates also colourless and translucent, which 
possess the hardness of the powder of the diamond, and which dis- 
appear in combustion without any sensible residue. A similar 
result has been obtained by decomposing a mixture of chloride of car- 
bon and alcohol, by weak galvanic currents. The black powder de- 
posited, was found to possess equal hardness with that which was 
sublimed, and rubies were readily polished by it. A few years since, 
graphite and coke were formed from diamonds. We now appear to 
be advancing towards the conversion of graphite and coke into dia- 
monds. — (Athenceum, No 1355.) 


3. Use of Salt among the Natives in Namaqua Land, South 
Africa. — The Namaquas occasionally use salt, but they set no store 
upon it. There is no doubt, that people who live on meat and milk 
would require salt much less than those who live on vegetables ; but 
half the Damaras subsist simply on pig-nuts, — the most worthless 
and indigestible of food, and requiring to be eaten in excessive quan- 
tities to afford enough nourishment to support life. The Hottentots 
of Walfisch Bay, who live almost entirely on the nara gourd, and 
who have the sea on one side, and salt springs in front of them, 
hardly even take the trouble to collect salt, which they certainly 
would do if they felt that craving for it which distresses many 
Europeans. The last fact that I have to mention with reference to 
salt, is that the game in the Swa Kop, do not frequent the salt rocks 

Scientific Intelligence. — Meteorology. 179 

to lick them, as they do in America. — (G-alton on Tropical South 
Africa, p. 183.) 


4. Some observations desirable to be made with reference to the 
Glaciers of Norway. 
I briefly refer to a few of the many observations desirable to be 
made with reference to the Glaciers of Norway, which may be recom- 
mended to future travellers : — 

1. To ascertain whether unquestionable and well-defined snow- 
fields occur north of lat. 60°; the level of the snow-line, and the 
period of the year at which it retreats highest. 

2. To examine the glaciers on the west slope of the Justedal 
mountains, and at the head of Sogndal and Veitestrandswand, and 
to trace to their origin the remarkable granite boulders which seem 
to be derived from thence (p. 155). 

3. To select amongst the glaciers of the Justedal range one or 
more suitable for careful observations of progression, both during 
the height of summer, and from year to year. The Lodals glacier 
is probably one of the best. 

4. To ascertain carefully the snow-line of the Folgefond and in 
Nordfiord (between Justedal and the sea). 

5. To visit and describe the glaciers of the Ymesfield, &c. 

6. To explore the country to the north and north-west of Snee- 
hattan on the Dovrefield ; to observe its geology, and ascertain the 
level and extent of its snow-fields. 

7. Generally, in the preceding excursions, to notice the occur- 
rence of grooved and polished rocks, and the direction by compass 
of the striae, especially on level places, not in the declivities of 
valleys. The attempt to trace generally the boulders to their origin, 
could only be attempted by persons familiarly conversant with the 
intricate and obscure geology of Norway. But moraines should be 
watched for and sketched. That of Vasbotten, near Stavanger, 
mentioned by Esmark, would be worthy of a visit. 

8. In Nordland, and the higher north, the traveller may explore 
the Borgefield, between the Namsen and Vefsen, rivers frequented 
for their fishing by numerous tourists. 

9. The glaciers and snow-fields of Fondal (lat. 66°, 67°) would 
unquestionably repay a week or a fortnight's research. From the 
steamboat station of Bodo, the Melsfiord, Holandsfiord, and Grloms- 
fiord, might be easily visited, of which the two first at least con- 
tain glaciers at a very low level. The mountains of Fondal are in 
a great measure detached from the interior chain, and it is probable 
that the explorer might return from G-illeskaal, beyond Cape Kun- 
nen, by the landward side, to the head of the Ranenfiord (lat. 66° 
10'), and rejoin the steamer. 

10. The promontory of Lyngen, with its numerous glaciers, 

180 Scientific Intelligence. — Meteorology. 

might be made the object of an excursion from Tromso, with the 
aid of the steamer. 

11. A detailed examination of the Bergsfiord, Jbkulsfiord, and 
Qvenanger range, has been already recommended (p. 84). 

12. Every opportunity should be taken to ascertain the direction 
of the abrading and smoothing agency, which has left such extra- 
ordinary traces along the coast, between the Throndhjem-fiord and 
the Lofoddens ; and in general it should be sought to observe how 
far the striae correspond or not in direction with the general declivity 
of the ground, or whether they are in any case extensively parallel 
with the coast. 

13. The limits of vegetation of the birch and the snow-line should 
be observed wherever practicable ; but with regard to the latter, the 
great difficulty of ascertaining the extreme limit of recession of the 
snow should be borne in mind, and the time of year, the character 
of the season, and the exposure, should be particularly noticed. 

14. The meteorology of Norway is in a state which is not credit- 
able to the acknowledged intelligence of the people, and the emi- 
nence of its scientific men. I know of but two places, Christiania 
and Kaafiord, (separated by 10° of latitude) of which the mean tem- 
perature is known with any accuracy. This is lamentable in a 
country whose climate is one of the most interesting in Europe. The 
means of remedying it seem easy. Let observations, in the first 
instance, be confined to the thermometer. It is impossible to doubt 
that a net-work of say fifty stations, might be quickly established 
over the entire country. The intelligent officers of the Royal Marine 
and Trigonometrical Survey ; the clergy (who have almost all had 
a university education) ; the masters of schools and academies, — like 
my well-informed friend, M. Blom, at Tromso ; the active magis- 
trates and civil officers ; even the station-holders and substantial mer- 
chants on the steamboat routes, would probably, in many instances, 
lend a cheerful aid to so simple and interesting an inquiry ; whilst 
the combination of the results could not be placed in better hands 
than those of the Professors of Christiania. — {Norway and its Gla- 
ciers, by Professor James Forbes, p. 245.) 

5. Theory of the Pile and the Aurora Borealis. — M. de la Rive, 
the celebrated physicist of Geneva, has presented to the Academy 
the first volume of a treatise on Theoretical and Applied Electricity, 
which he has published in London, and of which he is now preparing 
an edition in French. In explaining the plan of his work, M. de la 
Rive dwelt more especially on the theory of the pile. He has always 
been a defender of the chemical theory ; but, while acknowledging 
the influence of chemical action, he now recognizes, that we cannot 
always admit that chemical action precedes the production of elec- 
tricity, and he is led to consider the two phenomena as commonly 
simultaneous, and due to a more general cause, viz., molecular polar- 

Scientific Intelligence. — Meteorology. 181 

ization, which is established at the moment of contact of two bodies 
susceptible of acting chemically on one another. M. de la Rive also 
expresses his opinion on the cause of the aurora, which he explains, 
not by a radiation of the polar magnetism, but by a purely electri- 
cal action. After examining nearly all recent observations, he be- 
lieves that he may attribute this phenomenon to the electricity with 
which the currents of air are charged, that rise from the equatorial 
regions, and travel in the upper atmosphere towards the poles, where 
they combine with the negative electricity of the earth, forming, 
under the influence of the magnetic pole, true luminous arches.-— 
(American Journal of Science and Arts. vol. xvi. No. 47> 2d Series, 
p. 274.) _ 

6. " Piroroco''* or Bore that occurs in the Guamd River at 
Spring Tides. — About thirty miles above Para the piroroco com- 
mences. There was formerly an island in the river at this point, but it 
is said to have been completely washed away by the continual action 
of the bore, which, after passing this place, we rather expected to 
see, now being the time of the highest tides, though at this season 
(May) they are not generally high enough to produce it with any 
force. It came, however, with a sudden rush, a wave travelling 
rapidly up the stream, and breaking in foam all along the shore and 
on the shallows. It lifted our canoe, just as a great roiling ocean- 
wave would do, but, being deep water, did no harm, and was past 
in an instant, the tide then continuing to flow up with great velocity. 
The highest tide was now past, so at the next we had no wave ; 
but the flood began running up instantaneously, and not gradually, 
as is generally the case. On our way down, I again encoun- 
tered the " piroroco," when I hardly expected it. We had gone 
in-shore at a sugar estate, to wait for the tide, when the agent 
told us we had better put out further into the stream as the piro- 
roco beat there. Though thinking he only wished to frighten us, 
we judged it prudent to do as he advised ; and, while we were expect- 
ing the tide to turn, a great wave came suddenly rushing along, 
and breaking on the place where our canoe had been at first moored. 
The wave having passed, the water was as quiet as before, but 
flowing up with great rapidity. As we proceeded down the river 
we saw everywhere signs of its devastations in the uprooted 
trees which lined the shores all along, and the high mud banks 
where the earth had been washed away. In winter, when the spring 
tides are highest, the " piroroco" breaks with terrific force, and often 
sinks and dashes to pieces boats left incautiously in too shallow wa- 
ter. The ordinary explanations given of this phenomenon are evi- 
dently incorrect. Here there is no meeting of salt and fresh water, 
neither is the stream remarkably narrowed where it commences. I 
collected all the information I could respecting the depth of the 
river, and the shoals that occur in it. Where the bore first appears 
there is a shoal across the river, and below that the stream is some- 

182 Scientific Intelligence. — Meteorology. 

what contracted. The tide flows up past Para with great velocity, 
and entering the Guama river comes to the narrow part of the chan- 
nel. Here the body of tidal water will be deeper and flow faster, and 
coming suddenly on to the shoal will form a wave, in the same manner 
that in a swift brook a large stone at the bottom will cause an un- 
dulation, while a slow flowing stream will keep its smooth surface. 
This wave will be of great size, and, as there is a large body of wa- 
ter in motion will be propagated onwards unbroken. Wherever there 
are shallows, either in the bed or on the margin of the river, it will 
break, or as it passes over slight shoals will be increased, and as the 
river narrows will go on with greater rapidity. When the tides are 
low they rise less rapidly, and at the commencement a much less body 
of water is put in motion ; the depth of the moving water is less, 
and does not come in contact with the bottom in passing over the 
shoal, and so no wave is formed. It is only when the body of water 
in motion as the tide first flows in is of sufficient depth, that it comes 
in contact with the shoal, and is, as it were, lifted up by it, forming 
a great rolling wave. It appears, therefore, that there must exist 
some peculiar formation of the bottom, and not merely a narrow- 
ing and widening in a tidal river to produce a bore, otherwise it 
would occur more frequently than it does. — (Travels on the Amazon 
and Rio Negro, by Alfred R. Wallace, p. 114.) 

7. Mirage of South Africa. — We were surrounded by a mirage 
of the most remarkable intensity, — objects 200 yards off were ut- 
terly without definition ; a crow, or a bit of black wood, would look 
as lofty as the trunk of a tree, — pelicans were exaggerated to the 
size of ships with the studding sails set, and the whole ground was 
wavy and seething, as though seen through the draught of a furnace. 
This was in August, the month in which mirage is most remarkable 
here ; it is excessive at all times, and has been remarked by every 
one who has seen the place. A year and a half later [ tried on 
two occasions to map the outline of the bay, which was then com- 
paratively clear, but still the mirage quite prevented me ; an object 
which I took as a mark from one point being altogether undistin- 
guishable when I had moved to my next station. — (The Narrative 
of an Explorer in Tropical South Africa, by Francis Galton, 
p. 16.) 

8. Majestic Cloud seen from the Jungfrau. — It was four o'clock 
when we reached the summit of the Jungfrau, and we staid half an 
hour. The view to the east was generally clear. The Finsteraar 
and Schreckhorn, the glacier of Aletsch, the Monch and Eigher, — 
and we got a glimpse of the bottom of the valley of Grindelwald. 
The view to the west was in one respect scarcely less remarkable, 
for there a magnificient cumulous-headed cloud stood in wonder- 
ful majesty, reaching apparently from the valley to at least 2000 
feet above us. It was a glorious sight, a single cloud at least 10,000 
feet high. — (Norway and its Glaciers, by Frof. James Forbes.) 

Scientific Intelligence. — Hydrography — Zoology. 183 


10.-4 new method for taking Deep Sea Soundings. — Hitherto a 
continuous series of soundings in deep water has been rendered dif- 
ficult by the fact of each sounding costing the ship a fresh line ; 
however strongly the line was made, when once out it has never 
been recovered. The Americans have invented a mode by which 
the weight on touching the bottom is detached ; so that the line 
may be drawn back with ease. — The following is an account of this 
ingenious contrivance : — " A hole is drilled through a 64 lb. or 
heavier shot, sufficiently large to admit a rod of about three quar- 
ters of an inch in diameter. This rod is about 12 or 14 inches in 
length, and with the exception of about 1^ inch at the bottom, per- 
fectly solid. At the top of the rod are two arms extending one 
from each side ; these arms being upon easily-acting hinges, are 
capable of being raised or lowered with very little power. A small 
branch extends from the outside of each of them, which is for the 
purpose of holding, by means of rings, a piece of wire by which the 
ball is swung to the rod. A piece of rope is then attached by each 
end to the arms, to which again is joined the sounding line. The 
ball is then lowered into the water, and upon reaching the bottom, 
the strain upon the line ceases, and the arms fall down, allowing the 
ball to detach itself entirely from the rod, which is then easily 
drawn in, — the drilled portion of which is discovered to be filled 
with a specimen of that which it has come in contact with at the 
bottom." With this apparatus, aided by the host of assistants 
whom Lieut. Maury's visit to Europe will doubtless bring to the 
great work of exploration, the ocean bed may become in time as 
well known to us as the bed of the Thames or that of Hudson. — 


11. The Committee appointed at the Meeting of the American 
Philosophical Society on the 30th of February last, to examine and 
report upon a collection of fine Wools, presented by the King of 
Saxony to Peter A. Browne, Esq., of this city : — 

Report, That they have attended to the duty imposed upon them 
by their appointment, and have received, from the kind politeness of 
Mr Browne, much aid and information in relation to the subjects of 
their inquiries. It is already known to the Society that the attention 
of this gentleman has been for some time directed to the minute and 
critical investigation of hair and wool, and that by means of assi- 
duous microscopic and micrometric examination of these bodies he 
has been enable to arrived at results, some of which appear to have 
been before unknown, and others, if known, very little noticed. 
Among these, he claims the following : — 

That he was the first to point out the exact difference between hair 

184 Scientific Intelligence. — Zoology. 

and wool ; and that he originated the division of sheep into two spe- 
cies, viz. the hairy and the woolly. 

That by the application of the well-known laws of hybridism, he 
was the first to shew that by crossing these two species, a self-sup- 
plying, permanent race of animals cannot be produced. 

That he was the first to demonstrate, by actual measurement, that 
as fine wool can be grown in the United States as in any country in 
the world. 

From the results of his examination of a great number of speci- 
mens of wool from various parts of this country, he claims to have 
discovered that by drawing a diagonal line across the United States, 
corresponding somewhat with the line of tidewater, one may point 
out the respective districts where the woolly and the hairy sheep may, 
and may not, be bred with success. 

The Committee proposed not to enter into a critical investigation 
of the theories of Mr Browne, in relation to hair and wool ; but from 
the laborious and earnest attention which he has given to the subject, 
they are inclined to regard his opinions and conclusions as being well 
worthy of considerate attention from the naturalist, the agriculturist, 
and the manufacturer of fabrics in which wool forms an entire or a 
component part. If, as he asserts, the hairy and the woolly sheep 
are of different species, and that by their breeding together a degene- 
rate race is produced, yielding a mixed fleece of hair and wool, and 
inferior in other respects ; it is surely important that the fact should 
be known, and claim serious attention wherever sheep are bred, that 
the two varieties or races may be kept separate, as appears to be 
the case in the best sheep-folds in Saxony. 

The collection of wools presented by the King of Saxony to Mr 
Browne, consists of upwards of six hundred specimens, very neatly 
put up and labelled,. embracing varieties from the principal districts 
in that country where the growing of wool is pursued as a branch of 
agricultural economy. These specimens exhibit the quality of wool 
taken from different parts of the same animal, as well as the va- 
rieties from the different breeds of sheep, and the various districts in 
which they are produced. 

In relation to this collection of Saxony wools, and illustrative of 
the subject of sheep-breeding and wool-growing, Mr Browne has 
favoured the Committee with a communication, which is appended to 
this report. 

Chas. B. Trego. 

A. L. Elwyn. 

G. M. Justice. 

To Charles B. Trego, Alfred L. Elwyn, and George M. Justice, 
Esquires, Committee of the American Philosophical Society, ap- 
pointed to examine the Wools presented by His Majesty the King 
of Saxony to Peter A. Browne, of Philadelphia. — Gentlemen, the 
kingdom of Saxony is divided into four circuits and fourteen counties, 

Scientific Intelligence. — Zoology. 185 

and the specimens I now exhibit to you (numbering 628) represent 
the animals belonging to the principal stock sheep- folds in all the 
circuits, and in nearly all the counties ; so that the cabinet may be 
considered as presenting a fair view of the existing state of sheep- 
husbandry in Saxony. 

Saxony is the smallest kingdom in Europe ; containing, according 
to some writers, 5300, and according to others, 5640 square miles ; 
having, for its area, about one-eighth that of Pennsylvania, and about 
one-eleventh that of Virginia, yet it is said to maintain 25,000,000 
sheep. They export annually an immense quantity of wool, and 
their own manufactories of that article employ 25,000 people. 

To be perfectly satisfied that their sheep are of a very superior 
kind, and that their wool is of the finest sort, you have only to ex- 
amine these specimens, and compare them with the samples of fine 
wools brought by Mr Fleishman, from most parts of Europe, at the 
instance of the Federal Government. 

How did Saxony become possessed of this inestimable treasure ? 

According to the celebrated agriculturist, M. Thaer, Germany, 
before the introduction of the merinos, had three varieties of sheep ; 
neither of which were held in high estimation. In 1765, Augustus 
Frederick, then Elector of Saxony, procured from Spain, 200 merinos, 
which he placed at Stolpgen, in the county of Hayn, and circuit of 
Dresden. Against this innovation, popular prejudice at first ran 
high, but it gradually subsided with the progress of experiment ; and, 
in 1777, so much had these sheep risen in public estimation, that 
the elector determined to import 300 more. The agent sent to 
Spain could procure only 110, and of these many died during and 
soon after the transportation ; but they, like those previously ob- 
tained, were selected from the best Spanish flocks ; and then com- 
menced the celebrated establishments of Rennersdorf, in the county 
and circuit of Bautzon and of Lochmule, in the county of Nieder- 
forchheim, in the circuit of Zwickau. It was upon this compara- 
tively slender foundation that the art of sheep-breeding was erected 
in Saxony. But it could never have attained its present great cele- 
brity, but for the rigid observance of the rule, in breeding, to keep 
these merinos entirely separate from all other sheep ; their blood 
was, by this means, preserved pure ; no mixture of them with either 
of the pre-existing races being allowed, on any pretence whatever. 
And to this day, the Saxon sheep-breeder will not permit one to 
lose sight of this important fact; in proof of which I call your at- 
tention to this clause in the letter of Mr V. Kirchen, the farmer of 
the stock sheep-fold of the Duke of Parma, in the county of Dres- 
den, called " Weistropp," which accompanies these 16 beautiful 
specimens, — •" These sheep are the descendants of the original im- 
portation from Spain of 1778."" 

I consider this collection of specimens of Saxony wool as a practi- 
cal illustration of my theory of sheep-breeding and fine wool-grow- 


186 Scientific Intelligence. — Zoology. 

ing, verifying the rule which I laid down, long before I saw these 
specimens, that to insure a pure and perfect breed of fine-woolled 
sheep, it is absolutely necessary to preserve the two species of these 
animals entirely separate, and not to mix the merinos with the 
common sheep of the country, as is too often done in the United 

If any American sheep-breeder still entertains a latent doubt as 
to the soundness of this rule, he is invited to inspect this collection, 
to have passed, separately, in review, the specimens from the various 
sheepfolds, aud particularly to notice that this is not a collection of 
picked locks, from those parts of the animal where the wool is usually 
the finest ; but that in order to afford the greatest facility of judging 
of the sheep from the wool, samples are given from all parts of the 
body, the shoulders, the withers, the back, from under the belly, the 
tail, and the legs : let these be carefully examined, and they will be 
found to be all wool ; not a hair to be found upon those parts of 
the sheep where the impure race commence shewing hair. 

I consider this uniformity and entirety of fibre as an unerring test 
of purity of blood ; and therefore cannot but regard Saxony as an 
example, upon a large scale, and worthy of being followed, of the 
perfection of sheep-husbandry. 

It will be recollected that I have heretofore shewn, by actual ad- 
measurements with the microscope and micrometer, that as fine wool 
can be produced in the United States as in any part of the world ; 
there is therefore no deficiency in climate or soil ; all that the 
American agriculturist requires is to procure a pure breed, and to 
preserve them uncontaminated by spurious crossings. To obtain the 
former, I proffer free inspection of my cabinet, where there will be 
found samples of all the varieties, with references to the sheepfold 
from which they can be supplied, and even the number of the sheep 
whose wool is there exposed to view. 

In connection with this part of the expose, I ask particular atten- 
tion to this suite of specimens from the Manor of Obermylaw, near 
liechenbach. It will be recollected that the principal objection to 
the Saxo-merino sheep has heretofore been, that the staple is short, 
and consequently that the clip must be light ; but these specimens, 
while they exhibit the maximum fineness, have a staple so long as 
to obviate entirely this objection. This variety of Saxon wool has 
not, so far as I know and believe, been before brought to this country, 
nor have the sheep from which it was taken, made their appearance 
in the United States ; but it must be borne in mind, that as they 
are only a variety of the merino, the American planter and farmer 
may, by proper care and attention, produce it here, or he may im- 
port these very sheep, and by due management preserve the integrity 
of their fleece. 

Upon the whole, therefore, I submit to you, gentlemen, that his 
Majesty the King of Saxony has conferred a singular favour upon 

Scientific Intelligence. — Botany. 187 

the United States, in sending hither these specimens, and that he is 
entitled to the thanks of all good citizens who take an interest in this 
important branch of industry. I am, &c. 

P. A. Brown. 


15. Microscopical Description of the Protococcus nivalis from 
the Arctic Regions, by M. Justice. — The perfect type of the Pro* 
tococcus nivalis, is a globular cyst, varying in size from the 
sso o^ 1 °f an inch to the toV o tn °f an inch * n diameter ; each cell 
or cyst having an opening, whose smallest diameter measures only 
the soV o tn P art °f an inch. This opening is surrounded by marked 
serrated or indented lines, as though by the expansion and gradual 
growth of the cell the opening had also been irregularly expanded. 
The plant, when perfect, greatly resembles the red currant of our 
gardens ; as it decays the red colouring matter is lost, being gradu- 
ally superseded by a deep orange, which finally appears to change 
into a brown, or the cell becomes transparent. In this transparent 
state, when the cell is broken, the thickness of the enveloping cuticle 
may be measured, this does not exceed the 2 oo o o^ n P ar ^ °f an inch » 
and where the opening is preserved, the interior of it becomes of a 
delicate green colour. Many of the cells exhibit the hexagonal 
figure instead of being globular ; but this is the result of compression, 
where masses of them have been thrown together. Mingled with 
the protococcus are fragments of a tissue of reticulated and cellular 
formation, much resembling some of the infusorial polycystina. So 
minute are the openings in these that they do not exceed the T5 ^^th 
part of an inch in diameter. — {Proceedings of the American Phili- 
sophical Society.) 

16. Dr Kane on Specimens of Vegetable Matter found by him on 
the Ice Plains of the Polar Seas. — They consisted of the minute 
filaments and radicles of two species of moss (undetermined), mingled 
with the leaves and corticlo of a heath, recognizable by the un- 
assisted eye as the Andromeda tetragona; the broken thalli of 
several lichens, and in one case, the capsule of a saxifrage. 

Those were collected at different times during the long ice drift 
of the late Grinnell expedition, and at distances from land varying 
from forty to seventy-six miles. They appeared as almost micro- 
scopic specks upon the surface of the snow-fields, and would readily 
elude casual observation. They had been undoubtedly conveyed from 
the shore over the dry and polished surface of the ice by the action of 
the winds, and it seemed as if they might be transported in the 
same manner to indefinite distances, unless arrested by the continued 
intervention of open water. 

Dr Kane alluded to the infusorial dust of South America and 
Africa, and the diffusion of volcanic ash and scoriae over extended 

188 Scientific Intelligence. — Miscellaneous. 

areas, as also to the presence of acetic and hippuric acids, &c, in the 
atmosphere, as detected by Fresnel and Horsford. He believed, 
however, that this was the first instance of an analogous observation 
with regard to organized and vegetable matter, and he regarded it 
as having an interesting connection with the protococcus nivalis, 
and other growths upon a naked snow surface. 

Dv Kane stated that he had collected the red snow at a point 
within the arctic circle, as high as lat. 76° 15', and from the shores 
of Wellington Channel to those of Greenland. Throughout all this 
extensive range it ivas in no case found on snow devoid of other ve- 
getable life. It generally occupied dependent valleys and grooves, 
and was found there in connection with the fronds of lichens, por- 
tions of mosses, the catkins of the willow, &c. &c. The intensity of 
the colouring appeared to bear a certain marked relation to the 
quantity of such foreign matter present in these localities. 

Dr Kane added that Sir Edward Parry had detected this singular 
vegetable organism on the distant Spitzbergen ice fields, and Saus- 
sure, Baer, and others, on isolated Alpine slopes ; but that even in 
these cases, it could not be said that the snow-surface was absolutely 
without a vegetable nidus. He had himself collected this snow 
seventy-six miles from any land, and from surfaces which, but for a 
critical examination, would have seemed altogether pure. 

He did not wish his remarks to be understood as bearing upon the 
general question of the ability of snow-water to afford the necessary 
ammonia for the supply of the plants, but as simply indicating for 
many of the heretofore " isolated" localities of the red snow, the 
pre-existence of a matrix of vegetable character. — (Proceedings of the 
American Philosophical Society?) 


17. Important Scientific Invention. — A letter from Berlin of the 
17th says — " It is well known that the paper prepared for photography 
grows more or less black by rays of light falling on it. One of our 
young painters, M. Schall, has just taken advantage of this property 
in photographic paper to determine the intensity of the sun's light. 
After more than 1500 experiments, M. Schall has succeeded in 
establishing a scale of all the shades of black which the action of the 
solar system produces on the photographic paper: — so that, by com- 
paring the shade obtained at any given moment on a certain paper 
with that indicated on the scale, the exact force of the sun's light 
may be ascertained. Baron Alexander von Humboldt, M. de Litt- 
now, M. Dove, and M. Poggendorff, have congratulated M. Schall 
on this invention, which will be of the highest utility not only for 
scientific labours, but also in many operations of domestic and rural 

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On an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, illustrating the Geogra- 
phical Distribution of Marine Animals. With an illus- 
trative Map. By James D. Dana, Esq. 

The temperature of the waters is well known to be one of 
the most influential causes limiting the distribution of ma- 
rine species of life. Before, therefore, we can make any intel- 
ligent comparison of the species of different regions, it is 
necessary to have some clear idea of the distribution of tem- 
perature in the surface waters of the several oceans ; and, 
if we could add also the results of observations at various 
depths beneath the surface, it would enable us still more 
perfectly to comprehend this subject. The surface tempe- 
rature has of late years been quite extensively ascertained, 
and the lines of equal temperature may be drawn with con- 
siderable accuracy. But in the latter branch of thermome- 
tric investigation almost everything yet remains to be done : 
there are scattering observations, but none of a systematic 
character, followed through each season of the year. 

The map (Plate I.) which we present in illustration of this 
subject, presents a series of lines of equal surface temperature 
of the oceans. The lines are isocheimal lines, or, more pro- 
perly, isocrymal lines ; and where they pass, each exhibits the 
mean temperature of the waters along its course for the 
coldest thirty consecutive days of the year. The line for 68° 
F., for example, passes through the ocean where 68° F. is 
the mean temperature for extreme cold weather. January 
is not always the coldest winter month in this climate, nei- 

VOL. LVI. NO. CXII. — APRIL 1854. 

190 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

ther is the winter the coldest season in all parts of the globe, 
especially near the equator. On this account we do not re- 
strict the lines to a given month, but make them more cor- 
rectly the limit of the extreme cold for the year at the 
place.* Between the line of 74 c north and 74° south of the 
equator, the waters do not fall for any one month below 
74° F. ; between 68° north and south, they do not fall be- 
low 68°. 

There are several reasons why isocrymal are preferable to 
summer or isotheral lines. The cause which limits the 
distribution of species northward or southward from the equa- 
tor is the cold of winter, rather than the heat of summer, or 
even the mean temperature of the year. The mean tempe- 
rature may be the same when the extremes are very widely 
different. When these extremes are little remote, the equa- 
ble character of the seasons, and especially the mildness of 
the winter temperature, will favour the growth of species 
that would be altogether cut off by the cold winters where 
the extremes are more intense. On this account lines of the 
greatest cold are highly important for a chart illustrating the 
geographical distributions of species, whether of plants or ani- 
mals. At the same time, summer lines have their value ; 
but this is true more particularly for species of the land and 
fresh-water streams, and for sea-shore plants. When the 
summer of a continent is excessive in its warmth, as in North 
America, many species extend far from the tropics that would 
otherwise be confined within lower latitudes. But in the 
ocean, the extremest cold in the waters, even in the Polar 
regions, wherever they are not solid ice (and only in such 
places are marine species found), is but a few degrees 
below 32° F. The whole range of temperature for a re- 
gion is consequently small. The region which has 68° F. 

* The word isocrymal here introduced is from the Greek tiros, equal, and 
xpvfAos, extreme cold, and applies with sufficient precision to the lines for which 
it is used. These lines are not isocheimal lines, as these follow the mean winter 
temperature ; and to use this term in the case before us, would be giving the 
word a signification which does not belong to it, and making confusion in the 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 191 

for its winter temperature, has about 80° for the hottest 
month of summer ; and the line of 56° F. in the Atlantic, 
which has the latitudes of the state of New York, follows 
the same course nearly as the summer line of 70° F. In each 
of these cases the whole extent of the range is small, being 
twelve to fourteen degrees.* 

In fresh-water streams, the waters, where not frozen, do 
not sink lower than the colder oceans, reaching at most but 
a few degrees below freezing. Yet the extremes are greater 
than for the ocean ; for in the same latitudes which give for 
the ocean 56° and 70° F. as the limits, the land- streams of 
America range in temperature between 30° and 80° F., and 
the summer warmth, in such a case, may admit of the deve- 
lopment of species that would otherwise be excluded from 
the region. 

While, then, both isocrymal and isotheral lines are of im- 
portance on charts illustrating distribution over the conti- 
nents, the former are pre-eminently important where the 
geography of marine species is to be studied. 

The lines of greatest cold are preferable for marine spe- 
cies to those of summer heat, because of the fact, also, that 
the summer range of temperature for thirty degrees of lati- 
tude either side of the equator is exceedingly small, being 
but three to four degrees in the Atlantic, and six to eight de- 
grees in the Pacific. The July isothermal for 80° F. passes 
near the parallel of 30° ; and the extreme heat of the equa- 
torial part of the Atlantic Ocean is rarely above 84°. The 
difficulty of dividing this space by convenient isothermals 
with so small a range is obvious. 

It is also an objection to using the isotheres, that those 
towards the equator are much more irregular in course than 
the isocrymes. That of 80° for July, for example, which is 
given on our map from Maury's chart, has a very flexuous 
course. Moreover the spaces between the isotheres fail to 
correspond as well with actual facts in geographical distri- 

* Moreover, the greatest range for all oceans is but 62° of Fahrenheit, the 
highest being 88°, and the lowest 26° ; while the temperature of the atmosphere 
of the globe has a range exceeding 150°. 

o 2 

192 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

bution. The courses of the cold-water currents are less evi- 
dent on such a chart, since the warm waters in summer to a 
great extent overlie the colder currents. 

It is also to be noted, that nothing would be gained by 
making the mean temperature for the year, instead of the 
extremes, the basis for laying down these lines, as will be in- 
ferred from the remarks already made, and from an exami- 
nation of the chart itself. 

The distribution of marine life is a subject of far greater 
simplicity than that of continental life. Besides the influence 
on the latter of summer temperature in connection with that 
of the cold seasons, already alluded to, the following ele- 
ments or conditions have to be considered : the character of 
the climate, whether wet or dry ; of the surface of the re- 
gion, whether sandy, fertile, marshy, &c. ; of the vegetation, 
whether that of dense forests or open pasture-land, &c. ; of 
the level of the country, whether low or elevated, &c. These 
and many other considerations come in, to influence the dis- 
tribution of land species, and lead to a subdivision of the 
Regions into many subordinate Districts. In oceanic pro- 
ductions, depth and kind of bottom have an important bear- 
ing : but there is no occasion to consider the moisture or dry- 
ness of the climate, and the influence of the other peculiari- 
ties of region mentioned is much less potent than with con- 
tinental life. 

We would add here, that the data for the construction of 
this chart have been gathered, as regards the North Atlan- 
tic, from the isothermal chart of Lieutenant Maury, in which 
a vast amount of facts are registered, the result of great 
labour and study. For the rest of the Atlantic and the other 
oceans we have employed the meteorological volume of Cap- 
tain Wilkes of the Exploring Expedition Reports, which em- 
braces observations in all the oceans, and valuable deduc- 
tions therefrom ; also the records of other travellers, as 
Humboldt, Duperey of the Coquille, D'Urville of the Astro- 
labe, Kotzebue, Beechey, Fitzroy, Vaillant of the Bonite, 
Ross in his Antarctic Voyage, together with such isolated 
tables as have been met with in different Journals. The lines 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 193 

we have laid down are not, however, those of any chart pre- 
viously constructed, for the reason stated, that they mark the 
positions where a given temperature is the mean of the 
coldest month (or coldest thirty consecutive days) of the 
year, instead of those where this temperature is the mean 
annual or monthly heat; and hence the apparent discre- 
pancies which may be observed, on comparing it with iso- 
thermal charts. 

The isocrymal lines adopted for the chart are those of 80°, 
74°, 68°, 62°, 56°, 50°, 44°, and 35° of Fahrenheit. The tem- 
peratures diminish by 6°, excepting the last, which is 9° less 
than 44°. 

In adopting these lines in preference to those of other de- 
grees of temperature, we have been guided, in the first place, 
by the great fact, that the isocryme of 68° is the boundary- 
line of the coral-reef seas, as explained by the author in his 
Report on Zoophytes.* Beyond this line either side of the 
equator we have no species of true Madrepora, Astrsea, 
Meandrina, or Porites ; below this line these corals abound, 
and form extensive reefs. This line is hence an important 
starting-point in any map illustrating the geography of ma- 
rine life. Passing beyond the regions of coral reefs, we leave 
behind large numbers of Mollusca and Radiata, and the boun- 
dary marks an abrupt transition in zoological geography. 

The next line below that of 68° F. is that of 74° F. The 
corals of the Hawaiian Islands, and the Mollusca also to a 
considerable extent, differ somewhat strikingly from those of 
the Feejees. The species of Astraea and Meandrina are 
fewer, and those of Porites and Pocillopora more abundant, 
or at least constitute a much larger proportion of the reef 
material. These genera of corals include the hardier species ; 
for where they occur in the equatorial regions, they are found 
to experience the greatest range in the condition of purity of 
the waters, and also the longest exposures out of water. 

* In the author's Report on Geology, 66° F. is set down as the limiting tem- 
perature of coral-reef seas ; this, however, is given as the extreme cold. 68° 
appears to he the mean of the coldest month, and is therefore here used. 

194 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

Their abundance at the Hawaiian Islands, as at Oahu, is 
hence a consequence of their hardier character, and not a 
mere region peculiarity independent of temperature. There 
are grounds, therefore, for drawing a line between the Ha- 
waiian Islands and the Feejees ; and as the temperature at 
the latter sinks to 74J° F. some parts of the year, 74° F. is 
taken as the limiting temperature. The Feejee seas are ex- 
ceedingly prolific and varied in tropical species. The corals 
grow in great luxuriance, exceeding in extent and beauty 
anything elsewhere observed by the writer in the tropics. 
The ocean between 74° F. north of the equator, and 74° F. 
south, is therefore the proper tropical or torrid region of 
zoological life. 

With respect to the line of 80 F., we are not satisfied 
that it is of much importance as regards the distribution of 
species. The range from the hottest waters of the ocean, 
88° to 74° F., is but fourteen degrees, and there are probably 
few species occurring within the region that demand a less 
range. Still, investigations hereafter made may shew that 
the hot waters limited by the isocryme of 80° include some 
peculiar species. At Sydney Island and Fakaafo, within this 
hot area, there appeared to be among corals a rather greater 
prevalence than usual of the genus Manopora, which, as these 
are tender species, may perhaps shew that the waters are 
less favorable for hardier corals than those of the Feejees, 
where the range of temperature is from 70° to 80° F. ; but 
this would be a hasty conclusion, without more extended 
observations. The author was on these islands only for a few 
hours, and his collections were afterwards lost at the wreck 
of the Peacock, just as the vessel was terminating the voyage 
by entering the Columbia River. 

It is unnecessary to remark particularly upon the fitness 
of the other isocrymals for the purposes of illustrating the 
geographical distribution of marine species, as this will be- 
come apparent from the explanations on the following pages. 

The regions thus bounded require, for convenience of de- 
signation, separate names, and the following are therefore 
proposed. They constitute three larger groups : the first, 
the Torrid zone or Coral-reef seas, including all below the 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 195 

isocryme of 68° F. ; the second, the Temperate zone of the 
oceans, or the surface between the isocrymes of 68° F. and 
35°F,; the third,ike Frigid zone,or the waters beyond the iso- 
cryme of 35° F. 

Regions. Isocrymal limits. 

1. Supertorrid, . . . 80° F. to 80° F. 

2. Torrid, . . . .80° 

3. Subtorrid, . . .74° 

to 74° 
to 68° 


1. Warm temperate, 

2. Temperate, 

3. Subtemperate, 

4. Cold temperate, 

5. Subfrigid, 

1. Frigid, 

A ninth region- 


56 c 
50 c 
44 c 

to 62° 
to 56° 
to 50° 
to 44° 
to 35° 

35° to 26° 

■called the Polar — may be added, if it 
should be found that the distribution of species living in the 
frigid zone requires it. There are organisms that occur in the 
ice and snow itself of the polar regions ; but these should be 
classed with the animals of the continents ; and the conti- 
nental isotherms or isocrymes, rather than the oceanic, are 
required for elucidating their distribution. 

It seems necessary to state here the authorities for some 
of the more important positions in these lines, and we there- 
fore run over the observations, mentioning a few of most 
interest. There is less necessity for many particulars with 
reference to the North Atlantic, as our facts are mainly de- 
rived from Lieut. Maury's chart, to which the author would 
refer his readers. 

1. North Atlantic. — Isocryme of 74° F. — This isocryme 
passes near the reefs of Key West, and terminates at the 
north-east cape of Yucatan ; it rises into a narrow flexure 
parallel with Florida along the Gulf Stream, and then con- 
tinues on between the Little and Great Bahamas. To the 
eastward, near the African coast, it has a flexure northward, 
arising from the hot waters along the coast of Guinea, which 
reach in a slight current upward towards the Cape Verde 

196 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

Islands. The line passes to the south of these islands, at 
which group Fitzroy, in January of 1852, found the sea- 
temperatures 71° and 72° F. 

Isocryme of 68° F. — Cape Canaveral, in latitude 27° 30', 
just north of the limit of coral reefs on the east coast of 
Florida, is the western termination of the line of 68°. The 
Gulf Stream occasions a bend in this line to 36° north, and 
the polar current, east of it, throws it southward again as 
far as 29° north. Westward it inclines much to the south, 
and terminates just south of Cape Verde, the eastern cape 
of Africa. Sabine found a temperature of 64° to 65° F. off 
Goree, below Cape Verde, January 1822 ; and on February 
9, 1822, he obtained 66^° near the Bissao shoals. These 
temperatures of the cold season contrast strikingly with 
those of the warm season. Even in May (1831) Beechey 
had a temperature of 86° off the mouth of Rio Grande, be- 
tween the parallels of 11° and 12° north. 

Isocryme of 62° F. — This isocryme leaves the American 
coast at Cape Hatteras, in latitude 35 J° north, where a bend 
in the outline of the continent prevents the southward ex- 
tension of the polar currents close along the shores. It 
passes near Madeira and bends southward, reaching Africa 
nearly in the latitude of the Canaries. 

Isocrymes of 56° and 50° F. — Cape Hatteras, for a like 
reason, is the limit of the isocrymes of 56° and 50° as well 
as of 62°, there being no interval between them on the 
American coast. The line of 56° F. has a deep northward 
flexure between the meridians of 35° and 40° west, arising 
from the waters of the Gulf Stream, which here (after a 
previous east and west course, occasioned by the Newfound- 
land Bank, and the Polar current with its icebergs) bends 
again north-eastward, besides continuing in part eastward. 
The Polar current sometimes causes a narrow reversed flex- 
ure, just to the east of the Gulf Stream flexure. Towards 
Europe, the line bends southward, and passes to the south- 
west cape of Portugal, Cape St Vincent, or perhaps to the 
north cape of the Straits of Gibraltar. Vaillant, in the 
Bonite, found the sea-temperature at Cadiz in February, 49 J° 
to 56° F. (9-7° to 13-4° C), which would indicate that Cadiz, 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 197 

although so far south (and within sixty miles of Gibraltar), 
experiences at least as low a mean temperature as 56° F, for 
a month or more of the winter season. We have, however, 
drawn the line to Cape St Vincent, which is in nearly the 
same latitude. Between Toulon and Cadiz, the temperatures 
of the Mediterranean in February, according to Vaillant, 
was 55J° to 60i° F. (134° to 15'7° C), and it is probable, 
therefore, that Gibraltar and the portion of the Mediterranean 
Sea east and north to Marseilles, fall within the Temperate 
Region, between the isocrymes of 56° and 62° F„ while the 
portion beyond Sardinia and the coast by Algiers is in the 
Warm Temperate Region, between the isocrymes of 62° and 
68° F. 

The line of 50° F., through the middle of the ocean, has the 
latitude nearly of the southern cape at the entrance of the 
British Channel ; but approaching Europe it bends down- 
ward to the coast of Portugal. The low temperature of 
49|° observed by Vaillant at Cadiz would carry it almost to 
this port, if this were the mean sea-temperature of a month, 
instead of an extreme within the bay. The line appears to 
terminate near latitude 42°, or six degrees north of the 
isocryme of 56°. This allows for a diminution of a degree 
Fahrenheit of temperature for a degree of latitude. A tem- 
perature as low as 61° F. has been observed at several 
points within five degrees of this coast in July, and a tem- 
perature of 52° F. in February. Vigo Bay, just north of 
42° north, lies with its entrance opening westward, well 
calculated to receive the colder waters from the north ; and 
at this place, according to Mr R. MacAndrew, who made 
several dredgings with reference to the geographical distri- 
bution of species, the Mollusca have the character rather of 
those of the British Channel than of the Mediterranean.* 

Isocryme of 44° F. — This line commences on the west, at 
Cape Cod, where there is a remarkable transition in species, 
and a natural boundary between the south and the north. 
The cold waters from the north, and the ice of Newfoundland 
Banks, press the line close upon those of 50° and 56° F. 
But after getting beyond these influences, it rapidly rises to 

* Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1850, p. 264. 

198 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

the north, owing to the expansion of the Gulf Stream in that 
direction, and forms a large fold between Britain and Ice- 
land ; it then bends south again and curves around to the 
west coast of Ireland. 

Isocryme of 35° F. — This line has a bend between Nor- 
way and Iceland like that of 44°, and from the same cause, 
— the influence of the Gulf Stream. But its exact position 
in this part has not been ascertained. 

2. South Atlantic. — Isocryme of 74° F. — This line be- 
gins just south of Bahia, where Fitzroy found in August 
(the last winter month) a temperature of 74° to 75^° F. 
During the same month he had 75|° to 76^° F. at Pernam- 
buco, live degrees to the north. Off Bahia, the temperature 
was two degrees warmer than near the coast, owing to the 
warm tropical current, which bends the isocryme south to 
latitude 17° and 18° and the cold waters that come up the 
coast from the south. The line gradually rises northward, 
as it goes west, and passes the equator on the meridian of 
Greenwich. Sabine, in a route nearly straight from Ascen- 
sion Island, in 8° south, to the African coast under the equa- 
tor, obtained in June (not the coldest winter month) the 
temperatures 78°, 77°, 74°, 72-8°, 72-5°, 73°, the tempera- 
ture thus diminishing on approaching the coast, although 
at the same time nearing the equator, and finally reaching 
it within a few miles. These observations in June shew 
that the isocryme of 74° F. passes north of the equator. The 
temperatures mentioned in Maury's chart afford the same 
conclusion, and lead to its position as laid down. 

Isocryme of 68° F.— On October 23 to 25, 1834, Mr 
D. J. Browne, on board the U.S. ship Erie, found the tem- 
perature of the sea, on entering the harbour of Rio Janeiro, 
67 f to 68£ F. Fitzroy, on July 6, left the harbour with the 
sea-temperature 70 \° F. Beechy, in August 1825, obtained 
the temperature 68-16° to 69-66 ' F. off the harbour. The 
isocryme of 68" F. commences therefore near Bio, not far 
south of this harbour. Eastward of the harbour, the tempera- 
ture increases two to four degrees. In July, Fitzroy carried 
a temperature above 68 as far south as 33° 16' south, longi- 
tude 50 10' west, the water giving at this time 68£° to 69}/ 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 199 

F. Beechey in August obtained 68° F. in 31° south, 46° west. 
The isocryme of 68° F. thus bends far south, reaching at least 
the parellel of 30°. It takes a course nearly parallel with 
the line of 74° F., as different observations shew, and passing 
just south of St Helena, reaches the African coast, near 
latitude 7° south. Fitzroy, on July 10 (mid-winter), had a 
sea-temperature of 68|-° near St Helena ; and Vaillant, in 
the Bonite, in September found the sea-temperature 68*7° 
to 69-26 F°. 

Isocrymes of 56° and 50° F. — These two isocrymes leave 
the American coast rather nearly together. The former 
commences just north of the entrance of the La Plata. 
Fitzroy, in July 23 to 31, 1832, found the sea-temperature 
at Monte Video 56° to 58° F., and in August, 57° to 54£° F. 
These observations would lead to 56° F. as nearly the mean 
of the coldest month. The temperature 56° F. was also ob- 
served in 35° south, 53° west, and at 36° south, 56° 36' west. 
But on July 10 and 13, 1833, at Monte Video, the sea-tem- 
perature was 46£° to 472°, a degree of cold which, although 
only occasional, throws the line of 56° F. to the north of this 
place. The temperature near the land is several degrees of 
Fahrenheit lower than at sea three to eight degrees distant. 
East of the mouth of La Plata, near longitude 30° west, 
Beechey, in July 1828, found the temperature of the sea 
61-86° F. So in April 23 to 29, Vaillant obtained the tem- 
perature 59-5° to 61-25° F. at Monte Video, while in 35° 5' 
south, 49° 23' west, on April 14, it was 66-2° F.; and farther 
south, in 37° 42' south, 53° 28' west, April 30, it was 64-4° F. ; 
and in 39° 19' south, 54° 32' west, on May 1, it was 57f ° F. ; 
but a little to the westward, on May 2, in 40° 30' south, 56° 
54' west, the temperature was 48° F., an abrupt transition 
to the colder shore waters. Beechey, in 39° 31' south, 45° 
13' west, on August 28 (last of winter), found the tempera- 
ture 57-25° F., and on the 29th, in 40° 27' south, 45° 46' 
west, it was 54-20° ; while on the next day, in 42° 27' south, 
45° 11' west, the temperature fell to 47-83° F. These and 
other observations serve to fix the position of the isocryme 
of 56° F. It approaches the African coast in 32° south, 
but bends upward, owing to cold waters near the land. On 

200 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

August 20, Vaillant, in 33° 43' south, 15° 51' east, found the 
temperature 56° F. ; while on the 22d, in the same lati- 
tude, and 14° 51' east (or one degree farther to the westward), 
the temperature was 57*74° F,, being nearly two degrees 
warmer. At Cape Town, in June (latitude 34°), Fitzroy 
found 55° to 61° F,, while on August 16, farther south, in 
35° 4' south, and 15° 40' west, one hundred and fifty miles 
from the Cape, Vaillant found the temperature 59 26° F. 
The high temperature of the last is due to the warm waters 
that come from the Indian Ocean, and which afford 61° to 
64° F, in August, off the south extremity of Africa, west of 
the meridian of Cape Town. 

The isocryme of 50° F. leaves the American coast just 
south of La Plata ; after bending southwardly to the parallel 
of 41°, it passes east nearly parallel with the line of 56° F. 
It does not reach the African coast. 

Isocrymes of 44° and 35° F. — Fitzroy in August (the last 
winter month) of 1833, found the sea-temperature at Rio 
Negro (latitude 41° south) 48^° to 50° F. But during the 
voyage from the La Plata to Rio Negro, a few days before, 
a temperature of 44^° to 46° was met with ; this was in the 
same month in which the low temperature mentioned above 
was found at Montevideo. The bend in the course north of the 
entrance to the La Plata is to some extent a limit between 
the warmer waters of the north, and the colder waters from 
the south ; not an impassable limit, but one which is marked 
often by a more abrupt transition than occurs elsewhere 
along this part of the coast. The water was generally three 
or four degrees colder at Monte Video than at Maldonado, 
the latter port being hardly sheltered from the influence of 
the tropical waters, while Monte Video is wholly so. The 
exact point where the line of 44° F. reaches the coast is 
somewhat uncertain ; yet the fact of its being south of Rio 
Negro is obvious. After leaving the coast, it passes north 
of 47£° south, in longitude 53° west, where Beechey, in July 
1828, found the sea-temperature 4070° F. 

The line of 35° F. through the middle of the South Atlantic 
follows nearly the parallel of 50°; but towards South 
America it bends southward and passes south of the Falk- 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 201 

lands and Fuegia. At the Falklands, Captain Ross, in 1842, 
found the mean temperature of the sea for July, 38*73°, and 
for August, 38-10° ; while in the middle of the Atlantic, on 
March 24, latitude 52° 31' south, and longitude 8° 8' east, 
the temperature was down to 34*3° F., and in 50° 18' south, 
7° 15' east, it was 37° F. ; March 20, in 54° 7' south, on the 
meridian of Greenwich, it was 33*4° F. The month of 
March would not give the coldest temperature. 

The temperature of the sea along the south coast of 
Fuegia sinks almost to 35°, if not quite, and the line of 35° 
therefore runs very near Cape Horn, if not actually touching 
upon Fuegia, 

North Pacific Ocean. — Isocryme of 80° F. — The waters 
of the Atlantic in the warmest regions sink below 80° F. in 
the colder season, and there is therefore no proper Super- 
torrid Region in that ocean. In the Gulf of Mexico, where 
the heat rises at times to 85° F., it sinks in other seasons to 
74° and in some parts, even to 72° F. ; and along the Ther- 
mal equator across the ocean, the temperature is in some 
portions of the year 78°, and in many places 74°. 

But in the Pacific, where the temperature of the waters 
rises in some places to 88° F., there is a small region in 
which through all seasons the heat is never below 80°. It 
is a narrow area, extending from 165° east to 148° west, and 
from 7g° north to 11° south. In going from the Feejees in 
August, and crossing between the meridians of 170° west 
and 180°, the temperature of the waters, according to 
Captain Wilkes, increased from 79° to 84° F,, the last tem- 
perature being met with in latitude 5° south, longitude 175° 
west, and from this, going northward, there was a slow de- 
crease of temperature. The ship Relief, of the Expedition, in 
October, found nearly the same temperature (83| °) in the same 
latitude and longitude 177° west.* But the Peacock, in 
January and February (summer months), found the sea- 
temperature 85° to 88° F., near Fakaafo, in latitude 10° south, 
and longitude 171° west. In latitude 5° south and the same 
longitude, on the 16th of January, the temperature was 84° ; 

* See, for these facts, Captain Wilkes' Report on the Meteorology of the Ex- 

202 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

in 3' south, January 10, it was 83° F. ; on March 26, in 
5' south, and longitude 175° east, the temperature was 86° 
F. ; on April 10, in the same longitude, under the equator, 
at the Kingsmills, the temperature was 83J° F. ; on May 2, 
at 5° north, longitude 174° east, 83J° F. ; May 5, latitude 
10°, longitude 169° east, 82° f. The fact that the region of 
greatest heat in the middle Pacific is south of the equator, 
as it has been laid down by different authors, is thus evident ; 
the limits of a circumscribed region of hot waters in this 
part of the Pacific were first drawn out by Captain Wilkes. 

Another Supertorrid region may exist in the Indian Ocean, 
about its north-western portion ; but we have not sufficient 
information for laying down its limits. 

Isocryme of 74° F. — At San Bias, on the coast of Mexico, 
Beechey found the mean temperature of the sea for December 
1827, 74-63° F. ; for January, 73-69° F. ; for February, 7240° 
F. The line of 74° F. commences therefore a degree or two 
south of San Bias. In the winter of 1827 on January 16 to 
18, the temperature of 74-3° to 74-6° F. was found by 
Beechey, in 16° 4' to 16° 15' north, 132° 40' to 135° west; 
and farther west, in the same latitude, longitude 141° 58' 
west, the temperature was 74-83° F. West of the Sandwich 
Islands, near the parallel of 20° north, the temperature rises 
five degrees in passing from the meridian of 165° west to 
150° east, and the isocryme of 74° F. consequently trends 
somewhat to the north, over this part of the ocean. Between 
the meridians of 130° and 140° east, the temperature of the 
sea is quite uniform, indicating no northward flexure ; and 
west of 130° east, nearing China, there is a rapid decrease 
of temperature, bending the line far south. Vaillant, of the 
Bonite, found the sea of Cochin China, in latitude 12° 16' 
north, 109° 28' east, to have the temperature of 74-12° F. ; 
and even at Singapore, almost under the equator, the tem- 
perature on February 17 to 21, was 77'54° to 79-34° F. The 
isocryme of 74° F. terminates therefore upon the south- 
eastern coast of Cochin China. 

Isocryme o/68° F.— Off the Gulf of California, in 25° north, 
117° west, Beechey obtained, for the temperature of the sea, 
on December 13, 65° F. ; on December 15, in 23° 28' north 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 203 

(same latitude with the extremity of the peninsula of Cali- 
fornia), 115° west, a temperature of 69-41° F. The line of 
68° will pass from the extremity of this peninsula the tem- 
perature of the coast below, as it is shut off mostly from the 
more northern or cold waters, being much warmer. The 
temperature 69*41°, in the middle of December, is probably 
two and a half degrees above the cold of the coldest month, 
judging from the relative temperature of the latter half of 
December and the month of February at San Bias. Leaving 
California, the isocryme of 6&° will therefore bend a little 
southerly to 22J°, in longitude 115° west. In 23° 56' north, 
128° 33' west, Beechey, on January 11, found the temperature 
of the sea 67*83° F. The line of 68° passes north of the 
Sandwich Islands. The mean temperature of the sea at 
Oahu, in February 1827, was 69*69° F. 

Near China this isocryme is bent far south. At Macao, 
in winter, Vaillant found the sea-temperature, on January 
4, 59° F. ; on January 5 to 10, 52*7° to 50° F. ; January 11 and 
12, 49*87° to 48*74° F. ; January 13 to 16, 50*9° to 52-16° F. ; 
and at Touranne in Cochin China, on February 6 to 24, the 
sea-temperature was 68° to 68^° F. ; in 16° 22' north, 108° 
11' east, on January 24, it was 67°; in 12° 16' north, 109° 
28' east, it was 74-12° F. The very low Macao temperature 
is that of the surface of the bay itself, due to the cold of the 
land, and not probably, as the other observations shew, of 
the sea outside. 

The line, before passing south, bends northward to the 
south-east shore of Niphon, which is far warmer than the 
south-east coast, along Kiusiu. In the Report of the Morri- 
son's visit to Jeddo (Chinese Repository for 1837), a coral 
bottom is spoken of, as having been encountered in the har- 
bour of Jeddo. According to Sieboldt (Crust, Faun. Japon., p. 
ix.), the mean winter temperature (air) of Jeddo is 57° F. ; 
while that of Nagasaki, although farther south, is 44° F. 

Isocryme of 62° F. — On January 8, 1827, Beechey found 
in 29° 42' north, 126° 37' west, the temperature 62*75° F. ; 
while on the preceding day, 32° 42' north, 125° 43' west, the 
sea- temperature was 60*5° F. Again, on December 11, in 
29° north, 120° west, the temperature was 62*58° F. 

204 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

Isocryme of 5G F. — At Monterey, on January 1 to 5, the 
sea-temperature, according to Beechey, was 56° ; but the 
mean temperature of the sea 'for November 1 to 17 was 
.")4"91°. In the Yellow Sea the January temperature is 50° 
to 56° F., and the line of 56° begins south of Chusan. 

Isocryme of 50° F. — At San Francisco, from November 
18 to December 5, 1826, Beechey found the mean sea-tem- 
perature to be 51'14° F., and off Monterey, in longitude 123° 
west, the temperature was 50*75° F., on December 6. But 
in December of 1826, the mean sea-temperature at San 
Francisco was 54*78° F. ; and for November, 60-16° F. The 
line of 50° F, (mean of the coldest thirty consecutive days), 
probably leaves the coast at Cape Mendocino. 

Isocrymes of 44° and 35° F. — Captain Wilkes found the 
temperature off the mouth of the Columbia River, through 
ten degrees of longitude, 48° to 49° F,, during the last of 
April 1841. The isocrymes of 44° would probably reach the 
coast not far north of this place. The temperature on Oc- 
tober 21, in the same latitude, but farther west, 147° west, 
was 52-08° F. On October 16, in 50° north, 169° west, the 
temperature was 44*91° F. According to some oceanic tem- 
peratures for the North Pacific, obtained from Lieutenant 
Maury, the sea-temperature off northern Niphon, in 41° 
north, and 142^° east, was 44° F., in March, shewing the in- 
fluence of the cold Polar current ; and in 42° north, and 
149*° east, it was 43° F. The line of 44° hence bends south- 
ward as far as latitude 40° north, on the Japan coast. 

Again in March, in 43° 50' north, 151° east, the sea-tem- 
perature was 41° F, ; in 44° 50' north, 152° 10' east, 39° F, ; 
in 46° 20' north, 156° east, 33° F. ; in 49° north, 157" east, 
33° F. ; and at the same time, west of Kamtschatka, in 55° 
north, 153° east, 38° F. ; in 55° 50' north, 153° west, 38° F. 
The line of 35° consequently makes a deep bend, nearly to 
45° north, along the Kurile Islands. 

South Pacific— Isocrymes of 74°, 68°, and 62° F.— The 
temperature of the sea at Guayaquil, on August 3, was 
found by Vaillant to be, in the river, from 70£° to 73£° F., 
and at the Puna anchorage, August 5 to 12, 74*7° to 75*2° F, 
But off the coast, August 15, in 2° 22 south, 81° 42' west, 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 205 

the temperature was 69*8° F, ; and the next day, in 1° 25' 
south, 84° 12' west, it was 70° F. ; on the 17th, 1° south, 87 
42' west, it was 71*28° F. ; and on the 14th, nearer the shore 
of Guayaquil, in 3° 18' south, 80° 28' west, it was 78° F. 
Again, at Payta, one hundred miles south of Guayaquil, in 
5° south, the sea-temperature was found by Vaillant, July 
26 to 31, to be 608° to 61*° F. The isocryme of 71° F. 
consequently leaves the coast just north of the bay of Guaya- 
quil, while those of 68° and 62° F. both commence between 
Guayaquil and Payta. Payta is situated so far out on the 
western cape of South America that it receives the cold 
waters of the south, while Guayaquil is beyond Cape Blanco, 
and protected by it from a southern current. At the Galla- 
pagos, Fitzroy found the temperature as low as 58^° F. on 
the 29th of September, and the mean for the day was 62°. 
The average for' September was, however, nearer 66°. The 
Gallapagos appear, therefore, to lie in the Warm Temperate 
Region, between the isocrymes of 62° and 68° F. Fitzroy, 
in going from Callao' to the Gallapagos, early in September, 
left a sea-temperature of 57° F. at Callao, passed 62° F. in 
9° 58' north, and 79° 42' west, and on the 15th, found 68^° 
F. off Barrington Island, one of the Gallapagos. 

In the warm season the cold waters about the Gallapagos 
have narrow limits ; Beechey found a sea-temperature of 
83-58° on the 30th of March 1827, just south of the equator, 
in 100° west. But in October, Fitzroy, going westward and 
southward from the Gallapagos, found a sea-temperature of 
66° F. at the same place ; and in nearly a straight course 
from this point to 10° south, 120° west, found the sea-tem- 
peratures successively 68°, 70°, 70*° 72^°, 73*°, 74° ; and be- 
yond this, 75i°, 76^°, 77^° F., the last on November 8, in 
14° 24' south, 136° 51' west. These observations give a wide 
sweep to the cold waters of the colder seasons, and throw 
the isocrymes of 74° and 68° F. far west of the Gallapagos. 
Captain Wilkes, in passing directly west from Callao, found 
a temperature of 68° F. in longitude 85° west ; 70° F. in 
95° west ; and 74° F. in 102° to 108° west. These and other 
observations lead to the positions of the isocrymes of 74°, 
68°, and 62°, given on the chart. The line of 74° passes 

VOL. LVI. NO. CXII. — APRIL 1854. P 

206 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

close by Tahiti and Tongatabu, and crossing New Caledonia, 
reaches Australia, in latitude 25° S. 

In mid-ocean there is a bend in all the southern isocrymes.* 

Tsocrymes of 56° and 50° F. — The temperature at Callao, 
in July, averages 58$° or 59° F. At Iquique, near 20° south, 
Fitzroy had 58° to 60° F., on July 14, 1835 ; and off Copiapo, 
in the same month, 56}° F. At Valparaiso, Captain Wilkes 
found a sea- temperature of 52 £° F., in May ; and Fitzroy, in 
September, occasionally obtained 48° F. ; but generally 52° 
to 53°. Off Chiloe, Fitzroy found the temperature 48° to 
5U° in July. 

Indian Ocean.— Isocrymes of 74° and 68° F. — Off the 
south extremity of Madagascar, in 27° 33' south, 47° 17' east, 
on August 4, Vaillant found the temperature 69*26° F. ; 
and in 29° 34' south, 46° 46' east, the temperature of 67-84° 
F. ; off South Africa, August 12, in 34° 42' south, 27° 25' 
east, the temperature 63*5° F. ; on August 14, in 35° 41' 
south, 22° 34' east, a temperature of 63*3° F. ; while off Cape 
Town, two hundred miles to the west, the temperature was 
50° to 54° F. 

In the above review we have mentioned only a few of the 
observations which have been used in laying down the lines, 
having selected those which bear directly on some positions 
of special interest as regards geographical distribution. 

The chart also contains the heat-equator, — a line drawn 
through the positions of greatest heat over the oceans. It 
is a shifting line, varying with the seasons, and hence there 
is some difficulty in fixing upon a course for it. We have 
followed mainly the chart of Berghaus ; but we have found 
it necessary to give it a much more northern latitude in the 
western Pacific, and also a flexure in the western Atlantic, 
both due to the currents from the south that flow up the 
southern continents. 

Vaillant, passing from Guayaquil to the Sandwich Islands, 
found the temperature, after passing the equator, slowly in- 
crease from 76° F., August 19, in 2° 39' north, 91° 58' west 
(of Greenwich), to 81'9° F., in August 31, 11° 15' north, 107° 
3' west, after which it was not above 80° F. The same place 

* See Observations by W. 0. Cunningbam, Amer. Journ. Sci. (2) xv. 66. 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 207 

in the ocean which gave Vaillant 76° F. 5 in August, afforded 
Fitzroy (4° north, 96° west), on March 26 (when the sun had 
long been far north), 82^° F. This fact shews the variations 
of temperature that take place with the change of season. 

Remarks on the several Temperature Regions. 
The form and varying breadth of the different regions, 
and the relations between the sea-temperatures of coasts in 
different latitudes which they exhibit, are points demanding 
special remark. The conclusions are of much interest, al- 
though some changes in the chart will undoubtedly be re- 
quired by future researches. 

Atlantic Torrid Region, between 74° F. north, and 74° F. 
south. — The form of this region is triangular, with the vertex 
of the triangle to the east. Its least width is four degrees 
of latitude ; its greatest width between the extreme lati- 
tudes is forty-six and a half degrees. On the African coast 
it includes only a part of the coast of Guinea, and no portion 
is south of the equator. On the west it embraces all the 
West India Islands and reefs (excepting the Little Bahama), 
and the South American coast, from Yucatan to Bahia, — a 
fact that accounts for the wide distribution of marine species 
on the American side of the ocean. 

Atlantic Subtorrid Regions, between 74° and 68° F. — The 
North Subtorrid Region of the Atlantic is about six degrees 
in its average width, which is equivalent to a degree of Fahr- 
enheit to each degree in surface. It incloses within the 
same temperature limits a part of the east coast of Florida, 
between 24° and 27£° north, and a part of the African coast, 
between the parallels of 9° and 14|° north, the two related 
coasts differing ten degrees in latitude. The Bermudas, in 
latitude 33°, and the Cape Verdes, in 15^°, fall within this 

The South Subtorrid Region has the same average width 
as the northern, 

Taking the whole Atlantic Torrid or Coral-reef zone to- 
gether, its width on the east is about twenty-one degrees, 
while on the west it extends between the parallels of 30° 
south and 34° north, a breadth of sixty-four degrees. As 

P 2 

208 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

many species will thrive under the temperature of any part 
of the Torrid zone, the geographical range of such species in 
the Atlantic may be very large, even from Florida and the 
Bermudas on the north, to Rio Janeiro on the south, a range 
of which there are actual examples. 

Atlantic Warm Temperate Regions, between 68° and 62° 
F. — The northern of these regions has a breadth of fourteen 
and a half degrees along the west of Africa, and about seven 
degrees along the United States, to the south of Cape Hat- 
teras, off the Carolinas, Georgia, and Northern Florida. 
These shores and the Canaries are therefore in one and the 
same temperate zone. 

The southern of these regions averages five degrees in 
width. The eastern limit on the African coast is sixteen to 
eighteen degrees to the north of the western on the South 
American coast. 

Atlantic Temperate Regions, between 62° and 56° F. — The 
north Temperate Region is but a narrow strip of water on 
the west, terminating at Cape Hatteras, and having no place 
on the coast of the United States. To the east it widens, 
and embraces the Azores, and the African coast along Mo- 
rocco, together with the Straits of Gibraltar, and a large 
part of the Mediterranean. Madeira lies upon its southern 
limit. It is, therefore, natural that the same species should 
occur at the Azores, Madeira, and on the African coast, and 
be excluded wholly from the Atlantic coast of Europe. This, 
according to Prof. Forbes, is the fact with the Littorina 
striata, besides other species. The coasts of Portugal and 
the Azores are in different regions. 

The South Temperate Region extends to Maldonado at 
the mouth of the La Plata, from near the parallel of 30° ; 
along the African coast it reaches over more than twice the 
number of degrees of latitude, to within five degrees of Cape 

Atlantic Hubtemperate Regions, between 56° and 50° F. — 
The northern of these regions, like the preceding, can not be 
distinguished on the coast of the United States, as the lines 
of 50° and 56 ' F. with 62° fall together at Cape Hatteras. 
On the eastern side of the Atlantic it occupies the coast of 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 209 

Portugal to latitude 42° north, having a width of five de- 
grees. It thus corresponds on this coast to the so-called 
Lusitanian Region, 

The southern includes the mouth of the La Plata on one 
side, and on the other the coast near Cape Town, beyond 
which it extends to the Cape of Good Hope, or rather to Cape 

Atlantic Cold Temperate Regions, between 50° and 44° F. 
— The coast from Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras, belongs to the 
Northern Cold Temperate Region. Passing easterly, this 
region is but a narrow line of water for thirty degrees of 
longitude, after which it expands, and finally terminates be- 
tween Western Ireland and latitude 42° on the Spanish 
coast. The British Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and probably 
Vigo Bay, Spain, are within the limits of this region. 

The southern embraces the coast of South America, along 
by Rio Negro, for about five degrees, and passes wholly to 
the south of Africa. 

Atlantic Subfrigid Regions, between 44° and 35° F. — The 
coast of Massachusetts, north of Cape Cod, of Maine and 
Newfoundland, and all Northern Britain, the Orkneys, Shet- 
lands, and Faroe Islands, pertain to the northern Subfrigid 
Region ; while the southern includes the Falklands, South- 
ern Patagonia, and Fuegia. 

Atlantic Frigid Regions, beyond 35° F. — Greenland, Ice- 
land, and Norway are within the northern of these regions, 
and the South Shetlands, Sandwich Land, and South Georgia, 
within the southern. 

Pacific Regions. — A comparison of the regions of the At- 
lantic and Pacific, and especially of the limits of those com- 
mencing at the South American coasts, brings out some 
singular facts. 

The Torrid region of the Pacific, near the American coast, 
embraces only seventeen and a half or eighteen degrees of 
latitude, all but one of which are north of the equator ; while 
that of the Atlantic covers a long range of coast, and reaches 
to 15° south. The south Subtorrid, region has a breadth of 
about three degrees on the Peruvian coast, reaching to 4° 
south, or probably to Cape Blanco, while that of the Atlantic 

210 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

extends to Rio Janeiro, in 24° south. The Warm Temperate 
region, if at all found north of Cape Blanco, 4f ° S., has a 
breadth of less than a degree, while that of the Atlantic ex- 
tends to Rio Grande, in 33° south. The next, or Temperate 
Region, has a longer range on the South American coast, 
extending to Copiapo, in 27a-° south, and the Atlantic region 
corresponding goes to Maldonado, in 35° south. The Cold 
Temperate regions of the two oceans cover nearly the same 

On the North American coast at Cape Hatteras, the three 
isocrymes 62°, 56°, and 50° F., leave the coast together ; and 
in the Pacific, on the South American coast, there is a similar 
node in the system of isocrymes, the three, 74°, 68°, and 62°, 
proceeding nearly together from the vicinity of Cape Blanco. 

Viewing these regions through the two oceans, instead of 
along the coasts, other peculiarities no less remarkable are 
brought out. The average breadth of the South Torrid re- 
gion in the Pacific, is more than twice as great as that of 
the same in the Atlantic ; and the most southern limit of 
the latter is five degrees short of the limit of the former in 
mid-ocean. So also the Subtorrid region, at its greatest 
elongation southward in the Atlantic, hardly extends beyond 
the mean course of the line of 68° F. in the Pacific, and the 
average breadth of the former is but two-thirds that of the 
latter. The same is true to an almost equal extent of the 
Warm Temperate and Temperate Regions. 

The breadth of the Torrid Region of the Pacific to the 
eastward, where narrowest, is about six degrees ; and to the 
westward, between its extreme limits, forty-nine degrees. 
The Torrid zone or Coral-reef Seas, in the same ocean, has 
a breadth near America of about eighteen degrees, and near 
Australia and Asia, of sixty-six degrees. 

New Zealand lies within the Subtemperate and Cold Tem- 
perate regions, excepting its southern portion, which appears 
to pertain, like Fuegia, to the Subfrigid. Van Diemen's 
Land, exclusive of its northern shores, is within the Cold 

Other particulars respecting the temperature regions 
through the Pacific will be gathered from the chart. 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 211 

Indian Ocean Regions. — The Torrid Region covers the 
larger part of the Indian Ocean, including all north of the 
equator, and embracing the larger part of Madagascar. The 
Subtorrid extends just beyond Port Natal on the African 
coast (four degrees of latitude north of Cape Town), where 
there are coral reefs, and also covers the northern part of 
the Red Sea. The Warm Temperate and Temperate regions 
each claim a part of the South African coast, and the latter 
terminates at Cape Lagulhas. 

It hence follows that Port Natal, in latitude 30° south, the 
Hawaiian Islands, and Bermudas, lie within regions of 
the same name ; while Cape Town, in latitude 34° south, is 
in a like region with northern New Zealand, Valparaiso, 
the Atlantic shores of Portugal, and the sea between Cape 
Hatteras and Cape Cod. 

The areas of the Torrid, Temperate, and Frigid zones of 
ocean temperature, either side of the equator, considering 
27° as the normal limit between the first two of these zones, 
and 56° the limit between the Frigid and Temperate, are as 
follow : — 

Torrid zone, 33,711,200 square miles (geographical) 

Temperate zone, 27,849,500 „ ,, 

Frigid zone, 12,694,700 „ „ 

It is hence seen that the Temperate zone, although two 
degrees wider than the Torrid, has not as large a surface. 
The species of marine life, if distributed equally over the 
two, would, therefore, be one-fifth more numerous in the 
Torrid zone than in the Temperate, unless the extent of 
ocean and coast-line were far greater in the Temperate than 
in the Torrid zone, which is not the case. The ocean in the 
southern Temperate is much more extensive than that of the 
southern Torrid ; but the coast-line is far less extensive in 
the former, as it does not abound in islands like the Torrid 
zone.* It is difficult to fix upon exact ratios, and we do not 
attempt it. 

The range of temperature is far greater in the Temperate 

* The following table gives very closely the surface of the zones in square 
geographical miles, for every 2£ degrees of latitude to the parallel of 60° : it 
is deduced from a larger table by Berghaus, in his Lander unci Volker-kundp, 

2J2 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

zone than in the Torrid, it being 20° F. in the latter, and 
33 P. in the former ; and this should be a cause of a greater 
variety of genera in the latter for the same number of 

In the Torrid zone the Subtorrid Region has nearly one- 
third the surface of the Torrid Region, and not one-fourth 
as much coast-line, facts which should be regarded in com- 
paring the number of species of the two. 

We add here a few brief remarks, in a popular way, on 
the origin of the peculiar forms and positions presented by 
the isothermal lines of the ocean. The great currents of the 
globe are admitted to be the causes that produce the flexures 
and modify the courses of these lines. These currents are 
usually of great depth, and consequently the deflecting land 
will be the deeply seated slopes off a coast, beyond ordinary 

The eastern coasts of the continents either side of the 
equator feel the influence of a warm equatorial current, 
which flows westward over each ocean, and is diverted north 
and south by the coasts against which it impinges, and more 
or less according to the direction of the coast. 

The western coasts of the continents, on the contrary, re- 
ceive a strong extra-tropical or polar current. In the south- 
ern oceans, it flows from the westward, or southward and 
westward, in latitudes 45° to 65° south, and is brought to 
the surface bv the submarine lands or the submarine slopes 
of islands or continents ; reaching the continents of Africa 

i. 47. The first is the zone from the equator to the parallel of 2*°, the second, 
from 2*° to 5°, and so on. 

2F . 


n • 


12* . 



17* , 



22* . 


27* . 


The zone 

from 60 





























to 70 has th 

i area, 

to so 


to 90 «< 



illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 213 

and South America, it follows along the western coasts to- 
wards the equator. The same current, being divided by the 
southern cape of America, flows also with less volume up 
the eastern coast, either inside of the warmer tropical current, 
or else on both sides of it. In the Northern Seas the sys- 
tem of polar currents is mainly the same, though less regu- 
lar ; their influence is felt on both eastern and western coasts, 
but more strongly on the eastern. In the Atlantic the latter 
reduces the temperature of the waters three or four degrees 
along the north coast of South America, as far nearly as 
Cape St Roque. 

The cold currents are most apparent along the coasts of 
continents and about islands, because they are here brought 
to the surface, the submarine slopes lifting them upward as 
they flow on. The limits of their influence towards the 
equator depends often on the bend of the coast ; for a promi- 
nent cape or a bend in the outline will change the exposure 
of a coast from that favourable to the polar current to that 
favourable to the tropical, or the reverse. Thus it is at 
Cape Hatteras, on the coast of the United States ; Cape 
Verde, on Western Africa ; Cape Blanco, on Western South 
America, &c. 

These are important principles modifying the courses of 
the oceanic isothermal lines. We may now proceed to the 
application of them which the best authors afford us, and to 
some conclusions flowing from the facts. 

In the Atlantic, the warm tropical current flowing west- 
ward is trended somewhat northward by the northern coast 
of South America, and still more so by the West India 
Islands, and thus it gradually curves around to parallelism 
with the coast of the United States. But south of New- 
foundland, either wholly from the influence of the colder cur- 
rent with which it meets, or in part from meeting with sub- 
marine slopes that serve to deflect it, it passes eastward, 
and afterwards, where it is again free to expand, it spreads 
both eastward and north-eastward. The flexures in the iso- 
crymes of 74 and 68° F., near the United States coast, thus 
have their origin. For the same reason the line of 56° F. 
is nearly straight, till it reaches beyond the influence of the 

214 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

Newfoundland Banks, and then makes its Gulf Stream flexure. 
The line of 44° F., for the same reason — the spreading of the 
Gulf Stream waters — diverges far from the equator in its 
easterly course, and even rises in a long loop between Great 
Britain and Iceland. 

The cold currents flowing down the eastern coast of Ame- 
rica bend the isocrymes far south close along the coast, and 
make a remarkable southern flexure in the isocrymes of 68° F., 
outside of the Gulf Stream flexure. So on the western coast 
of Britain, the isocryme of 44° F. has a deep southern flex- 
ure, for a like cause. 

The waters of the tropical current gradually cool down in 
their progress, through the influence of the colder waters 
which they encounter ; and along the isocryme of 62° they 
have in the colder seasons a common temperature with that 
of the ocean, so that the course of the Gulf Stream is but 
faintly marked in it. And also in the western half of the 
region covered by the isocryme of 56°, the colder and warmer 
waters have reached this as a mean temperature. Owing 
to the influence of the polar current on the northern coast of 
South America, the equator of heat lies at a distance from 
the land. 

Up the western coast of Africa flows the cold current from 
the south and west, bending upward all the isocrymal lines ; 
and passing north of the equator, it produces a large south- 
ern bend, off the coast of Africa, in the northern isocryme of 
74 , outside of the warm current flexure from the coast of 
Guinea, and also a large northern flexure in the heat-equa- 

The Atlantic tropical current also flows in part down the 
eastern coast of South America, giving a deep flexure to each 
of the isocrymes, besides making these lines to diverge from 
the equator, through all their length. Again, the polar cur- 
rent passes northward nearer the coast-line, bending far 
back the western extremity of each of the isocrymes. 

* Along the ocean, near Africa, south and south-east of the Cape Verdes, 
Captain Wilkes found a current setting to the northward for much of the timo. 
until pasting tiio equator. 

illustrating the Distribution of Mar hie Animals. 215 

In the Pacific the tropical currents shew their effects near 
the coasts of New Holland and China, in a gradual diver- 
gence of the lines from the equator. The ranges of islands 
forming the Tarawan, Radack, and Ralick groups, appear to 
divert the current northward in that part of the North Pa- 
cific, and consequently the isocrymal lines bend northward 
near longitudes 170° west and 180° ; and near Niphon that 
of 68° shews a still greater northern flexure. 

The influence of the extra-tropical currents in this ocean 
is remarkably great. The southern flows from the west and 
south, bending upward the line of 56° F. along the South 
American coast, producing at Valparaiso at times a sea-tem- 
perature of 48° F. Still farther north it throws the line of 
68° F. even beyond the equator and the Gallapagos ; and that 
of 74° F. nearly 1500 miles from the coast, and 400 north of the 
equator. The line of 62° F. reaches even beyond Payta, the 
sea-temperature at this place being sometimes below 61°. 

The north polar current produces the same result alon'g 
the eastern coast of Asia as on the eastern of America. The 
isocryme of 74° F. is bent southward from the parallel of 
23° to 12° 30' north, and that of 68° F. from 34° to 15° north ; 
and the latter deflection is even longer than the correspond- 
ing one in the Atlantic. The trend of the coast opens it to 
the continued action of this current until the bend in the out- 
line of Cochin-China, below which the cold waters have less 
influence, although still shewing some effect upon the heat- 
equator. The isocryme of 44° is bent southward to Niphon 
by the same cold waters, and from this part of the Northern 
Pacific the current appears to flow mostly between the islands 
of Japan and the continent. 

In the Indian Ocean the effects of the tropical current, as 
it flows westward, are apparent in the southern deflection of 
the several isocrymes. The trend of the coast favours a con- 
tinuation of the current directly along the coast, and conse- 
quently its modifying influence on the sea-temperature reaches 
almost to Cape Town on the coast, and passes even beyond 
it at sea, crrrying 56° F. to the meridian of 15° east. 

By comparing the regions of the different oceans, north 

210 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

and south of the equator, we may arrive at the mean position 
of the several isocrymes, and thereby discover, on a grander 
scale, the influence of the various oceanic movements. 

For the purpose of reaching mean results, the Middle Pa- 
cific is the most favourable ocean for study. This is appa- 
rent in its greater extent, and the wide distance between the 
modifying continents ; and also no less in the greater actual 
regularity of the isocrymes. 

We thence deduce, that the mean position of the isocryme 
of 74° F. is along the parallel of 20°, this being the average 
between the means for the North and South Pacific. In the 
same manner we infer that the mean position of the isocryme 
of 68° F. is along the parallel of 27°. 

The southern isocrymes of 56° and 62° F. are evidently 
thrown into abnormal proximity by the cold waters of the 
south. This current flows eastward over the position of the 
isocryme of 44° F., and consequently in that latitude has 
nearly this temperature, although colder to the south. Hence 
it produces little effect in deflecting the line of 44° F. ; more- 
over the line of 50° F. is not pushed upward by it. But the 
lines of 56° and 62° F. are thrown considerably to the north 
by its influence, and the Warm Temperate and Temperate 
Regions are made very narrow. With these facts in view, we 
judge, from a comparison of the North and South Pacific lines, 
that the mean position for the isocryme of 62° F. is the pa- 
rallel of 32°; and for 56° F., the parallel of 37° F. ; for the 
isocryme of 50° F. the mean position is nearly the parallel 
of 42 ; for 44 F. the parallel of 47° ; for 35° F. the parallel 
of 56°. There is thus a mean difference of five degrees of la- 
titude for six degrees of Fahrenheit, excepting near the equa- 
tor, and between 35 and 44° F. These results may be ta- 
bulated as follows :* — 

* We may hence deduce the temperature of those isocrymes to which the 
parallels of latitude for every five degrees would normally correspond. They 
would be for 20°, 71' F. ; for 25°, 70° P. ; for 30°, 64-4° P. ; for 35°, 581' P. ; 
for tO , r,2-4° F. ; for 45°, 4G4° P. ; for 50°, 41° F. ; for 55°, 36° P. ; for 60°, 
3] F. 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 217 


of 80° F., 

Parallel of 6 


74 „ . 



68 ,, 



62 „ 



56 „ 



50 „ 



44 „ 



35 „ 


Using these results as a key for comparison, we at once 
perceive the great influence of the oceanic movements on 
climate, and on the geographical distribution of marine 

The polar or extra- tropical current of the Southern At- 
lantic has a more northward course in mid-ocean than that of 
the Pacific. It consequently bears up the isocryme of 35° F. 
to the parallel of 50°, that is, six degrees above the mean. 
The effect on the other isocrymes of the Atlantic is very re- 
markable. We perceive, in the first place, that the most 
southern point of each of these isocrymes is not far from the 
mean position of the same isocrymes in the Pacific, while the 
most northern point of each is ten to twenty-five degrees 
further north. Taking the position of the isocrymes of 68° 
and 74° F., where they cross the meridian of 15° west, as the 
mean position for this ocean, we find that the former is eight 
degrees in latitude farther north than 68° F. in the South 
Pacific ; and the mean for the latter is in 7° south, while for 
the same in the Pacific it is 20° south, making a difference 
of thirteen degrees. The effect of the cold southern waters 
is consequently not along the African coast alone, but per- 
vades the whole ocean. It is hence obvious, how utterly 
untenable the common notion that the tropical current from 
the Indian Ocean is the same which flows up the west Afri- 
can coast. With a temperature of 56° south of Cape Town, 
it would be wholly incapable of causing the great deflections 
for the whole South Atlantic which have been pointed out. 
It combines with the cold current, but does not constitute it. 
The facts thus sustain the opinions long since brought for- 
ward by the distinguished meteorologist Mr Wm. C. Red- 
field, that the currents flowing north along the African and 

21 S J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart. 

Soutli American coasts are alike antarctic or cold temperate 

We may now turn to the North Atlantic. In this part of 
the ocean the mean positions of the isocrymes of 74° and 
08 F. are near the normal positions deduced from the Pa- 
cific. The line of 62° F. is in a somewhat higher latitude, 
the mean position, excluding the eastern and western deflec- 
tions, being near the parallel of 36°. The line of 56° F. has 
the parallel of 42^° north for its mean position over the middle 
of the ocean, which is five and a half degrees above the nor- 
mal in the Pacific. The line of 50° has in the same manner, 
for its mean position over mid-ocean, the parallel of 47J°, 
or again five and a half degrees above the normal position in 
the Pacific. The line of 44° F. may be considered as having 
for its mean position the parallel of 52° north, while it rises 
to 60° north. The lines in the North Atlantic above that 
of 68° average about five degrees higher in latitude than the 
mean normal positions, while 68° and 74° have nearly the same 
places as in the Pacific. There is hence a great contrast 
between the Pacific, South Atlantic, and North Atlantic 
Oceans. This is seen in the following table containing these 
results : — 

Normal, deduced 
from Pacific. 

Mean position in 
South Atlantic. 

Mean position in 
North Atlantic. 

y 11 

ie of 74° 




21° N. 

























52 (max. 60° N.) 






The influence of the warm tropical waters in the North 
Atlantic lifts the isocrymes of 74° and 68° as they approach 
the coast of America, while the same lines are depressed on 
the east by the colder northern currents. Moreover, north 
of 68° the whole interior of the ocean is raised four to five 
degrees in temperature above the normal grade, by the same 
waters spreading eastward ; and between Great Britain and 

* American .Journal of Science, xlv., 299, 1843. 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 219 

Iceland, the temperature is at least ten degrees warmer than 
in the corresponding latitude of the South Pacific, and thir- 
teen or fourteen degrees warmer than in the same latitude 
in the South Atlantic* 

The influence of so warm an ocean on the temperature of 
Britain, and on its living productions, animal and vegetable, 
is apparent, when it is considered that the winds take the 
temperature nearly of the waters they pass over. And the 
effects on the same region that would result from deflecting 
the Gulf Stream in some other direction, as brought out by 
Prof. Hopkinst and others, and substituting in the Northern 
Atlantic the temperature of the Southern Atlantic, is also 
obvious, without further illustration. The discussion of these 
subjects would be foreign to the topic before us. 

The subdivision of the oceans into Temperature Regions 
affords a convenient means of dividing off the coasts into 
Zoological Provinces. A comparison of the facts afforded 
by the distribution of Crustacea, with the positions and ex- 
tent of the provinces thus deduced, shew that they are natu- 
ral, and may in general be well characterized. 

Zoological Provinces have been considered by some as 
centres of creation, and therefore of diffusion, for groups of 
species. But such kinds of centres we fail to distinguish in 
any part of the globe. Each species may have had its one 
point of origin and single centre of diffusion in many and 
perhaps the majority of cases : but however the fact may be, 
we have no evidence for asserting that particular regions were 
without life, and were peopled by migration from specific and 
predetermined centres ; for if there were such centres of dif- 
fusion, there are at present no means by which they may be 
ascertained. The particular temperature region in which a 

* Ross, in his antarctic voyage, found the sea-temperature in 60° south and 
3° west, 31 £° F., in the month of March ,• at the South Shetlands, 61° south, 
the sea-temperature was 31° to 35° in January (midsummer) ; and in the same 
latitude, and 45° west, it was 30-1° in February. 

t Quarterly Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. viii., p. 56, and Amer. Jour. Science, 1853, 
vol. xv. 

220 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

species was created may be ascertained by observing which 
is most favourable for its development; and by this course 
of investigation, we may find that almost every different lo- 
cality has some species for which it is especially fitted. We 
may thus shew, as far as reason and observation can do it, 
that all regions, as a general thing, have had their own spe- 
cial creations. 

We rather look to climatal influences, in all their various 
kinds, directly and indirectly exerted, and united with height 
or depth of site, and other geographical conditions, as giving 
limits to Zoological Provinces ; and as regards marine ani- 
mals, ocean temperature is the more prominent of these in- 
fluences. Under temperature, the limits or extremes are to 
be considered as well as the mean, and also the varying ac- 
tion of currents which induce the changes, especially those 
occasional extreme results which are of decennial rather than 
annual occurrence. 

How far geological changes, by subsidence and elevation, 
have varied the distribution of the present races of animals, 
or given limits to zoological regions, is a point yet uninves- 
tigated. The conclusions that have been derived from this 
source are mostly of a hypothetical character, and are to be 
received with distrust without a larger supply of evidence. 
It is easy to meet a difficulty by the supposition of a former 
union by dry land of regions now separate ; but it appears to 
us that better evidence is needed on such a point, than those 
derived from the zoological fact which is to be explained. 

Along the various coasts, prominent capes are in general 
the limits of Zoological Provinces; and this fact is well shewn 
in the chart of ocean temperature. They are, as we have 
explained, the points where the cold or warm currents are 
turned off from a coast, and where, therefore, there is a sud- 
den transition in the temperature. A striking example of 
this has been pointed out on both the eastern coast of North 
America, and western of South America, where several iso- 
crymes meet, forming a kind of nodal point ; — viz., Cape Hat- 
teras, the meeting point of the isocrymes of 62°, 56°, and 50°, 
and Cape Blanco, the meeting point of 68 , 02 ', and (nearly) 
71. So also the east cape of East Australia, is the point of 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animals. 22 J 

meeting of the isocrymes of 74° and 68°. At the south ex- 
tremity of Africa, on the west coast of Asia, there are ap- 
proximations to the same fact. Cape Cod, the south-east 
cape of New England, is a marked point in zoological geo- 
graphy, and the termination of the isocryme of 44° F. ; and 
the North Cape of the La Plata, inside of Maldonado, is 

We proceed to give an enumeration of the several Zoolo- 
gical Provinces, to which we are led by the temperature re- 
gions adopted. It should be again observed, that the iso- 
cryme of 68° is the grand boundary of coral reefs, and of the 
larger part of the zoological life connected with them, and 
that the Torrid Zone and Coral-reef Zone of oceanic tempe- 
rature are synonymous terms. 

We mention also the extent of the Provinces ; and it will 
be found, that although seemingly numerous, few of them are 
under 500 miles in length, while some are full 4000 miles. 

For zoological reasons which are explained in another 
place,* and which may be the subject of another communi- 
cation to this Journal, we adopt for Marine Zoological Geo- 
graphy, three grand divisions of the coasts of the globe. 
1. The American or Occidental, including East and West 
America ; 2. The Africo-European, including the coasts of 
Europe and Western Africa ; and, 3. The Oriental, including 
the coasts of Eastern Africa, East Indies, Eastern and South- 
ern Asia, and Pacific. Besides these, there are the Arctic 
and Antarctic Kingdoms, including the coasts of the frigid 
zones, and in some places, as Fuegia, those of the ex- 
treme temperate zone. We add here, only in general terms, 
that there is a remarkable similarity in the genera of East- 
ern and Western America, and an identity of some few spe- 
cies ; that the coast of Europe and Eastern Africa widely dif- 
fer in Crustacea from either the American or Oriental ; that 
the species of the Oriental division have a great similarity 
in genera, and that numerous species of Crustacea of East- 
ern Africa are identical with those of the Pacific. We pass 
by, for the present, the details on these points. 

* The author's Report on Crustacea. 
VOL. LVI. NO. CXII. — APRIL 1854. Q 

222 J. D. Dana on an Isothermal Oceanic Chart, 

We also omit the zoological characters of the Provinces 
here enumerated. Several of these Provinces are identical 
with those proposed by Milne Edwards, Prof. E. Forbes, and 
others ; and, as far as possible, the names heretofore used 
are retained. 


A. Western Section. 

1. Torrid or Coral-reef Zone. 
Provinces. Limits. Length in Miles. 

1. Panamian, (torrid) . . 1° S. to 17£° N. . . 1600 

2. Mexican, Province, (N. subtorrid) 17 J° N. to Californ. Penin. 600 

3. Guayaquil „ (S. subtorrid) 1° S. to Cape Blanco, 4f° S. 200 

2. North Temperate Zone. 

4. Sonoran, (warm temperate) . Penin. Californ. to 28£° N. 550 
^6. Diego* or Jacobian, (temperate) 28 £° N. to 34£° N. . . 450 

6. Californian, (subtemperate) . 34£° N. to C. Mendocino 480 

7. Oregon, (cold temperate) . C. Mendocino to Puget's 

Sound (?) . . . 480 

8. Pugettian, (subfrigid) . . Puget's Sound to 55° or 56° 1200 

3. South Temperate Zone. 

9. Gallapagos, (warm temperate) Gallapagos. 

10. Peruvian, (temperate) . . C. Blanco to Copiapo, 27£° S. 1500 

11. Chilian, (subtemperate) . 27£° S. to 38° S. . . 700 

12. Araucanian, (cold temperate) 38° to 49° or 50° S. . 900 

13. South Patagonian, (subfrigid) 50° S. to Magellan Straits. 

B. Eastern Section. 

1. Torrid Zone. 

1. Carribbean, (torrid) . . Key West and N. Yucatan to 

1° S. of Bahia . . 4000 

2. Floridan, (N. subtorrid) . Key West to 27° N. . 200 

3. Brazilian, (S. subtorrid) . 15° S. to 24° S. . . 600 

2. North Temperate Zone. 
4« Carolinian, (warm temperate) 27° N. to Cape Hatteras 600 

5. Virginian, (cold temperate) . Cape Hatteras to Cape Cod 650 

6. Arcadian, (subfrigid)t • ' Cape Cod to E. Cape of New- 

foundland . . 900 

3. South Temperate Zone. 

7. St Paul,J (warm temperate) . 24° S. to 30° S. . . 480 

8. Uraguaian, (temperate) . 30° S. to N. Cape of La Plata 360 

9. Platensian, (subtemperate) . Mouth of La Plata. 

10. North Patagonian, (cold temperate) S. Cape of La Plata to 43° S. 500 

11. South Patagonian,§ (subfrigid) 43° S. to Magellan Straits 700 

* May possibly be united conveniently to the Sonoran. 

t Changed from Nova-Scotian in the Report on Crustacea. 

| The St Paul province may perhaps be united with the Uraguaian. 

§ The South Patagonian is made to include both the eastern and western 
6ides of this portion of the continent ; but a division of the two may hereafter 
be found to be required. 

illustrating the Distribution of Marine Animate. 223 



1. Guinean, (torrid) . 

2. Verdensian, (N. subtorrid) 

3. The Biafrian, (S. subtorrid) 

Torrid Zone. 

5° N. to 9° N. 
9° N. to 14£° N, including 

the Cape Verde Islands 
5° N. to 7° or 8° S., including 
Ascension and St Helena 

Length in Miles. 


2. North 

4. Canarian, (warm temperate) . 

5. Mediterranean, (temperate) . 

6. Lusitanian, (subtemperate) . 

7. Celtic, (cold temperate) 

8. Caledonian, (subfrigid) 

3. South 

9. Angolan, (warm temperate) . 

10. Benguelan, (temperate) 

11. Capensian, (subtemperate) 

12. Tristensian, (cold temperate) 

Temperate Zone. 

14i° N. to 28° or 29* N., in- 
cluding the Canaries 

29° N. to Cape St Vincent, 
with Mediterranean, ex- 
cepting some of its north- 
ern coasts, and including 
Madeira and Azores. 

Cape St Vincent to 42° N. 

42 6 N. to Scotland 

N. Scotland, Shetlands, For- 
roe, &c. 

Temperate Zone. 
7° S. to 13° S. 
13° S. to 28° S. 
28° S. Cape Agulhas 
Tristan d'Acunha. 






I. African Section, or East Coast of Africa and Neighbouring Islands* 

26i° S. to 21° or 22° in Red 
Sea, including larger part 
of Madagascar & Islands 

Northern third of Red Sea, 

26£° S, to 31° S., with south- 
ern Madagascar and Isle 
of France, 
4. Algoan, (warm temp, and temp.) 31° S. to Cape Lagulhas 

1. Abyssinian, (torrid) 

2. Erythrean, (N. subtorrid) 

3. Natalensian, (S. subtorrid) 



1. Indian, (torrid) 

2. Liukiuan, (N. subtorrid) 

II. Asiatic Section. 
1. Torrid Zone. 

East India Islands, N. Aus- 

tralia, Southern Asia, to 
12J° N. on Cochin China. 
12£° N. to 15° N., with For- 
mosa, Loochoos, S.S.E. 
shore of Japan. 

3. Endrachtian, or W. Australian, 

(S. subtorrid) . . . W.Australia 22° S. to 26 £°S. 300 

2. North Temperate Zone. 

4. Tonquin, (warm temperate) . 15° N. to 25° N., (Gulf Tonquin). 

5. Chusan, (subtemperate) . . 25° N. into Japan Sea. 

6. Niphonensian, (cold temperate and 

subtemperate) . . . East coast of Niphon, to 40° N. 

Q 2 

224 Richard Adie, Esq., on the Temperatures of 

Provinces. Limits. 

~ . Saghallan, (subfrigid) . . Coast of Japan Sea, part of Western 

and Northern Niphon, Saghalian, 
Yeso, &c. 

3. South Temperate Zone. 

8. Cygnian,or Swan R., (warm temp.) W. Australia, 26|° S. to SW. Cape. 

9. Flinders, (temperate) . . Southern coast of Australia. 

10. Moreton, (warm temp, and temp.) E. Australia, 26£° S. to 31° S. 

11. Bass, (subtemperate) . . B. Australia, 31° or 32° S. to Van Die 

men's Land. 

12. Tasmanian, (cold temperate) . Van Diemen's Land. 

III. Pacific Section. 

1. Torrid Zone. 

1. Polynesian, (torrid) . . Pacific Islands of Torrid Region, 

2. Hawaiian, (N. subtorrid) . Hawaiian range of Islands. 

3. Raratongan, (S. subtorrid) . Hervey Islands and others of South 

Subtorrid Region. 

2. South Temperate Zone. 

4. Kermadec, (warm temp, and temp.) Kermadec Islands, &c. 

5. Wangaroan, (subtemperate) . Northern New Zealand. 

6. Chatham, (cold temperate) . Middle N. Z. to 46° S. and Chatham I. 

The Arctic Kingdom includes, (1.) The Norwegian, 
north of the Atlantic ; (2.) The Kamtschatcan, north of the 
Pacific ; (3.) The North Polar. The Antarctic Kingdom 
includes, (1.) The Fuegian, Fuegia and Shetlands, &c. ; (2.) 
The Aucklandian, Auckland and southern extremity of New 
Zealand ; (3.) The South Polar. 

On the Temperatures of Running Streams during periods of 
Frost By Richard Adie, Esq., Liverpool. 

The steady frost which prevailed at the close of the last 
and commencement of the present year, offered to me a fa- 
vourable opportunity of testing the temperatures of several 
streams. These I found so exactly regulated to the freezing 
point of water, that I have been led to reflect on the nature 
of the process which gives this uniformity, and which I now 
propose to endeavour to trace, in order to shew that it forms 
the basis for the explanation of the phenomenon of ice in the 
beds of rivers, of which those I have recently examined of- 
fered abundant specimens. 

In this Journal, vol. 43, p. 243, I published an account 

Running Streams during periods of Frost. 225 

of some ground ice examined in a small rivulet 12 miles 
north of Liverpool ; at the same time I described the rapid 
formation of numberless small ice pillars I had witnessed 
on the sides of the Pentland hills near Edinburgh, after a 
single night's frost, from the water oozing gradually to the 
surface as it descended the hill. Captain Scorseby, in vol. 48, 
p. 1, of this Journal, has given a similar description of ice 
pillars formed under like circumstances. And I find in con- 
versing with those resident in hilly districts, that they are 
familiar with them. Around Liverpool, in delfs, I have often 
noted, during periods of frost, large accumulations of ice on 
the wall- sided surfaces of the sandstone which bound these 
delfs ; where the conditions for freezing are not favourable ; 
the walls being vertical and very confined, screen the parts, 
from radiation to the open sky. Yet, in confined situations, 
where the water oozes slowly to the surface, masses of ice 
collect which much exceed in thickness that on the adjacent 
ponds open to the sky and winds. While on a recent journey 
among the hills of Westmoreland, Dumfries and Lanark 
shires, I saw masses of ice formed from the water coming 
slowly to the atmosphere, where it spreads over the surface 
of the ice already made in a thin film, so as to be very favour- 
ably placed for freezing. This water which oozes to the 
surface on the rocks and hillsides forms a chief source of 
supply of the rivulet, which, in a hilly country every valley 
has ; presently these rivulets are joined together to make a 
river which is hastening to the sea. In such districts, then, 
the sources of streams are extremely active in ice-making, 
and the water in its passage downwards has to bathe a large 
superficies of this material, which it must continue to melt 
until the stream is cooled down to a freezing temperature ; 
a process which appears to go on with celerity after frosty 
weather has formed ice on the surface of the quieter parts 
of a running stream. 

During frost, a walk along the bank of a river shews in 
various ways how the current of a stream acts favourably for 
forming ice. The water in rivers is usually then low for 
the winter season ; the action of the frost checking the sup- 
ply. The stream occupies only a portion of its bed — ice 

226 Richard Adie, Esq., on the Temperatures of 

soon collects at the edges and on the surface, at places where 
the water runs slowly or is shallow, this ice offers an impedi- 
ment to the current, and thus often sends some of the water 
of the stream over the surface of a portion of the ice, — a 
position most favourable for its being frozen. In the river 
Eden, near Carlisle, I saw specimens of ice of this kind ; 
at one of the arches of the bridge there was a large table 
of submerged surface-ice sunk one foot below the surface, 
and rent up the centre. In the river Esk, near Mussel- 
burgh, I saw a sheet of surface-ice at the edge of the 
stream, frozen on the top of the gravel, and covered with 
water one to two inches deep, in which a number of icy 
spicula? had begun to form ; at some parts these spicules 
were so numerous that the mass looked like wet snow. In 
the river Almond, near Edinburgh, there were good speci- 
mens of the manner in which ice, collecting in one part of a 
river bed, forced the stream to flow in another portion of the 
bed hitherto unoccupied by the current, which extended the 
surface over which the water was exposed to a frosty atmo- 
sphere, and thus rendered a running current of water a place 
active in ice-making. In point of fact, it is, only on a more 
extended scale, the process I have already described as seen 
on the Pentland hills, where ice pillars two inches high were 
formed in quantities during a single night's frost. 

The year 1854 was ushered in by a steady frost. On the 
three first days of January I examined various rivers. The 
ground at the time was thinly covered with snow, and the 
temperature of the air ranged between 15° and 30° of Fahren- 
heit. Severity was the prevailing character of the season ; 
on the 2d the ice underneath the arches of the bridges over 
the Union Canal, near Edinburgh, was strong enough to walk 
over ; on the 3d I crossed the river Eden on the ice, a little 
below the bridge at Carlisle, and I believe a period of many 
years has elapsed since this river was passable on foot so 
early in the winter. In succession I visited the following 
streams — Portobello rivulet, near where it enters the estuary 
of the Forth — temperature 32° ; ground-ice in every part of 
the stream which favoured its lodgement ; the ice wore a gray 
aspect from particles of sand and earth being lodged in it by 

Running Streams daring periods of Frost. 227 

the action of the current ; in the stream near Liverpool this 
gray colour results after the ice has been for a few days 
under water. 

Joppa rivulet, where it passes underneath the turnpike 
road, about a mile beyond Portobello, and immediately before 
it enters the estuary of the Forth — temperature 32°. The 
road is carried over this stream by a low stone arch, and the 
situation is one of the last where ice would be expected to 
be formed by atmospheric influence ; the surface of the 
stream generally was covered with surface-ice ; under the 
arch at the edges there were a few crystals, but the breadth 
of the surface of the stream was there clear of ice. In the 
bed, eight to ten inches under water, there was a plentiful 
crop of ice composed of small crystals interlaced with one 
another like snow, and of a pure beautiful hue ; this lodge- 
ment extended over the whole of the bed under the archway 
where the nature of the ground and rapidity of the current 
favoured the accumulation, and for so small a stream shewed 
as fine a specimen of ground-ice, and the phenomena attend- 
ing its formation, as could be desired. That it was brought 
down by the current from higher parts of the stream and 
lodged there could not be doubted, and it owed its preserva- 
tion in such a locality to a current of ice-cold water continu- 
ally playing upon it. 

The Esk, at Musselburgh — temperature 32°. This stream 
must quite recently have reached the freezing temperature, 
for ground-ice was sparingly found in its bed, only in places 
where the current was rapid, and many of the plants in the 
bed in favourable enough situations had not yet received any 
ice. The river occupied a portion of its channel ; in some 
localities ice gathering and blocking up a passage between 
two stones had diverted a part of the water into another 
part of the bed. 

The Water of Leith, near a village of the same name, and 
at Saughton Hall, was examined — temperature in both in- 
stances 32°, with ground-ice under the arches of the bridges 
and other places favourable for its lodgement, but, like the 
Esk, the crop was not abundant. 

A small rivulet which crosses the road that leads from Cor- 

228 Richard Adie, Esq. on the Temperatures of 

siorphine village to the railway station — temperature 32-2° ; 
As might be anticipated, the two-tenths of a degree was quite 
sufficient to prevent any ground-ice ; the centre of the stream 
was free from ice, at the edges there were a few crystals 
much the same as I had seen under the arch at Joppa ; no 
ice under water, otherwise the bed of the stream was most 
favourable for its reception. The temperature of this rivulet 
formed a contrast, being above 32°; while on the canal in its 
vicinity the ice under the arches of the bridges was walked 

The river Almond, near Cramond — temperature 32°, ground- 
ice in plenty ; one mass of it near a gorge where the water 
passed among some large stones I estimated to contain two 
cubic feet. 

The river Eden, at Carlisle. On 3d January I left the 
city and crossed the bridge by the Glasgow and Carlisle 
road. On proceeding up the bank a few hundred yards, the 
stream at that part shewed a surface free from ice, and from 
ten to twelve feet deep, running with a steady powerful cur- 
rent — temperature 32°. In this part of the river there were 
lodgements of ground-ice by far the most extensive I have 
ever witnessed; one mass I estimated to contain a cubic yard ; 
on some long slender stems of plants there were accumula- 
tions of spiculse, in form like large turnip bulbs, collected in 
that shape by the turning and twisting of the stems in the 
current, colour opalescent, like snow immersed in water. A 
short distance further up the stream there were large quan- 
tities of ice, some of it eight feet below the surface, gathered 
together in a form which resembled a number of rough stone 
blocks resting against one another at an angle of inclination 
of 75°. The heads of the blocks leaning towards the current, 
tuith the angle which first met the stream always acute ; this 
fact appeared to me to illustrate the process of the formation 
of these blocks, for it was there that the icy spiculae brought 
down by the river were lodged. The collections of ice in 
the bed of the Eden on 3d January were more interesting 
and beautiful than any I had ever before seen, both for the 
quantity of ice and the depth at which it appeared below 
the surface. Like the collections on the steins of the plants, 

Running Streams during periods of Frost. 229 

it had an opalescent hue, and there were many instances of 
pebbles* imbedded in it, varying in size from a walnut up to 
a stone of three inches diameter. The stream where the 
water ran uncovered by surface-ice contained a continued 
succession of groups of icy spiculse floating down, affording 
an unerring indication that the bed of the river contained 
quantities of submerged ice. A field of these spiculse had 
collected below Eden bridge, which the severity of the wea- 
ther soon converted into a sheet of solid ice, leaving only the 
spiculse, which had been raised out of the water by others 
underneath them, to attest its formation. 

These details shew that a stream must soon be cooled 
down to 32° when its water has to bathe masses of ice in its 
downward progress ; also that after it has attained this 
temperature it will lodge any free crystals of ice which may 
be borne along by the current in localities suitable for their 
reception, without reference to the external influence of at- 
mospheric temperature to which that part of the stream may 
be exposed. Hence it is that under the arch of a bridge 
ground-ice is found as abundantly as in the most open part 
of the river. 

In the Neva, at St Petersburg, I have been told that the 
anchor of a ship when drawn up will sometimes be found 
to have its fluke covered with ice, which it is easy to con- 
ceive may be the case after the long winter of Russia, when 
a, short frost in Cumberland lodged a cubic yard of loose ice 
in the bed of the Eden. 

On the Nature and Origin of different kinds of Dry Fogs. 
By M. C. Martins. 

Ordinary fogs are composed of aqueous vapour in a 
vesicular state. Their appearance, the effect they have on 
our organs, and, in particular, the indications of hygrometrical 
instruments, and the optical phenomena they present, leave 
no doubt on this subject. 

There are other kinds of fogs which are quite dry. Their 

* Pebbles in rudely shaped icy barges have been described to me by parties 
who have often watched them as they floated along on the surface of a stream- 

230 M. C. Martins on the Nature and Origin of 

analogy to the former is confined to the circumstance of their 
tilling the atmosphere, and disturbing, like them, the trans- 
parency of the air ; but aqueous vapour has no part in their 
formation. Although noticed in meteorological registers, 
and mentioned by travellers, these fogs have not hitherto 
been the subject of a comparative study. Accordingly, their 
history is very little known ; and it is probable that, under 
the name of dry fogs, meteorological phenomena of very dif- 
ferent natures have been confounded. The object of the 
present notice is to distinguish four very distinct kinds of 
dry fogs, to point out their differential characters, and to call 
the attention of meteorologists to the consideration of them. 

I. Dry fogs produced by the smoke arising from the burn- 
ing of peat. 

These fogs have been observed principally in Holland and 
western Germany. Munck, in the article Dry Fog (Trockner 
Nebel), in Gehler's Dictionary, and Kaemtz, under the title 
Hoeherauch, have given a satisfactory view of the ascer- 
tained facts. Before their time L. L. Fincke had devoted a 
particular work to this subject. I shall content myself by 
giving in this place a summary idea of the appearances of 
this kind of fog and its causes, in order that we may be in 
a condition to distinguish it from the others. 

The dry fog of German meteorologists is not, properly 
speaking, a fog, but a smoke spread over a great extent of 
country. The report on this subject made at the meeting of 
German naturalists at Berlin, in 1828, by Professor Egen of 
Scest, informs us how this fog is generated, elevated and 
diffused in the atmosphere. In the countries which form a 
belt about 11 myriametres broad, from Zuyder-Zee to the 
mouth of the Elbe, and over a surface of 430 square myria- 
meters, there are 107 of these, or a fourth part, occupied 
with peat-bogs. The proportion is not in all places the same ; 
in the region lying along the banks of the Ems, from Prus- 
sia to East Friesland, they form a third part of the surface 
of the country ; in Eastern Friesland and the Duchy of Olden- 
burg, a fourth part ; in the territory of Breme and Verden, 
only a sixth part. These bogs afford no other produce than 
peat, unless they are burned, or dried by means of drains or 
canals, which arc very expensive. This last method requir- 

different kinds of Dry Fogs. 231 

ing considerable capital, the poor inhabitants of these coun- 
tries are obliged to prefer the former, which was introduced 
into Germany in the eighteenth century. The peat is burnt 
during seven or eight years ; it is then left at rest for a 
period of from twenty to thirty years. Every year therefore 
a quarter of the entire surface may be burnt. In the pre- 
sent state of the population, it is about an eighth part, or 
thirteen square myriametres, that is burnt annually. 

In order to sow buckwheat or oats, they turn up the soil 
in autumn that the clods of earth and the vegetables they 
contain may have time to dry during winter ; they are set 
on fire in May, June, or July, according to the state of dry- 
ness of the superficial soil. The burning continues for a 
month, sometimes for fifteen days only. At certain spots it 
continues throughout the whole summer. The carboniza- 
tion of this peat, which is still humid, begins in the morn- 
ing after the disappearance of the dew, and continues till 
night. The cultivator takes care that the combustion does 
not proceed too rapidly ; and there arises from it an extremely 
thick smoke which forms clouds, at first insulated, but on 
days when the fires are general, they unite towards the 
middle of the day and form so dense a fog that nothing can 
be distinguished at the distance of thirty metres. This 
smoke rises above the highest mountains of the country — 
that is to say, it exceeds a height of 650 metres. This im- 
mense cloud of 430 square myriametres and 600 metres in 
thickness, is driven by the east and north winds which pre- 
vail at this period, towards the countries situate to the south 
or west, where it darkens the air for whole days before 
becoming dissipated in the atmosphere. Fincke estimates 
the total weight of the carbonaceous particles thus raised 
into the atmosphere in the course of one summer, at 900 

They are not satisfied with setting fire to the peat, but 
likewise burn the turf and noxious plants. This practice is 
followed in the neighbourhood of Siegen in Prussia, in Eifel 
on the banks of the Rhine, and in England. M. Egen gives 
proofs that the smoke arising from these burnings may ex- 
tend very far. 

232 M. C. Martins on the Nature and Origin of 

In countries where these agricultural processes are un- 
known, an atmospheric origin is assigned to the dry fog. In 
order to obtain evidence of the truth, M. Egen has connected 
the directions of the wind with the indications of the dry fog 
for the years between 1821 and 1827, and in reference to the 
following cities: — Aurich, Emden, Groettnigen, Meppen, 
Lingen, Bentheim, Stadtlohn, Minden, Munster, SalzufFeln, 
Detmold, Blomberg, Arnheim, Hamm, Paderborn, Lippstadt, 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Elberfeld, Coblence, Brest, Paris, Stras- 
bourg, Texel, Halle, Altona, Bielefield, Cleve, Solingen, 
Berleburg, Osnabruck, Scest, Hildburghausen, Gotha, 
Carlshafen, Goettingen, Treves, Brussels, Amsterdam, Essen, 
Cologne, Brunswick, Lunebourg, Reval, and Falmouth. 

From these numerous observations, M. Egen draws the 
following conclusions : — 

1. This dry fog is the smoke arising from the combustion 
of peat. It has a particular smell which is always recog- 
nised when it has once been felt. 

2. Formerly less peat was burnt than at present, and the 
fog was less common. In the middle of the last century only 
two days of dry fog were reckoned on annually at Lingen- 
sur-Ems, but now they amount to eighteen. 

3. The more remote we are from the peat district, the 
rarer they become. Thus at Lingen eighteen are observed 
every year; at Scest. six or seven ; a day's journey further 
away, only four or five. 

4. The intensity of the fog likewise diminishes the fur- 
ther we remove from the peat bogs. In Eastern Friesland, 
it is as opaque as the thickest moist fog ; at Scest, situate 
11 myriametres from the southern border of the peat region, 
we may always distinguish objects at the distance from 60 
to 100 metres. It is seldom that the clouds cannot be seen, 
and the sun does not become invisible until it reaches the 
horizon ; at the distance of 35 myriametres from the 
peat deposits the smoke becomes only a light bluish vapour 
which spreads along the plains and valleys rather than on 
the mountains, because it rests on the ground. 

5. The wind blows almost always from the peat-fields 
to the place where the fog is seen. At Emden, it comes by 

different kinds of Dry Fogs. 233 

the east and north-east : in Westphalia, by the north-west, 
north, or north-east ; at Goettingen, where it has been studied 
by MM. Gauss and Haussmann, by the north and north- 
west ; at Jever, by the south. There are no doubt excep- 
tions ; they are caused by shifting winds, which do not allow 
us to ascertain the original direction of the current which 
brought the smoke. 

6. The most evident proof of the origin of the Land- 
rauch is that, in most cases, we can prove the coincidence of 
great combustions with the appearance of the dry fog. Thus, 
on the 18th and 19th of June 1821, about mid-day, the peat- 
bog was enveloped in a thick cloud of smoke ; about live 
hours after, the countries between the North Sea and Siegen, 
and between Cleves and Minden, were likewise covered with 
smoke. On the 22d May 1822, in the morning, the peat 
was concealed by the smoke ; about six o'clock, all the 
country between the North Sea and Coblentz, and between 
Arnheim and Minden, was occupied by it. This is a surface 
of 1035 square myriametres. In reference to that day M. 
Egen received notice from forty-two localities comprised in 
that space. 

The same observer has further satisfied himself by hygro- 
metrical experiments, in which he made use of Darnell's 
hygrometer, that the humidity of the air was not greater 
during the dry fog than on the days which preceded and 
followed its appearance. August at Berlin, and Kaemtz at 
Halle, made the same experiments and obtained the same 
results on the dry fog of 1834. 

These facts appear to us sufficient to establish the origin 
of certain dry fogs. One point alone remains to be deter- 
mined, namely, whether this smoke can be transported to 
great distances without being dissipated, and give rise to 
the appearance of the dry fogs which have been noticed 
principally in Holland, Western Germany, and the north of 
France. Many authors have decided this point in the 
affirmative. Fincke has traced it for the space of 22 myria- 
metres without its intensity being diminished. The greater 
part of German meteorologists, such as Egen and Kaemtz, 
believe that the smoke arising from the combustion of peat 

234 M. C. Martins on the Nature and Origin of 

in Westphalia may obscure the atmosphere at Bale, Paris, 
Brest in the south, and Copenhagen in the north. Yet, not- 
withstanding the extent, thickness, and density which must 
be conceded to these clouds of smoke, we cannot admit that 
they could cover a portion of Europe like certain general dry 
fogs, such as those of 1764 and 1783, whose history has been 
preserved to us by writers of the last century. These fogs 
form a second class which I shall endeavour to characterize. 

II. General dry fogs produced by volcanic eruptions. 
Trochner Nebel (Germ.) ; Dry Fog (Eng.) ; Sonnenrauch, 

To give an idea of this kind of fog, I think I cannot do 
better than describe the most celebrated of all, that of 1783. 
This task is the more easy, since the favour meteorology then 
enjoyed has raised a crowd of observes who have transmitted 
the most valuable documents respecting this curious phe- 
nomenon in the Ephemerides de la Societe Meteorologique de 

I shall first trace the progress of this fog, that is to say, 
determine the period of its appearance and disappearance at 
the places where it has been observed ; I shall then treat of 
its nature, and the phenomena which accompanied it. 

Dry fog of 1783. — Speaking in a general way, this fog 
extended from Norway to Syria, that is to say, over a space 
of 25 degrees of latitude ; and from England to Altai, that is, 
over 120 degrees of longitude. It was observed, more or less, 
during the whole period of time between the 24th May, the 
day of its first appearance at Copenhagen, and the 8th 
October, when Lamanon saw it for the last time in the val- 
ley of Servieres in Dauphiny. 

Height of it. — When on Mount Ventoux, 1910 metres 
above the sea, Lamanon still saw much of it above him. He 
satisfied himself, by going from the sea- shore to the highest 
mountains, that the lowest part was thickest and dryest. 
Among the French Alps, the shepherds assured him that it 
covered the highest peaks, which implied a thickness of 4000 
metres. At Geneva, Senebier ascertained that it exceeded 
the height of the great Saleve, which is 1484 metres above 
the sea. De Saussure himself observed this fog at the hos- 

different kinds of Dry Fogs. 235 

pice of Grimsel (1880 metres above the sea), on the 10th> 
11th, and 12th July. It was little observable on the two 
last days, but, according to the account of the people at the 
hospice, it was as dense in the end of June on the Grimsel 
as in the plain. 

At Narbonne, on the contrary, it never rose, according to 
Marcorelle, above 780 metres ; at a greater elevation the 
sky remained always clear. From Neufchatel the peaks of 
the Alps were seen above the fog. But Saussure, who was 
in the neighbourhood of Rolle on the 3d July, could not dis- 
tinguish, between five o'clock in the morning and noon, the 
peaks of the Jura, about three leagues distant. At Padua, 
and even at Rome, the fog appeared suspended in the air and 
not to touch the horizon. 

From what has been said it may be concluded that the fog 
was variable in thickness ; it was so even according to the 
hour of the day, for Lamanon being, on the 21st of June, on 
the top of Ventoux before the rising of the sun, remarked 
that the fog ascended as that luminary rose above the hori- 

Physical properties of this Fog — Its appearance. — 
With the exception of Maret of Dijon, all observers were 
struck with the extraordinary appearance of this fog. " It 
was," says Senebier, " a bluish vapour, sometimes reddish, 
never gray like ordinary fogs ; it coloured objects blue. 
During the days on which it was dense, houses and trees 
disappeared at the distance of a third of a league." Toaldo 
at Padua, Marcorelle at Narbonne, Cotte at Laon, Praeus at 
Sagan, Father Onuphre on St Gothard, and Saussure on the 
Grimsel, compare it to a smoke, and even a dust totally 
different from ordinary fogs. These testimonies are cor- 
roborated by the examination of the other properties of this 

Its hygrometrical state. — The very title of this memoir 
imposes upon me the obligation of shewing that the fog of 
1783 was completely dry, and had no effect on hygrometrical 
instruments, nor on hygrometrical bodies. In order to prove 
this, I have only to refer to the statements of the natural 
philosophers who observed it. At Geneva, Senebier found 

236 M. C. Martins on the Nature and Origin of 

that it did not act on the hygrometer as a humid fog. Van 
Swinden is not less explicit. At Franecker, in Holland, the 
air was in no degree moist, and the hygrometers indicated 
the maximum of dryness on the 23d June, a day on which the 
fog was very dense. During the whole of this month the 
weather was very dry. 

At Manheim, observers satisfied themselves that this fog 
was not moist but dry, judging by the hygrometer, the 
evaporation of fluids, the drying of moistened bodies, such 
as hay and the dust of roads, and its continuance during rain. 
At Padua, Toaldo finds it completely different from ordinary 
fog, and notifies that the hygrometers indicated dry. At 
Salon, in Provence, Lamanon observed that salts did not 
deliquesce, and it did not cause the hygrometer to ascend. 
In 1783, the salt pits of Hyeres crystallized fifteen days 
sooner than usual. 

At Narbonne, however, after having been dry, this fog be- 
came humid, owing to winds from the east, which prevailed 
on the 26th, 27th, and 28th of June. " At Laon," says Cotte, 
i: it began on the 18th June ; it was very low and as thick 
as in December, accompanied by a very cold south wind. On 
the 19th there was a considerable storm ; the fog appeared 
afterwards to increase, and continued to be cold while the 
south wind blew, that is, to the 24th. During this time, the 
fog was very humid, as my hygrometers indicated to me. 
On the 24th the wind changed to north, the air became warm, 
and the fog altered its character ; it became dry, and might 
be compared to a smoke rather than a fog. The heat and 
dryness always increased, north and north-east winds con- 
tinuing to prevail. 

A single observer, Maret, affirms that at Dijon this fog 
appeared to him in every respect like ordinary fogs. He 
perceived, however, that vegetables were dried during the 

This evidence does not appear to me to invalidate that of 
all the others, particularly when such observers as Van 
Swinden, Toaldo, Senebier, and Lamanon, ascertained the 
dryness of the fog experimentally. 

Density of the fo<j in 1783. — At Copenhagen, the sun was 

different kinds of Dry Fogs. 237 

clearly visible as long as it had not risen from 20 to 30 de- 
grees above the horizon. At Laon, during the day, the light 
of the sun was of a pale orange colour ; at its setting, it 
appeared of a fiery red. The moon presented the same 
appearance. Such is the statement of Cotte. 

Smell of the dry fog of 1783. — The action of this fog on 
some of our organs was very different from what is observed 
in aqueous fogs. At Franecker, in Holland, Van Swinden 
felt a sulphurous odour which excited cough and penetrated 
into the closest places ; it was particularly sensible on the 
24th June. At Grceningen not only a sulphurous smell but 
even a sulphurous taste was perceptible. Marcorelle found 
it to possess the sharp and stimulating odour of smoke. At 
Salon it weakened the eyes ; individuals whose chests were 
delicate experienced disagreeable sensations. Cotte and 
Toaldo mention nothing of this sort ; but the former, on the 
testimony of others, relates that in Provence and elsewhere 
it had a sulphurous, fetid odour, which tickled the eyes. 
However this may be, the peculiarity in question was not 
observed in all places. Senebier, Maret, and Cotte state 
that the fog was without smell, and a great number of ob- 
servers make no mention of its action on the organs of sight, 
taste, or smell. 

Meteorological phenomena accompanying the dry fog of 
1783. — What has been said will, I think, be sufficient to 
shew that the fog of 1783 was altogether of a special nature, 
and in no respect formed by aqueous vapour. This opinion 
will be confirmed by the study of the concomitant phenomena. 
Its appearance did not take place in analogous circum- 
stances, but in very varied states of the atmosphere. At 
Copenhagen it appeared suddenly after a series of clear and 
warm days ; south-east-south and south-south-west winds 
succeeded each ',ther in the atmosphere. At Franecker in 
Holland, Sagan in Silesia, and Peissenberg in Bavaria, the 
south-west wind prevailed when it was observed for thefirsttime. 
At Manheim the winds were variable before it first appeared. 
On the same day it blew successively from west-south-west, 
\ south-west, and north-west. At Rochelle the south-west pre- 
vailed for two days w\um it appeared, and the same clay the 

238 Mr C. Martins on the Nature and Origin of 

wind shifted in the evening to west-north-west. At St 
Gothard the west-north-west wind blew from the evening 
before the fog arrived. 

At Dijon the south-west had continued for three days, 
and turned to the south at the moment of its first appearance. 
On its second appearance, 22d June, the wind was from west- 
north-west, north-west, or north. At Laon the fog arrived 
accompanied by a very cold wind from the south. At Padua 
it was preceded by numerous storms ; on the 17th the wind 
blew from the north ; on the 18th from the west-north-west 
in the morning, south-west at mid-day, and south-east in the 
evening. At Narbonne the weather was calm and the heat 
great for two days. At Rome it likewise came with a south- 
west wind. 

We thus perceive that the fog appeared neither with the 
same wind, nor in the same meteorological circumstances ; 
in general, however, it appears to have been brought by a 
south-west wind. When it had once overspread a country, 
nothing could make it disappear, neither wind, rain, nor 
storm. The following are some examples of this. At Man- 
heim there were 23 days of rain, and twelve storms during its 
continuance. On three days it thundered, while the fog was of 
extreme density; on the 27th June its density was such that 
one could not see a quarter of a league, and yet there was so 
severe a storm, that the thunder broke in thirteen localities 
in the neighbourhood. At Geneva, Senebier made the same 
observations ; neither rain nor wind had the power of dissi- 
pating it. On the 12th July, among others, there was a 
frightful thunder-storm which struck eight houses in the 
town. At Padua fourteen storms of lightning occurred 
during the continuance of the fog. A tempest came on in 
the morning of the 26th, accompanied with claps of thunder 
which were heard from one sea to the other, and struck five 
or six houses in the town of Vicence alone : the fog was not 
dispersed. At Narbonne, the north wind blowing violently, 
it almost wholly disappeared from the 4th to the 6th of July ; 
but on the return of calm weather, it again enveloped, not as 
formerly the whole celestial hemisphere, but a zone comprised 
between and 20 degrees above the horizon. To the testi- 

different kinds of Dry Fogs. 239 

mony of Hemmer, Senebier, Toaldo, and Marcorelle, I may 
add that of Van Swinden, who was astonished to see it con- 
tinue in spite of rains, winds, and storms. 

Origin of the dry fog of 1783. — Every meteorologist who 
has taken the trouble to read the preceding details, will be 
persuaded, like myself, that the fog of 1783 was not composed 
of aqueous vapour. The hygrometrical experiments of Se- 
nebier, Van Swinden, and Lamanon, — its continuance for two 
months of the summer, in all kinds of weather, and during all 
kinds of winds,- — sufficiently prove this. 

This fog was smoke — Toaldo, Marcorelle, Cotte, and De 
Saussure are all agreed on this point ; the latter supports his 
opinion by that of the Bernese mountaineers who, he says, 
are so well experienced in fogs. 

Its origin appears to us to be that already assigned to it 
by some observers of the period, namely, the earthquakes 
and volcanic eruptions which in the same year shook Iceland 
and Calabria. We know as a fact that in these eruptions 
the volcanoes threw up into the air masses of ashes, which 
formed true clouds, which the winds carried to a distance. 
In the neighbourhood of the volcano, the light of the sun 
was completely obscured by them, as in the eruption of Ve- 
suvius, in the year 70, when, according to Pliny the younger, 
the obscurity was like that of a shut-up apartment. On the 
22d and 23d October 1822, lanterns were used in the villages 
near Vesuvius. M. de Humboldt, who bears testimony to 
these facts, compares them to what so often takes place at 
Quito during the eruptions of Pichincha. During the erup- 
tion of Catopaxi, 4th April 1768, the shower of ashes at 
Hambato and Tacunga was such that the inhabitants like- 
wise went about in open day with lanterns. These pheno- 
mena were also observed at great distances from the 
ignivomous crater. During the eruption, in the month of 
December 1760, the smoke of Vesuvius, carried by the wind, 
darkened the sun for an entire day at Cuccaro and Cilento, 
towns in the principality of Salerno, situate 92 kilometres 
from the mountain. On the following day the grass was 
covered with ashes. 


40 Mr C. Martins on the Nature and Origin of 

Ashes are conveyed by the winds to considerable distances. 
After the violent detonations, like the discharge of artillery, 
which alarmed the inhabitants of Barbadoes on the 30th 
April 1812, there was seen the following day, 1st May, 
above the horizon of the sea, a black cloud which already 
covered the rest of the sky, and which soon after spread it- 
self in the part where the light of the twilight began to appear. 
The darkness then became so great that in rooms it was 
impossible to discern the place of the windows, and in the 
open air many could not discern either the trees or outlines 
of the neighbouring houses, nor even white handkerchiefs 
placed five inches from the eyes. This phenomenon was 
caused by the fall of a great quantity of volcanic dust arising 
from the eruption of a volcano in the island of St Vincent. 
This new kind of rain, and the darkness resulting from it, 
did not terminate till between twelve and one o'clock. The 
island of St Vincent is 170 kilometres west from Barbadoes. 
During the eruption of Hecla, in 1766, the clouds of smoke 
produced such a darkness, that at Glaumba, 50 leagues dis- 
tant, people could not walk but by groping their way. In 
1794 the whole of Calabria was enveloped in thick clouds 
vomited from Etna. 

If examples are desired of transportation to greatdistances, 
the following may be given as proofs. Procopius assures us 
that in 472, the ashes of Vesuvius were carried as far as 
Constantinople, that is 250 leagues. In the formidable 
eruption of Tomboro, a volcano in the island of Sumbava, 
which took place in 1815, the ashes extended to Java, Ma- 
cassar, and Batavia ; they even reached Bencoolen, and Suma- 
tra, which is as remote from the point of departure as Etna 
is distant from Hamburg, namely, 16 degrees of latitude, or 
more than 1500 kilometres. 

If we compare these results, arising from an insulated 
eruption, with those which must be produced by multiplied 
and continuous eruptions at the two extremities of Europe, 
in Calabria on the one hand, and in Iceland on the other, we 
will not hesitate to ascribe to them, along with Toaldo and 
Van Swinden, the origin of the dry fog of 1783. 

different kinds of Dry Fogs. 241 

In Calabria and Sicily, says Toaldo, the earthquakes be- 
gan in February and continued till the end of March. The 
outline surface of Calabria was completely changed ; upwards 
of a hundred mountains were torn up, turned over, and trans- 
ported ; an equal number of deep pits were opened and re- 
mained unfilled. Fifty lakes were produced by the stoppage 
of rivers, and the number of victims to this calamity ex- 
ceeded a hundred thousand men. 

In Iceland the same disasters happened. Before the 
flame broke out, the atmosphere of the island was so filled 
with smoke, vapour, and dust, that the ground appeared red. 
Near the mountains it was night at mid-day. The earth- 
quakes and eruptions began on the 1st June 1783. The 
smoke and vapours issuing from the earth formed three 
columns visible for 55 kilometres. On the 8th June the dark- 
ness was complete. On the 11th the river Skapta disappeared, 
dried up in twenty-four hours. Its source was in the moun- 
tain called Klofajokull ; previously it was lost in a gulf 
named Skaptargliufur, and ran in a canal eight kilometres 
in length by sixty metres in depth, between very high rocks. 
This canal was filled by a stream of lava, which by degrees 
overran the banks and covered all the country, except the 
high mountains. Its breadth, from the centre, was twelve 
kilometres towards the east, and much greater towards the 
west. Arrested by mountains on the south, it ended by sur- 
mounting this obstacle, and spread itself over the plain. This 
sea of fire boiled in a fearful manner, carrying everything 
along with it. In the plain its depth was still from thirty 
to forty metres. Throughout the whole track of the incan- 
descent lava the herbage was burned, the rivers dried up, 
villages destroyed, men and animals suffocated. After these 
details we may form some idea of the torrents of smoke which 
must have risen into the air, along with the vapours and 
gases escaping from the bowels of the earth. 

At the beginning of October the ground of Iceland was 
still agitated ; flames and smoke issued from the ground in 
the centre of the island. At length, in November, these ter- 
rible phenomena ceased, but a volcanic island which had been 

242 Mr C. Martins on the Nature and Origin of 

thrown up sixteen miles from the coast of Iceland, still 
emitted flames in February 1784. 

If we compare these facts with the dates of the appearance 
of the dry fog, we will observe a very remarkable agreement. 
The first appearance was at Copenhagen, on the 24th May, 
precisely at the time when the ground of Iceland began to 
emit smoke, gases, and vapours, phenomena which were pre- 
cursors of the eruptions and earthquakes about to succeed. 
It was likewise at Copenhagen that the fog continued longest. 
From Copenhagen it extended to France, Germany, and 
Italy, where it was remarked almost everywhere from the 
16th to 18th June. At the end of the month it was observed 
in the south, in Portugal and Syria ; in the east, at Moscow 
and Buda in Hungary. This general progress from north 
to south, and from east to west, leads us to seek for the 
origin of this fog in the north-west of Europe, precisely 
where we find Iceland, the permanent theatre, throughout 
the whole summer of 1783, of a true burning of the earthy 
as it was called by cotemporary authors. 

The dry fog, or rather smoke, which covered Europe dur- 
ing the summer of 1783, was therefore owing to volcanic 
eruptions and combustions which took place in Iceland, and 
perhaps to the earthquakes which laid waste Calabria. The 
rarity of the phenomenon is explained by the rare occur- 
rence of eruptions so continuous and important as those 
which ravaged these two countries. For sixty- seven years 
meteorologists have not observed a fog so general and per- 
manent in Europe, and for the same period no eruptions have 
happened comparable to those of 1783. But this example 
proves to us that dry fogs, of a local character, observed at 
great distances from any active volcano, may be connected 
with eruptions, and the combustion of the vegetables which 
cover the soil enveloped in burning lava. In this point of 
view, the fogs formed by the ashes and smoke of volcanoes 
enter into the category of those which are owing to the com- 
bustion of peat-grounds in Westphalia. Both originate in 
extensive conflagrations ; both are produced, not by water, 
but by fire ; and both are completely different from the fogs 
formed by aqueous vapour. 

different kinds of Dry Fogs. 243 

III. Dry fogs at the horizon, of unknown origin. 

Horizon enfume, Fumee d 1 horizon ; Hale of the Swiss ; 
Hozherauch of the Germans ; Callina of the Spanish. 

The dry fogs of which we have hitherto spoken are owing, 
the one to the combustion of peat, the other to volcanic erup- 
tions ; it is different with the smoke of the horizon. Scarcely 
noticed by meteorologists, it has not hitherto been the subject 
of proper examination. The notes found here and there are 
insufficient to furnish a complete description, much less to 
establish any theory. In endeavouring to trace the princi- 
pal appearances of this phenomenon, I shall not attempt to 
disguise either the difficulties or imperfections of this part 
of my undertaking. If I draw the attention of observers to 
it my object will be gained. 

The horizon-smoke appears to be more common and more 
intense in the south than in the north of Europe, in warm 
regions than in cold ones. Thus, in Spain, according to 
Willkomm,it continues during the months of June, July, and 
August, when the weather is fine. M. de Humboldt speaks 
of it as a habitual appearance at Acapulco, on the western 
side of Mexico, but not at Cumana, where this vapour, how- 
ever, interfered with his astronomical observations from the 
10th October to 3d November. In the north it is not seen 
often ; we have not observed it in Lapland. In Switzerland 
it appears more common, and strikes the attention of every 
one, because it conceals the view of the chain of the Alps 
during the fine weather which attends the north and north- 
east winds. In every instance it appears in connection with 
a clear sky, and, in general, north winds. 

Its appearance is that of a gray or reddish smoke sur- 
rounding the horizon, and rising at the maximum to 20 or 25 
degrees above it. Commonly its thickness is only from 5 
to 10 degrees. The upper edge is not distinctly defined on 
the sky ; the latter has not the deep azure colour observed 
before rain, and is of a bluish white. The air is not per- 
fectly transparent, objects are indistinct and do not appear 
near the spectator as in days when the air is saturated with 
moisture. Travellers who then ascend mountains, induced 

244 Mr C Martins on the Nature and Origin of 

by the long track of fine weather, often experience a dis- 
appointment which they would have avoided if they had 
chosen a fine day preceded or followed by days of rain. 
When the sun penetrates into this smoke, he assumes a red- 
dish tint, his splendour is much weakened, and the disk 
appears surrounded with concentric circles having a vibra- 
tory motion. 

Hygrometrical instruments remain unaltered on the 
appearance of this fog ; or, to speak more correctly, they 
move to the point of dryness, as experiments by myself and 
others prove. 

M. Willkomm is the only observer who reached this fog 
and penetrated into it ; but he represents it as a vapour re- 
sembling a mirage, which continually flees before the travel- 
ler. Thus, when he arrived at the villages or mountains, 
the view of which was concealed by the horizon-smoke, even 
when he was in the midst of it, he was unconscious of its 
presence. Nothing informed him that he was surrounded 
with an air which, seen at a distance, appeared as opaque as 
a thick smoke could have done. 

With circumstances so extraordinary before us, we do not 
hazard any hypothesis ; and confine ourselves to making a 
new appeal to the zeal of meteorologists, astronomers, and 

The Callina or horizon- smoke in Spain.* 

The fog to which Spaniards give the name of Callina has 
no connection with those which we name dry fogs (Land- 
rauch). The latter are caused by the combustion of peat in 
the north ; at least that has been demonstrated in the most 
evident manner in regard to many of them. I shall not 
enter on the question whether the dry fogs of Germany are 
smoke arising from the combustion of heath or peat in East- 
ern Friesland, the Duchy of Oldenburg, the provinces near 
the Baltic, Russia, Scandinavia, or Iceland. The callina of 
the south of Spain has not the same origin ; in fact the dry 
fog of Germany is a local phenomenon, appearing suddenly, 
continuing a few days and then disappearing. It has the 

* By Maurice Willkomm. 

different kinds of Dry Fogs. 245 

smell of burning, or at least a peculiar smell, and envelopes 
the objects near it in a bluish vapour. The callina is com- 
pletely different ; it is a permanent fog which every year, 
during the whole summer, covers the horizon and impairs 
the transparency of the sky. I have observed it for two 
years, always in the same circumstances. 

The callina appears in the middle or at the end of June. 
It forms around the horizon a band of fog of a bluish -gray 
colour, which increases with the temperature. In the 
middle of August, when the temperature reaches its maxi- 
mum, it covers about a quarter of the celestial vault. At 
this time the colour of the fog at the horizon is of a reddish 
brown. Higher up it passes into yellow, and from its edges 
rises a transparent vapour like a light gauze, which covers 
the whole sky and imparts to it a leaden hue. When the 
callina reaches this degree of intensity, it embraces the 
whole horizon, and disturbs the view of objects to a distance 
of three or four leagues. All those objects which are nearer 
are, on the contrary, perfectly distinct. I have never felt 
the least odour, and we do not observe when we enter into 
the fog. The nearer we approach to an object veiled by the 
callina, the more distinct its outlines become, and at the dis- 
tance of some leagues it is perfectly distinct and in full 
light ; no trace of the fog is seen around one. 

From the end of August the callina diminishes with the 
heat, and disappears in the end of September or in the be- 
ginning of October, at the time when the equinoctial gales 
prevail. Sometimes it diminishes when the approach of a 
storm refreshes the atmosphere, which is in general very 
rare in summer. But on the following day after the storm, 
the thickness of the callina is much less, the sky purer and 
of a deeper blue. At the end of a few days it recovers its 
former dimensions. I have observed the callina in the warm 
plains of the Guadalquiver, of La Mancha, in the Asturias, and 
the province of Almeria, more rarely among the mountains. 
Its increase and diminution with the temperature seems to 
indicate a connection with it. This is likewise the opinion of 
the people of Spain. 

246 Mr C. Martin on the Nature and Origin of 

Dry fogs properly so called. — It now remains for us to men- 
tion certain fogs which are neither smokes produced by com- 
bustions, nor callina, but vapours, among which the observer 
finds himself, without experiencing the slightest sensation of 
humidity, and hygrometrical instruments not indicating the 
slightest trace of it. On this subject documents are still 
rarer and more imperfect than in regard to the other three 
species of fogs. Having never observed fogs of this nature, 
which have been described by two great meteorologists, De 
Saussure and Humboldt, I think I cannot do better than al- 
low them to speak for themselves. 

" After many days of decidedly fine weather," says De 
Saussure, " when the air is not perfectly transparent, we 
perceive a bluish vapour floating in it which is not of an 
aqueous nature, since it does not affect the hygrometer ; but 
its nature is not yet known to us.'' 

It may be asked, in the first place, if this bluish vapour is 
not the halo which accompanies the callina \ But how are 
we to suppose that such an observer as Saussure should have 
remarked the halo, and not attended to the horizon-smoke 
which accompanied it ? It must be rare in Switzerland, for it 
is never referred to in his Voyages dans les A Ipes ; and in 
our ascents and prolonged stations among the mountains we 
never saw it but once. 

The following notice from M. de Humboldt is a much bet- 
ter characterized example of a true dry fog. On the sum- 
mit of Silla, a mountain which rises near the town of Carac- 
cas, to a height of 2630 metres above the sea, MM. de 
Humboldt and Bonpland were much struck with the appa- 
rent dryness of the air, which seemed to increase as the fog 
formed. " When I took the hygrometer from its case," says 
the illustrious traveller, "to subject it to experiment, it 
marked 52 degrees (87 deg. Sauss.) The sky was clear, 
yet tracks of vapour with distinct contours passed from time 
to time amongst us, grazing the earth. Deluc's hygrometer 
went back to 49 degrees (85 deg. Sauss.). Half an hour later, 
a large cloud enveloped us ; we could no longer distinguish 
the objects nearest us, and wc saw with surprise that the 

different kinds of Dry Fogs. 247 

instrument continued to advance to dry, that is to 47°'7 (84 
deg. Sauss.). The temperature of the air was, during the time, 
from 12 to 13 degrees. Although in the whalebone hygro- 
meter the point of saturation in the air is not at 100 degrees, 
but at 84°-5 (99 deg. Sauss.), this effect of a cloud on the 
movement of the instrument appeared to me most extraordi- 
nary. The fog continued sufficiently long to admit of the 
fillet of whalebone, by its attraction for the molecules of 
water, to elongate itself. Our clothes were not dampened. 
A traveller, experienced in observations of this kind, recently 
assured me that he saw on the naked mountain of Mar- 
tinique, a similar effect of clouds on the hair hygrometer. It 
is the duty of a natural philosopher to relate the phenomena 
which nature presents, especially when he has neglected 
nothing to avoid errors of observation." 

M. Rozet, an officer of the etat-major, has often observed, 
during his investigations among the Pyrenees, a bed of hori- 
zontal vapour at a height varying from 230 to 1150 metres 
above the sea. But in order to determine whether these 
vapours belong to the class of dry or humid fogs, it is neces- 
sary that the observer should have been accustomed to hy- 
grometrical experiments. 

In conclusion, it appears to me that the existence of true 
dry fogs, as dense as ordinary humid fogs, has not been per- 
fectly demonstrated. Saussure's bluish vapour is nothing 
more than a disturbance of the transparency of the air, and 
not a true fog. The insulated observation of M. de Hum- 
boldt has been made with a defective instrument, and very 
slow in its indications, — the whalebone hygrometer of Deluc. 
On this subject, therefore, meteorology requires new re- 
searches, undertaken with the new means of investigation for 
which she is indebted to the progress of experimental physics. 
It is unquestionable that the degree of humidity in fogs is 
variable ; but it is not yet demonstrated that fogs exist so 
dense as to veil objects at the distance of a kilometre, for 
example, and so dry as in no degree to affect delicate psy- 
chrometrical instruments ; at all events, that these fogs are 
not the smoke arising from great combustions. This is a 

248 Mr C. Martins on the Nature and Origin of Dry Fogs. 

subject of study as new as it is interesting. But to enter 
upon it with the well-founded hope of resolving the question, 
we beg of observers to employ M. Regnault's aspirator 
along with hygrometrical instruments. This instrument 
enables us to weigh the quantity of aqueous vapour contained 
in a given volume of air, and it thence follows that the re- 
sults are free from all the causes of error which may attach 
to Saussure's hygrometer, August's psychrometer, that of 
Daniell, and even M. Regnault's condenser. In a thick fog 
the eye can scarcely notice the exact moment when the vapour 
is deposited in small drops on the silver capsule of the con- 
denser, or of Daniell's hygrometer, and consequently there 
is always uncertainty as to the degree of the thermometer at 
which the dew is deposited. Travelling meteorologists will 
be much to blame if they neglect the hygrometrical study of 
fogs, carried on by means of these portable instruments. An 
approximating result is always preferable to absolute igno- 
rance. Our numerical data and physical experiments are 
exact, compared with those of our predecessors. But our 
successors, provided with more delicate apparatus, and more 
extensive knowledge, will find precisely the same faults with 
us that we sometimes allege against those who have gone 
before us in the same path. Absolute truth is a phantom 
which man continually approaches, with the certainty of 
never reaching it. 










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Dr Miller on the 

Table II. — Hygrometer. 



Weight of 


Degree of 


Vapour in 
a Cubic 

for satura- 
tion of a 





Foot of 

Cubic Foot 




ment of 


of Air. 



Dow Point. 























March . 

43 66 







April . 






















































































































lculated from o 


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Table IV. — Seathwaite. 

Wet Days. 











Jan. . 










Feb. . 






























May . 










June . 










July . 




















Sept. . 






























Dec. . 





















1 193 












I 187 










Meteorology of Whitehaven. 


Table III. — Monthly Fall of Rain at Seathwaite, Borrowdale, 
Cumberland, in the Years 1845—1853 inclusive. 































February, . 










March, . . 










April, . . 










May, . . . 










June, . . . 










July, . . . 










August, . . 










' September, . 










October, . . 










November, . 










December, . 










At 10 inches 1 

labove ground, J 

At 22 inches, 


























Greenwich, . 










There are four rain -gauges stationed at and in the neighbourhood of Seathwaite,— one 
at 10 inches, and the other at 22 inches, above the surface ; the former is planted in a 
small garden, and the latter in a more exposed situation, in an adjacent field. A third 
gauge is fixed on the " Stye »' or shoulder of " Sprinkling Fell," about a mile and a half 
distant from Seathwaite, in a south-westerly direction, and 580 feet above it, or 948 feet 
above the sea-level. Fall on " Sprinkling Fell," in 1850, 189*49 in. ; 1851, 169-62 in. ; 
1852, 167-73 in. ; and in 1853, 124-91 inches. 

The fourth gauge is near the top of Seatollar Common, 1338 feet above the sea, or 
970 feet above the hamlet, and about the same distance from it as the Stye, bearing 
nearly due north. Depth of rain on Seatollar Common in 1850, 138*84 inches ; in 1851, 
141-42 inches; in 1852, 156*59 inches; and in 1853, 111*45 inches. 



Dr Miller o>* the 

Table V. — Maximum Fall of Rain in 24 hours at Seathwaite, 
in each Month of the Years 1845-1853 inclusive. 




















January, . 






























April, . . 










May, . 










June, . . 










July, . . 










August, . 




















October, . 




























|| 4-57 


Greatest 1 
Daily Fall, j 


















* On the 25th and 26th of November 1845, the fall at Seathwaite in 48 hours was 
9*62 inches; and at Langdale Head, 8-89 inches ! !! 

1846. On the 2d and 3d of March, the fall at Seathwaite was 6*86 inches. 

„ On the 8th and 9th of October, there fell 9-74 inches; and on the 8th, 9th, and 
10th, 11-63 inches. 

1847. On the 6th and 7th of October, the fall was 6*76 inches; and on 4 days in this 

month, it amounted to 13*10 inches. 
„ On 2 days in November, there fell 8*36 inches ; and on 2 days in December, 
6*14 inches. 

1848. On the 3d, 4th, and 5th of February, the fall was 7*72 inches ; and on 9 days in 

this month, it amounted to 23*13 inches ! ! 
„ On the 3d and 4th of October, the fall was 5*89 inches. 
„ On the 3d and 4th of December, there fell 6*74 inches; and on the 3d and 26th 

the fall amounted to 8*82 inches. 
+ 1849. In January, the greatest daily fall at Langdale was 4*30 inches on the 24th ; and 

in 3 days in this month, the deposit amounted to 8*68 inches. 
I „ In the 4 days between the 22d and 25th of October, the fall at Seathwaite was 

10*79 inches; — the maximum daily fall at Wastdale Head was 4*37 inches, 

and from the 22d to the 25th inclusive, the deposit of rain amounted to 9*94 


1850. On February 14, 15, and 16, the fall was 6*91 inches, and on 5 days in this month 

it amounted to 12*72 inches. 
§ „ The greatest daily fall at Langdale, in October, was 4*69 ; on the 6th and 7th» 
the deposit amounted to 8*26 inches, and at Seathwaite to 5*91 inches. 
„ On 4 days in November, there fell 10*00 inches. 

1851. On January 1 and 2, the fall was 5*34 inches; and on 5 days in this month, it 

amounted to 14*98 inches. 
„ On the 12th, 13th, and 14th of July, the fall was 8*27 inches. 
„ On the 18th and 19th October, there fell 5*63 inches ; and in 3 days in this month, 

8*58 inches. 

1852. On 3 days in Jauuavy, the fall was 10*42 inches. 

„ On the first 5 days of February, 11*15 inches was measured; and on 6 days in this 

month, 13*77 inches. 
„ On the 10th and 1 1th of December, there fell 7*60 inches ; and on 8 days in this 

month, 20*73 inches ! ! 
il „ The greatest daily fall at Stonethwaite in December, was 5*74 inches on the 11th; 

on the 10th and 11th, the deposit was 9*11 inches; and on 8 days in this 

month, it amounted to 20*97 inches ! ! 

1853. Fall on 3d and 4 th of July, 6*62 inches. 

of Whitehaven in tlie year 1853. 253 

Remarks on the Year 1853. 

January. — A mild and rather wet month. January is usually 
the coldest month, but, this year, it was considerably warmer 
than either February or March. The mean temperature was 2 0, 7 
above its average value. There was thunder and lightning on 4 
days, and the sun shone out more or less on 25 days in this month. 
On the 17th, I find the following memorandum in the Register, — 
" This is the first really clear and bright evening we have had since 
the 29th of November." 

A correspondent of the Whitehaven Herald states that M the rain 
which fell on the 15th, in some parts of High Furness, was so black as 
to colour the mountain brooks, and even the earth and sand washed by 
the same had a dark appearance. This is not the first time that such a 
phenomenon has been observed. It has been previously witnessed, 
both in this district and in Norfolk. At the latter place, a farmer 
writing in the Lynn Advertiser stated, " that the rain which fell 
upon his newly-cut swathes made them so black, that the haymakers 
were like chimney-sweepers." 

An Orange-tinted atmosphere. — Jan. 4th. Heavy rain throughout 
the day ; about 4 p.m., fair, but sky overcast, — the whole atmosphere 
assumed an orange tinge, which had a very peculiar effect on sur- 
rounding objects, resembling the lurid aspect of the landscape during 
the continuance of a total or an annular eclipse of the sun. 

February. — Fine, but very cold, with the thermometer at or below 
32° on sixteen nights. The coldest February in the last 21 years, 
except the corresponding month of 1838. The mean temperature is 
5°*4 below the average. On the 12th, at 8 a.m., the thermometer stood 
at 20°; at llh. 30m. a.m., at 24°*5; and, at 3 p.m., at 26°— the 
mean temperature of the day being 23°*2. A naked thermometer 
on raw wool on grass, fell to 8 0, 7 on the night between the 27th and 
28th. Snow fell on 5 days, and the entire depth was equivalent to 
a quarter of an inch of water. 

On the evening of the 27th, the Zodiacal Light was unusually 
bright and distinct. The cone, or rather frustrum, was not visible 
much beyond the altitude of Saturn ; — its sides, if prolonged, would 
apparently meet a little to the south of the Pleiades. At 9h. 30m., 
there was no trace of the light. From 8 p.m., there was a low flat 
auroral arch, altitude about 23°, and breadth 6°, — very bright and 
pretty well defined. The sun shone out on 23 days. 

March. — A fine, dry, but cold month. Mean temperature 2°*3 
below its average value. Snow showers fell on 6 days, and the en- 
tire fall was equal to j^th of an inch of water. Lightning was 
seen on the evening of the 4th. The thermometer at 4 feet above 
the ground fell below 32° on 10 nights, and the sun shone out more 
or less on 28 days. 


254 Dr Miller on the Climate 

The Comet, supposed to be that of 1664, was seen at this Observa- 
tory on the evening of the 30th. 

First Quarter. — The mean temperature of the quarter ending 
March 31st, is 1°*6 below the average of the previous 20 years. The 
deaths in the town and suburb of Preston Quarter are 127, being 
24, or 16 per cent, under the average number in the last 14 years, 
corrected for increase of population. 

By the Registrar-General's report it appears, that " the deaths 
throughout the kingdom in the first 3 months of this year exceeded 
by 11,559 the deaths in the winter quarter of 1852, and by still 
more the deaths in any previous winter, except the winters of 1847 
and 1848, when influenza and cholera prevailed. On the average 
of the 10 winter quarters 1843-52, the rate of mortality was 
2 - 467 per cent. ; in the winter quarter of the present year 2*620 per 

April. — A fine seasonable month. Its mean temperature is 
identical with the average of the previous 20 years. The ther- 
mometer at 4 feet above the ground did not fall within l£° of the 
freezing point, but a delicate instrument placed on wool on a grass 
plot, descended to 18° on the night common to the 8th and 9th. 
The sun shone out on 27 days. 

On the 14th, I find the following entry in the journal : — " A 
blackbird's nest containing four and a thrush's nest with three eggs 
were found to-day near Bridge Foot. There are as yet but few in- 
dications of spring. The hedgerows are only beginning to bud, and 
the only green leaves visible are those of the wild gooseberry bush 
and woodbine. On warm banks primroses are expanding, and in con- 
siderable numbers. Bees have begun to bear within the last few days." 

On the night of the 21st, a very fine, perfect, and sharply-de- 
fined lunar halo, about 44° in diameter, was almost continuously 
visible from lOh. to 14h. (2 o'clock in the morning.) 

On the following day, there was a magnificent solar halo from 
llh. 30m. a.m. till near sunset; at 3h. 30m. p.m., the interior dimen- 
sions of the ring taken with the altazimuth instrument, were, 
Polar diameter, . 43° 17', 

Equatorial do., . 43° 50', 

From 5h. 45m. till near 6h. 30m., the ring was broken up into 
several segments, the upper one being by far the brightest, and ex- 
hibiting prismatic colours of considerable intensity. From this por- 
tion of the ring, two faint curved rays or bands of light were thrown 
off. At 5h. 45m., I noticed a faint mock sun, or circular patch 
of light much brighter than the ring, and intersecting it to the left 
of the sun, and nearly at the same altitude. The parhelion threw 
off outwards an elongated cone or bush of white light, and an ima- 
ginary line joining the axis of the bush and the centre of the 
parhelion and true sun was parallel to the horizon. The halo had 
vanished by 6h. 30m.; afterwards, a faint cone of light resembling the 

of Whitehaven in the year 1853. 255 

bush described might be traced above the sun's upper limb, perpen- 
dicular to the horizon. Soon after the moon rose, a faint lunar 
halo was visible, and it continued more or less perfect till after mid- 
night. On the morning of the 28th, at 2h. 21m., an unusually 
brilliant shooting star appeared and disappeared in the south-east at 
an altitude of about 15°, and it conveyed a strong impression of being 
close at hand, as if it were a spark from a neighbouring chimney. 
At 2h. 30m., there was a singular brownish conical light above 
the upper limb of the gibbous moon, resembling the flame of a 

The cuckoo was heard at Rothersyke on the 24th, and swallows 
made their appearance in this neighbourhood a day or two later. I 
first noticed the Io butterfly on the 29th. 

Between the 24th of March and the end of April, we were favoured 
with an uninterrupted continuance of the finest astronomical weather 
I almost ever remember, and during this period I was enabled suc- 
cessfully to measure, both in position and distance, some of the most 
delicate and difficult double and binary stars — as € Bootis, £ Bootis, 
and £ Hercules.* 

From the very favourable state of the atmosphere, I was also en- 
abled to charge the micrometer with a lens of unusually high power 
(500) and of admirable workmanship, made by Mr Simms, — with 
which systems of the 3d and 4th magnitude (under illumination) 
presented perfect disks, with scarcely a trace of rings. Indeed, 
nothing could exceed the beauty and sharpness of the stellar defini- 
tion with this eye-piece, and I prefer it to any lower power for 
micrometric measures, when the air is at all tolerably steady. 

May. — The driest May on record at this place, except the corre- 
spondingmonth in 1836 and 1844. The entire deposit of rainbetween 
the 19th of April and the 6th of June — a period of 47 days, only 
amounted to 0*624 inch, of which 0*272 fell in May, on 6 days. 
The month was remarkably fine and clear throughout ; the number 
of perfectly clear days was 7, and the sun shone out either partially 
or continuously on every day. The nights were cold, bright, and 
cloudless, and an enormous amount of radiant heat was thrown off 
from the earth's surface between sunset and sunrise. The differ- 
ence between the day and night temperature was 17°; and the 
mean difference between the standard thermometer in air at 4 feet 
above the ground, and one on raw wool placed on the grass, was 
14 0, 2. Vegetation was consequently subjected to very low tempera- 
tures : — the mean of the night temperature on the grass was 29 0, 8, 

* In about two years, the small purple companion of £ Hercules will have per- 
formed two entire revolutions around its brilliant primary since its position 
was first determined by Sir W. Herschel in the summer of 1782. It is now 
moving in its orbit at the rate of about 5° per annum, and its distance has in- 
creased of late years. 


25(3 Dr Miller on the Climate 

or 2 J, 2 below the freezing point. The naked thermometer on wool 
frequently fell below 20°, and once to 17°, although the standard 
instrument did not descend below 35° during the month. The mean 
temperature is T 3 „ ths of a degree under its average value. On the 7th, 
there were some slight snow showers, and between the 3d and 7th, 
the maximum temperature fell 15 degrees. On the 9th, there 
were 9 inches of snow on the ground between Keswick and Cocker- 
mouth. At Liverpool, snow covered the streets to the depth of 3 
inches at 8 o'clock in the morning. At Holmfirth, snow fell heavily 
throughout the day, — it was 18 inches deep on the streets. 

During this beautifully fine clear month, the astral definition was 
so deplorable, that only three sets of Positions were obtained at this 
Observatory in as many weeks, with the apparent advantage of an 
almost continuously bright and unclouded sky. The hygrometrical 
condition of the air was unusually low, the dew-point ranging from 
12° to 24° below the temperature of the air. On the 13th, the com- 
plement of the dew-point was 17°*1 ; on the 15th, 20°*5 ; on the 
17th, 22°-5 ; and, on the 24th. 24°-5, — approaching to the extreme 
of hygroscopic dryness in this climate. 

To the very unequal distribution of moisture over the upper and 
lower strata of the atmosphere, the twirling, moulding, and blotted 
appearance of the stars is no doubt to be attributed. 

The Cabbage Butterfly was seen on the 1st. 

The Cuckoo was heard at Seathwaite on the 1st, and Swallows 
were seen on the 17th, for the first time this season. Snow fell in 
the Lake District on every day between the 6th and 9th inclusive, 
amounting to 0*35 inch of water. 

June. — A fine but rather cold month. The temperature is half 
a degree below the average. The sun shone out on 28 days. 

Second Quarter. — The temperature of the quarter ending June 
30th, is o, 3 below the average of 20 years. The deaths in the town 
and suburb are 99, being 23 in number, or 19 per cent, under the 
average of the 14 previous spring quarters. In the 1st and 2d 
quarters of the year 1853, the sanitary condition of Whitehaven is 
very favourably contrasted with that of the kingdom generally. The 
Registrar-General in his report for this'quarter says: — " The average 
mortality for the spring quarter is 2-223. This average is exceeded 
by the present return, which shews a mortality at the rate of 2-383 
per cent, per annum higher than the rate in the corresponding 
quarter of every year from 1843-52, except the spring quarter of 
1847, when the population was infested by scurvy and its attendant 
diseases, after the great failure of the potato crop in 1846. The 
rate of mortality was then 2*506 ; in the autumn, influenza broke 
out, and cholera followed in its footsteps in 1848 and 1849." 

July. — A cold, damp, and rather wet month. The mean tem- 
perature l°-49 below the average, and6°*l under that of July 1852. 
A thunder storm occurred on the evening of the 13th, accompanied 
by heavy rain. The sun shone out on 24 days. 

of Whitehaven in the year 1853. 257 

August. — A cool, but fine and dry month. Rain fell on 11 days 
only, and the sun shone out on every day but two. The tempera- 
ture is 0°7 under the average of 20 years, and 2 0, 17 under that of 
the same month in 1852. 

The evaporation and rain fall are identical in amount (3*12 
inches). The grain harvest commenced in this neighbourhood on 
the 19th. 

The Comet discovered by Klinkerfues at G-ottingen, on the 10th 
of June, suddenly became visible to the naked eye in its descent to 
the perihelion, on the evening of the 23d of August, about 8 o'clock. 
Owing to the almost continuous presence of cloud in the north-west, 
the comet was seen at this Observatory on two evenings only, those 
of the 23d and 26th. On the latter occasion, the nucleus was equal 
in lustre to a star of the first magnitude, and its well-defined para- 
bolic tail was probably 6° or 8° degrees in length. The angle of 
Position of the axis of the tail with the meridian, by a mean of 
three observations secured through openings in the clouds, was found 
to be 60°*2. The nucleus of the comet was detected l»y Mr Hartnup 
of Liverpool, at mid-day on the 3d of September, when it attained 
the perihelion. 

September. — A fine, dry, and seasonable month. The tempera- 
ture is identical with the average of 20 previous years. The sun 
shone out on 25 days, and exactly half the entire number of days 
were free from rain, The evaporation and fall of rain again very 
nearly balance each other. 

On the evening of the 2d, at 9 o'clock, there was a brilliant but 
irregular and imperfect Auroral arch at an altitude of 50°, in the 
direction of the magnetic east and west. The extremities were 
turned upwards towards the zenith. The phenomenon more re- 
sembled an illuminated white cloud, than the light usually exhibited 
by the Aurora Borealis. It disappeared in about 15m. after the 
writer's attention was first called to it, and was succeeded by volumes 
of auroral mist extending from east to west, which emitted faint mag- 
netic flashes. 

Third Quarter. — The temperature of the summer quarter is o, 7 
below the average of 20 years. The deaths in the town and suburb 
are 73, a smaller number than has been registered in any previous 
September quarter, except in 1852, when the deaths were exactly 
the same in number. The deaths are 43, or 36*7 per cent, under 
the corrected average number. 

The rate of mortality for the entire kingdom was also under the 
average rate for the season. 

October. — Mild and wet, more rain having fallen than in any 
other month of 1853. The temperature is 1°'8 above its average 
value. On the 29th, at 9 p.m., a single auroral streamer in 
WSW., extending to the zenith. The sun shone out on 23 days, 
although more or less rain fell on 24 days in the month. 

November. — A mild month, and less damp than usual. The 

258 Dr Miller on the Climate 

temperature is 0°*9 above the average, and the thermometer fell to 
the freezing point on one night only. 

There were two lunar haios, and two slight appearances of aurora 

December. — A fine and remarkably dry, cold month. The tem- 
perature is 4°*28 under the average, and no less than 8°*55 under 
the mean temperature of the corresponding month in 1852 ! ! This 
is the driest December on record at this place, except the correspond- 
ing month of 1844, in which the quantity of rain was only T 3 oths of 
an inch. The Decembers of 1852 and 1853 are strikingly con- 
trasted with each other ; — whilst the former was the mildest and 
wettest, the latter is the coldest (two excepted) and driest (one ex- 
cepted) ever known, or at least recorded at Whitehaven. In Decem- 
ber 1852, the depth of rain slightly exceeded 11 inches ; — in the 
same month of 1853, it only amounted to half an inch. The sun 
shone out on 15 days, and the thermometer fell below 32° on 14 

On the 6th, at 7h. 25m. p.m., there was an auroral arch, 10° 
or more in breadth, extending from ENE. to WSW., the centre 
passing a little south of the zenith. At 8 p.m., two-thirds of the 
sky were covered with streamers converging about 15° south of the 
zenith. By 8h. 30m. the phenomenon had nearly disappeared. 
At llh., there was a broad arch in the NW. — altitude of centre 
about 30°. 

Last Quarter. — The mean temperature of the last quarter is 
0°*5 under the average. The deaths in the town and suburb are 
138, or three above the corrected average number in the 14 previous 
autumn quarters. The prevailing disease was Scarlatina. White- 
haven was entirely exempted from cholera, which visited the adjacent 
town of Workington with fatal virulence during this period. 

According to the Registrar-General, " this period was unhealthy, 
and a greater number of lives was lost to the population than in 
any other autumnal quarter of the last 13 years, with only two ex- 
ceptions, — the fourth quarter of 1846 and that of 1847." 

Winds. — In 1853, the winds were distributed as under : — N., 33 
days ; NE., 62 * days ; E., 26£ days ; SE., 26J days ; S., 57 
days ; SW., 92 days ; W., 31 days ; and NW., 36£ days. 

Weather, fyc. — In the bygone year, there were 2 1 perfectly clear 
days ; 152 days more or less cloudy without rain ; 192 wet days ; 
300 days on which the sun shone out more or less ; 46 frosty nights 
(of which 16 were in February and 14 in December) ; 15 snow 
showers ; and 11 days on which hail fell. There have also been 2 
solar and 6 lunar halos, 1 parhelion, 4 days of thunder and light- 
ning, 1 day on which lightning was seen without thunder, and 7 ap- 
pearances of aurora borealis. The number of days on which the sun 
shone out is greater than in any other year of which a record has 
been k<pt. The next greatest number was 292, in 1844. 

of Whitehaven in the year 1853. 259 

The mean temperature of the year 1853 is 48°*11, being 0°*79 
below the climatic average of this place, and 2°04 below the tem- 
perature of the year 1852. The fall of rain is 9*18 inches under 
the average depth in 20 years, and 12*63 inches under the quantity 
measured in 1852. There are but two years in the last 21 which 
exceed the past in dryness, — viz., 1842 and 1844; in the former, 
the fall of rain was 34*70 inches, and, in the latter, 36*72 inches. 

The last two years present several abnormal and very opposite 
characteristics. On the whole, the year 1852 was one of the wettest, 
— while 1853 was one of the driest on record at this port; yet, in 
both years, the fall of rain in the first 6 months was greatly below the 
normal depth. The year 1852 was one of the mildest, and 1853 
one of the coldest in the last 21 years. In 9 months of 1852, the 
temperature was considerably above, — and, in 8 months of 1853, it 
was greatly below the average for the season. The year 1852 was 
remarkable for the unusual number and almost tropical severity of 
its thunder-storms, — the year 1853 is equally marked by an extra- 
ordinary absence of electrical disturbances in the atmosphere, the 
number of thunder-storms being only four, (of which three occurred 
in January) and none of them were of a violent character. The 
month of December, 1853, was moreover entirely exempted from 
the tremendous gales of wind which prevailed towards the close of 
the year 1852. 

In 1852, the amount of surface evaporation was 30*34 inches; 
in 1853, the depth is 27*33 inches. 

In March, May, June, August, and December, 1853, the eva- 
poration exceeds the fall of rain ; in April and September, the two 
processes nearly balance each other ; and, in the other months of 
the year, the depth of water precipitated greatly exceeds the amount 
of spontaneous evaporation. 

The deaths in the town and suburb in 1853, are 437, being 89 
in number, or 17 per cent, below the average annual number in 14 
years, corrected for increase in population. The births (689) ex- 
ceed the deaths by 252, and are eight above the corrected average 
number for the same period. 

Assuming the population of the town and suburb of Whitehaven 
to be the same as in 1851 (19,281), when the last census was taken, 
the mortality is equivalent to 22*6 deaths per 1000, or one death 
in every 44 inhabitants. This rate is favourably contrasted with 
the ratio of mortality in most of the principal towns of the kingdom 
during the past year. In Glasgow, the mortality amounted to 
26*9 deaths in every 1000 persons, a considerably greater mor- 
tality than in 1848, when the city was infested with cholera. 
Nearly 50 per cent, of the deaths were those of children under 5 
years of age. 

The sanitary condition of this town has been rapidly improving 
every year since the water-works were completed in 1851. In 

260 The (jfreat Auk still found in Iceland. 

1849, the mortality was equivalent to 32*2 deaths per 1000, or 
one in every 31 persons; in 1850, to 24-9 deaths per 1000, or 
one in every 40 individuals; in 1851, to 23*4 deaths per 1000, or 
one death in every 42*6 inhabitants ; in 1852, to exactly 23 deaths 
per 1000, or one in every 43*3 persons ; and, in 1853, the mortality 
was at the rate of 22*6 deaths per 1000, or one death in every 44 
inhabitants. The average number of deaths in the 14 years end- 
ing with 1852, is 495, which, with an assumed mean population of 
18,143, gives 27*2 deaths per 1000, or one in every 36*6 persons. 

According to the Registrar-General, the annual average rate of 
mortality for the kingdom, from 1843 to 1852, is, in towns, 25*8 
per 1000, and in the country districts, 20 3 per 1000 persons. 
These figures shew that, prior to 1850, the rate of mortality in 
Whitehaven was not only absolutely excessive, but relatively so to 
that of the principal towns in England. 

The tables showing the annual, monthly, and maximum daily 
fall of rain at Seathwaite, in the heart of the English Lake Dis- 
trict, during the last nine years, require very little comment. The 
greatest fall in any year was 160-9 inches, in 1847, — the least, 
113-7 inches, in 1853. 

The greatest monthly fall was 32-83 inches, in December 1852. 
The greatest depth measured in 24 hours was 6*62 inches, in No- 
vember 1845; and, in 48 consecutive hours, 9*62 inches, on the 
25th and 26th of November, 1845, and 9*74 inches on the 8th and 
9th of October, 1846. 

The Observatory, Whitehaven, 
28th January 1854. 

The Great Auk still found in Iceland. 

The Great Auk (Gar-Fogel, Sw. ; Alca impennis, Linn.) 
This remarkable bird — the largest of its tribe, being the size 
of the common tame goose — which at no period of its exist- 
ence is able to fly, resembles greatly the penguins of the 
southern hemisphere, the link between birds and amphi- 
bious animals. Although at one time, according to ancient 
authors, it belonged to the Scandinavian fauna, it cannot 
now be considered as entitled to a place there. The last 
heard of on the coast of the peninsula was killed in the Cat- 
tegat, near to the town of Marstrand, some fifty or sixty 
years ago. About the same period, Denicken tells us, one 
was shot in the harbour of Keil, in Holstein. 

The Great Auk still found in Iceland. 261 

According to Graba, the Great Auk has not been seen in 
Greenland, Iceland, or the Faroe Islands of late 3 ears ; and 
the author of an article in the Edinburgh Cabinet Library, 
who cites Graba, says that " the race may now be regarded as 
extinct." English and Swedish naturalists, as respects the 
countries in question, seem to have come pretty much to the 
same conclusion. But this is incorrect ; for on parts at least 
of the coast of Iceland it is still to be met with. This is 
more especially the case on the so-called Geirfugle-Skyaer 
(Danish), or Great Auk- Skar ; on which, however, so fearful 
a surf is said constantly to beat, that it is rarely, excepting at 
imminent risk to life, that a landing can be effected. 

In the year 1813, a colony of these birds, we are told, 
were here observed by a passing ship. A boat was at once 
despatched to the spot, and no fewer than twenty were cap- 
tured on their eggs, all of which were carried to Reckravig. 
One of the birds was afterwards stuffed, but the others were 
eaten. In 1814, again, eight individuals were killed on a 
flat skar, on the west coast of Iceland. In 1818 a single 
one was taken at a place in South Iceland, where several 
others were also observed. In 1823 two old birds were 
killed on a skar near to Orebakke, and both were sent to the 
Royal Museum in Copenhagen. In 1829 a pair, male and 
female, were killed on the Geirfugle-Skyaer, whilst coura- 
geously defending their two eggs (they usually lay but one). 
The birds are now in the possession of the apothecary Mech- 
lenburg, at Flensborg. Still later, in 1832, at least ten were 
killed on a skar near to Iceland. In the year 1834, three 
birds and three eggs were brought to Copenhagen from that 
island. In 1844 two birds and two eggs also reached this 
city from the same quarter. People whose word is to be 
relied on, Kyaerbolling tells us, have informed him, that 
birds have subsequently been seen off the coast of Iceland ; 
but although a large reward has been offered for both birds 
and skins, no one has had the courage to land upon the skar. 

From the above account there can be little question as to 
the Great Auk still existing in some numbers on the coast of 
Iceland ; and I doubt not that we shall one day hear of some 

262 Dr Playfair on the Food of Man under 

of our enterprising countrymen having overcome all difficul- 
ties, and returning home with a rich booty. 

The egg of the Great Auk (occasionally it lays two, as it 
would seem from the foregoing) is about the size of that of a 
swan, and in shape it resembles that of the Foolish Guille- 
mot, but is less pointed. The ground colour is dirty white, 
tinged with yellow, marked, especially at the thicker end. with 
black-gray and brown blotches and streaks. — L.Lloyd's Scan- 
dinavian Adventures, vol. ii., p. 495. 

On the Food of Man under different conditions of Age and 
Employment. By Dr Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S.* 

The author commenced by adverting to our very imperfect 
acquaintance with the statistics of food. We are still igno- 
rant regarding the quantity of the different proximate constitu- 
ents of aliment necessary for man's sustenance, even in his 
healthy and normal condition. If the question were asked — 
How much carbon should an adult man consume daily \ — 
there would be scarcely more than one reliable answer, viz., 
that the soldiers of the body-guard of the Duke of Darmstadt 
eat about 11 oz.f of carbon in the daily supply of food. 

If, again, the question were asked — How much flesh-form- 
ing matter supports an adult man in a normal condition \ — 
no positive answer could be given. Even, as respects the 
relation between the carbon in the flesh-forming matter and 
that of the heat-givers, we have no reliable information. It 
is true that certain theoretical conclusions on this head have 
been drawn from the composition of flour, but no real statis- 
tical answer deduced from actual experience exists. 

When we inquire into the cause of our ignorance on 
these points, it is found that the progress to knowledge is 
surrounded with difficulties. Neither chemistry nor phy- 
siology is in a sufficiently advanced state to grapple satis- 
factorily with the subject of nutrition. For example, we 

* From the Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain in 1853. 
t Liehig states a higher amount, hut this is a recalculation from the new 
food tables. 

different conditions of Age and Employment. 263 

know that albumen in an egg is the starting-point for a 
whole series of tissues ; that out of the egg come feathers, 
claws, fibrine, membranes, cells, blood, corpuscles, nerves, 
&c, but only the result is known to us ; the intermediate 
changes and their causes are quite unknown. After all, 
this is but a rude and unsatisfactory knowledge. Hence, 
when we approach the subject it is only to deal with very 
rough generalities. Admitting that the experience of man 
in diet is worth something, it is possible to arrive at some 
conclusions by the statistical method, — that is, by accepting 
experience in diet, and analyzing that experience. Take, for 
example, the one general line of pauper diet for the English 
counties placed in the table at the end of this notice. The 
mode of arriving at the result of experience, in the case of 
paupers, was to collect it from every workhouse in the king- 
dom, and then to reduce it to one line. But the labour of 
this is immense. In the preparation of this one line the fol- 
lowing work had to be performed in acquiring the data : — 

Number of Unions applied to, . . . 542 

Number of explanatory letters sent to them, . 700 

Number of calculations to reduce the results, . 47,696 
Number of additions of the above calculations, . 6,868 
Number of extra hours, beyond the office hours, 

paid to a clerk for the reduction, . . 1,248 

The statistical method, besides being very laborious, is 
extremely tedious, and has thus deterred persons from en- 
countering it. In giving, therefore, an example of some of 
the results which have been collected within the last few 
years, they will represent much labour, but very little or no 

The lecturer then alluded shortly to the conditions in 
nutrition, which must be borne in mind in looking at these 
results. It was now admitted that the heat of the body was 
due to the combustion of the unazotized ingredients of food. 
Man inspires annually about 7 cwt. of oxygen, and about 
£th of this burns some constituent and produces heat. The 
whole carbon in the blood would thus be burned away in 
about three days, unless new fuel were introduced as food. 
The amount of food necessary depends upon the number of 

264 Dr Playfair on the Food of Man under 

respirations, the rapidity of the pulsations, and the relative 
capacity of the lungs. Cold increases the number of respira- 
tions and heat diminishes them ; and the lecturer cited well- 
known cases of the voracity of residents in Arctic regions, 
although he admitted, as an anomaly, that the inhabitants of 
tropical climates often shew a predilection for fatty or car- 
bonaceous bodies. He then drew attention to the extra- 
ordinary records of Arctic dietaries shewn in the table, which, 
admitting that they are extreme cases, even in the Arctic 
regions, are nevertheless very surprising. 

Dr Playfair then alluded to the second great class of food 
ingredients, viz., those of the same composition as flesh. 
Beccaria, in 1742, pointed to the close resemblance between 
these ingredients of flesh, and asked, "Is it not true that we 
are composed of the same substances which serve as our 
nourishment 1 " In fact, the simplicity of this view is now 
generally acknowledged ; and albumen, gluten, caseine, &c, 
are now recognised as flesh- formers in the same sense that 
any animal aliment is. After alluding to the mineral ingre- 
dients, attention was directed to a diet-table, which contained 
some modifications, but was based on the one published in 
the Agricultural Cyclopaedia under the article Diet; the 
table as shewn being used in the calculation of the dietaries. 

The old mode of estimating the value of dietaries, by 
merely giving the total number of ounces of solid food used 
daily or weekly, and quite irrespective of its composition, 
was shewn to be quite erroneous ; and an instance was given 
of an agricultural labourer in Gloucestershire, who in the 
year of the potato famine subsisted chiefly on flour, consum- 
ing 163 ounces weekly, which contained 26 ounces of flesh- 
formers. When potatoes cheapened he returned to a potato- 
diet, and now ate 321 ounces weekly, although his true 
nutriment, in flesh-formers, was only about 8 or 10 ounces. 
He shewed this further, by calling attention to the six 
pauper dietaries formerly recommended, to the difference 
between the salt and fresh meat dietary of the sailor, &c, 
all of which, relying on absolute weight alone, had in reality 
no relation in equivalent nutritive value. 

Attention was now directed to the diagrams exemplifying 

different conditions of Age and Employment. 265 

dietaries. Taking the soldier and sailor as illustrating 
healthy adult men, they consumed weekly about 35 ounces 
of flesh-formers, 70 to 74 ounces of carbon ; the relation of 
the carbon in the flesh-formers to that of the heat-givers 
being 1:3. If the dietaries of the aged were contrasted 
with this, it would be found that they consumed less flesh- 
formers (25 — 30 ounces), but rather more heat-givers (72 — 78 
ounces) ; the relation of the carbon in the former to that of 
the latter being about 1 : 5. The young boy, about ten or 
twelve years of age, consumed about 17 ounces weekly, or 
about half the flesh-formers of the adult man ; the carbon 
being about 58 ounces weekly, and the relations of the two 
carbons being nearly 1 : 5J. The circumstances under which 
persons are placed influence these proportions considerably. 
In workhouses and prisons the warmth renders less neces- 
sary a large amount of food-fuel to the body ; while the re- 
lative amount of labour determines the greater or less 
amount of flesh-formers. Accordingly, it is observed that 
the latter are increased to the prisoners exposed to hard 
labour. From the quantity of flesh-formers in food, we may 
estimate approximatively the rate of change in the body. 
Now, a man weighing 140 lb. has about 4 lb. of flesh in 
blood, 27 J lb. in his muscular substance, &c, and about 
5 lb. of nitrogenous matter in the bones. These 37 lb. 
would be received in food in about eighteen weeks ; or, in 
other words, that period might represent the time required 
for the change of the tissues, if all changed with equal rapidity, 
which is, however, not at all probable, 

All the carbon taken as food is not burned in the body, 
part of it being excreted with the waste matter. Supposing 
the respirations to be 18 per minute, a man expires about 
8*59 oz. of carbon daily, the remainder of the carbon appear- 
ing in the excreted matter. 

In conclusion, Dr Playfair explained how the dietary-tables 
elucidated the various admixtures of food common to cookery, 
and how they might even be made to bear on certain national 
characteristics, which were in no small degree influenced by 
the aliments of different nations. 

2GG Dr Playfair on the Food of Man under 

Examples of Dietaries as 

in ounces 
per week. 


free from 

Dietaries of Soldiers and Sailors — 

English Soldier ..... 




Do. in India .... 




English Sailor (Fresh Meat) 




Do. (Salt Meat) .... 




Dutch Soldier, in War 




Do. in Peace 




French Soldier 




Bavarian do. ..... 




Hessian do. ..... 




Dietaries of the Young — 

Christ's Hospital, Hertford . 




Do. London . 




Chelsea Hospital, Boys' School . 




Greenwich Hospital, do. 




Dietaries of the Aged — 

Greenwich Pensioners 




Chelsea do 




Gillespie's Hospital, Edinburgh . 




Trinity Hospital, do. 




Old Pauper Dietaries — 

Class 1 



„ 2 



„ 3 



„ 4 



„ 5 



» 6 



Average of all English Counties in 1851 



St Cuthbert's, Edinburgh . 




City Workhouse, do. ... 




English Prison Dietaries — 

Class 2, Males .... 




„ 3, do 




„ 4, 7, & 8. do 




„ 5, do 




Bengal Prison Dietaries. 

Non-Labouring Convicts 




Working Convicts .... 




Contractors' insufficient Diet 




Bombay Prison Dietaries — 

All Classes of Prisoners not on hard labour 




Hard Labour 




Arctic and other Dietaries — 

Esquimaux ...... 






Bosjesman ...... 



Hottentot ...... 



Agricultural Labourer, England 




Do. do. 




Do. India 




different conditions of Age and Employment, 
shewn in the Diagrams, 





















































































in flesh 

in heat 












Public Dietaries. 


Special Return obtained. 


Special Returns obtained. 

Special Returns obtained. 

The 6 dietaries recommended as equiva- 
lent by the Poor-Law Commissioners. 

( Specially reduced from all the Unions 
1 in 1851. 

1 Special Returns. 

Convicted Prisoners exceeding 7 days, 

but not exceeding 21 days. 

I Convicted Prisoners, hard labour, exceed - 

( ing 21 days, but not more than 6 weeks. 

Convicted Prisoners, hard labour, above 

6 weeks, and not more than 4 month? 

Convicted Prisoners, hard labour, for 

terms exceeding 4 months. 

From information supplied from 
India House. 


r These probably 
represent ex- 
treme cases 
by the fol- 
lowing au- 

Ross, 1835, p. 448; 
Parry, 1823,p. 413; 
Cochrane, p. 255 ; 
SaritchefF. Barrow, 
pp. 152, 258; Rich- 
ardson, vide, Agric. 
Cyc, article But. 

See Agric. Cyclopaedia 


Dharwar, Bombay — Return in Bombay 
Prison Dietaries. 

268 Dr A. Thomson on the Mod Caves of New Zealand. 

Description of Two Caves in the North Island of New 
Zealand, in which were found Bones of the large extinct 
wingless Bird, called by the Natives, Moa, and by Na- 
turalists Dinornis ; with some general Observations on 
this Genus of Birds. By Arthur S. Thomson, M.D., 
Surgeon of the 58th Regiment. Communicated by the 

Narrative. — In the month of February 1849, I accom- 
panied Lieutenant Servantes, of the 6th regiment, Captain 
Henderson, Royal Artillery, and Lieutenant Clark, Royal 
Engineers, in search of a cave said to contain the bones 
of the Moa. Almost fifty years had elapsed since our guide, 
an old woman, had seen these bones. The place of the cave, 
and the bones, were perfectly familiar to her mind, as she 
had seen them when a girl, but the face of the country had 
evidently changed considerably since that period ; — trees 
had grown up where ferns had formerly grown, and fern was 
now growing where trees then stood ; so that after searching 
about for a whole day, the old lady was obliged to acknow- 
ledge that she could not find the cave, and we returned to 
Auckland without accomplishing the object of our journey. 

In September 1849, I accompanied Captain Henderson 
and Lieutenant Servantes on another trip for a similar ob- 
ject ; on this occasion we were successful in finding a cave, 
and a quantity of Moa^ bones, among which were several 
almost entire skulls, and the beaks of some of the largest 
birds, and a bone like a humerus. These specimens were 
given to His Excellency Sir George Grey, Governor of New 
Zealand, who transmitted them, I believe, to Professor Owen.* 
I have been several times asked for a description of the cave, 
but as our visit to it was a hasty one, and as all my fellow- 
travellers to whom I might have applied for assistance in 
this matter had left the country, I was obliged to acknow- 
ledge my inability to give a satisfactory account of the cave. 
This I regretted very much, because the New Zealanders are 
exceedingly jealous of shewing or allowing any place to be- 

* An account of these bones is given, I believe, in the Transactions of the 
Zoological Society, and forms Part V., in continuation of Professor Owen's 
previous memoirs on the Dinornis. 

Description of tlie surrounding Country. 269 

eome known, which they have an idea is curious, without 
payment ; and when I recollected the difficulty and the delay 
that we had experienced in finding the cave before, I knew 
that I could not find the place again without assistance, and 
a native of Auckland had refused to conduct me to the cave 
because the bones that were in it had been sold to a Euro- 
pean, and I was aware that several bones from that cave had 
been sold at an extravagant price at Taranaki ; consequently 
the place was, to the few who knew it, a species of gold mine. 

I was anxious, however, to try and find the cave again ; 
so partly with this object in view, and also to visit Taupo, I 
set out with Major Hume and Captain Cooper of the 58th 
regiment, in October 1852. We directed our steps to Pa- 
rianiwaniwa, a village upwards of a hundred miles from 
Auckland, near to which the Moa cave is situated. 

When passing through a forest between Raraoraro and 
Rotomarama, we were overtaken by a native driving a pig. 
We knew him to be partial to Europeans, because he had a 
gun-swivel hung from a hole in bis right ear, as an ornament, 
and he had on his feet a pair of Blucher boots, which, from 
their dilapidated condition, were evidently worn more for 
ornament than use. After keeping up with him for some 
time, chiefly to admire how he got his pig through a most in- 
tricate path in the wood, the animal appearing to understand 
perfectly what he said, we entered into conversation about 
the price of his pig ; and we asked him if he knew any caves 
near his village, which contained Moas' bones. This question 
made him stop, and turn round and look at us all. It would 
be something like asking a pig-driver near the quarry in Til- 
gate Forest in Sussex, if he had ever heard of the fossil re- 
mains of the Iguanodon Hylseosaurus, and other stupendous 
creatures made known to us chiefly by the industry of Dr 
Mantell. The English pig-driver would likely infer that the 
querist had escaped from a madhouse, because he was ask- 
ing about things which he had never heard of ; but not so with 
the New Zealander, acquainted with every tree in the forest, 
and every insect in the gronnd : he at once comprehended the 
question and replied, " I will shew you a cave which contains 
'Moas' bones, for two sticks of tobacco." 

The day after our arrival at the village of Rotomarama 

VOL. LVI. NO. CXII. — APRIL 1854. T 

270 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand. 

was Sunday, and one of our party went to prayers with the 
natives. In the evening our tent was filled with visitors, 
and early on Monday morning our party started for Manea, 
where we breakfasted. 

General Description of the Country in which, the Caves are 
found. — On the western coast of the north island of New Zea- 
land, between the Mokau river and Taranaki, on the south, 
Kawhia on the north, and extending inland with occasional 
breaks to the Waipa river, there is an extensive district, 
chiefly composed of marine limestone. The formation is 
found in some parts on a level with the sea, and in other 
parts it has been elevated by volcanic action into mountain 
ranges and districts upwards of a thousand feet above the 
oceanic level. The rock occurs in strata. The stratifica- 
tion is sometimes twisted and broken, with bold cliffs and 
chasms of calcareous rock, presenting a highly picturesque 
effect, seen on passing along the path from the "Waipa river to 
Parianiwaniwa. I could not ascertain the nature of the rocks 
upon which the limestone rests, but above it, in many places, 
there is nothing but alluvial deposits of earth, clay, sand, 
&c. At the bottom of the valleys the quantity of this aqueous 
deposit is very considerable ; but occasionally on the slopes 
and sides of the hills, the limestone crops out in well-marked 
strata, presenting to the eye at a little distance the appear- 
ance of an old Gothic castle in ruins, or an ancient grave- 
yard. With these exceptions, the hills present a smooth and 
rounded form, very unlike the volcanic hills in the neigh- 
bourhood. The soil on this limestone formation is covered 
with ferns, and occasionally large dense forests of trees. There 
are numerous caves, and grottoes, and cells, all over the 
district. Streams of water are seen to disappear between 
limestone rocks, and suddenly to reappear ; fissures are found 
in which no erosions from water can be traced ; but in all 
the caves and cells that I examined there was evidence of a 
rent, and also of watery erosion. These caverns in the 
earth have been long known to the New Zealanders in this 
part of the country ; and near Kawhia there is a cave which 
was the burial-place of the Ngatitoas, the tribe of the great 
Rauparaha. Dieffenbach considers that the limestone forma- 
tion belongs to the tertiary series. 

Description of the Anaotemoa Cave. 271 

Description of the Cave called by the New Zealanders Te 
Anaotemoa) or the Cave of the Moa. — This cave is situated 
near the summit of a small hill, about a mile and a half in a 
south-westerly direction from the village of Parianiwaniwa. 
The settlement is seventeen miles from Honi-Paka, a place 
on the Waipa river. The country in the neighbourhood of 
Parianiwaniwa is about a thousand feet above the level of 
the sea. Parianiwaniwa signifies, in the Maori language, 
" the precipice of the rainbow." The cave of the Moa is in a 
limestone hill, with two openings, — one towards the north-east, 
and the other towards the south-west. The north-east open- 
ing has evidently resulted from the falling in of the roof, and 
is apparently of a recent occurrence ; the south-west entrance 
is fourteen feet high, and ten feet broad, and covered over 
with trees and bushes, which we had to break down be- 
fore we got an entrance. The cave is 165 feet long, the 
greatest breadth 28 feet, and the height 60 feet. The roof 
is oval, and numerous stalactites drop gracefully from it, 
giving a cathedral-like effect to the whole. The cave is some- 
thing in the form of a crescent ; one part of the floor is 
covered over with calcareous spar ; another part with a large 
deposit of soft stalagmites ; and that part of the floor farthest 
distant from the south-west opening is covered with earth, 
limestones, and mud, which appear to have fallen down when 
the roof of the cave gave way, which now forms the north- 
east opening. 

It is under this earth, and the soft deposit of carbonate 
of lime, that the Moa's bones are found. At the south-west 
entrance there is a mound of earth which has either fallen 
from the roof, or been washed in. The air of the cave is 
colder than the atmosphere, and the bottom or floor descends 
as you proceed from this entrance. There was not much 
dropping of water from the roof when we were there, but 
this must have been very considerable at one time, to have 
produced the large deposit of soft limestone which we saw in 
some places. The limestone in the cave is of a dark colour, 
and there is a shallow pool of water in one of the side gal- 
leries. All the bones we got were obtained from under the 
earth, which had fallen down, and partially imbedded them 
in the soft limestone ; but it would require several days' 
labour of a number of men to clear out the bottom of this 

T 2 

272 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand. 

cave properly, in order to see what bones it contains ; but so 
far as we saw there were no bones of men, or other animals 
(except Moas), in it ; nor any marks of fire, sculpture, nor 
figures of any description on the walls of the cave. 

It is evident that this cave has been long known to the 
New Zealanders ; the very name, " the cave of the Moa," 
suggests to the mind the question, Was that name given to 
it because Moas lived in it, or because it contained large 
quantities of Moas' bones ? My own opinion is, that it de- 
rived its name from the latter circumstance ; for we were 
told on our first visit, that the Maoris were in the habit of 
resorting to this cave to procure the skulls of the Moas, to 
keep the powder which they used for tattooing. We only 
got four skulls in this cave, and the scarcity of them was 
accounted for by their use in former days as powder-holders. 
There was nothing to lead us to think that these bones had 
been deposited in the cave by water, for we found a remnant 
of almost every bone in the body, from the spine and the 
rings of the trachea down to the last bone of the toes ; the 
bones belonged both to the largest and also to the smaller 
species of Moas. The animals evidently came to this cave 
to die. The cave, in the first instance, was probably a fis- 
sure in the stone, but from the appearance of the walls, and 
from there being numerous small cavities communicating 
with each other, I think its formation may have been assisted 
by the erosion of water. The bones we got in this cave had 
the appearance of having been exposed to the air ; some of 
them were incrusted with limestone, and in some of them 
the cancellated structure was filled with earth and carbonate 
of lime ; some of the bones had a more recent-like appear- 
ance than others, and the perfect edges of some of the deli- 
cate processes shewed that they had been exposed to little 
rolling : there were few long bones in the cave ; and on our 
asking what had become of them, we were told that they 
had been taken away to be made fish-hooks of, such being 
the practice in former times, before the introduction of iron. 
A sketch of this cave accompanies this paper. — (Plate II.) 

Description of the Cave called by the New Zealanders Te 
Anaoteatua, or the Cave of the Spirit ; in which Moas' bones 
were found. — This cave is about a mile from the native set- 

Description of the Anaoteatua, or Cave of the Spirit. 273 

tlement of Rotomarama, on the path leading to Raraoraro, 
It is situated at the bottom of a hill, in a stratified rock, 
the entrance to which is 25 feet high, and 18 feet broad, of 
an oval form, and in appearance something like the gateway 
of an old castle. A thick foliage of shrubs conceals the 
entrance, and a dark green creeper adheres to the limestone 
rock, and covers the opening. The cave extends in a tor- 
tuous direction underneath the hill for upwards of a mile, 
and consists of several different passages. We reached the 
end of one of these passages after having traversed along 
for half a mile, according to measurement ; but the largest 
we left unexplored. From the top and sides of the cave 
there are numerous stalactites — some of them six feet long, 
and composed of transparent calcareous spar, while others 
had a red tint. In that part of the cave which we explored 
there were three openings in the roof, at different places, of 
from ten to fifteen feet each in circumference, through which 
light was seen streaming in, one hundred and fifty feet 
above the head. Immediately below these openings there 
were heaps of wood and debris washed down from the sur- 
face ; but these openings did not throw much light into the 
cave, so that even during the day the cavern was perfectly 
dark. There are numerous spacious chambers, picturesque 
galleries, grottoes, and cells, in different parts of the cave. 
The height of the roof is fifty feet in some parts, and in other 
places not more than ten feet; the breadth varies from 
twelve to forty feet. I saw no living creature in the interior 
of this cave but a few glow-worms, which adhered to a high 
dome-shaped part of the roof, and presented the appearance 
of the starry firmament. The floor of the cave is made 
up of different materials ; parts are composed of calc-spar, 
parts are covered with a thick crust of soft limestone depo- 
sited from the overcharged water ; and there are many large 
masses of limestone which have fallen from the roof. There 
are also large pools of stagnant water in some parts of the 
cave, and a subterraneous stream of water runs through a 
certain portion of the cave, and then disappears under the 
rock. There was no opening at the other extremity of the 
cave opposite the entrance, but there was an opening at the 
end of one of the passages, which was almost blocked up 

274 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand. 

with earth, and the water in the cave had a sweet taste. 
There was no evidence of art about this cave, but I saw 
large pieces of charred wood on the floor, which I found, on 
inquiry, was burned three years before, when the natives ob- 
tained some of the Moa's bones, which they sold to us at 
Parianiwaniwa. The cave appears to have been formed by a 
fissure in the rock, the erosion of water, and by the falling 
down of the sides and roof. No plants were seen growing 
in the cave, and no shells were found ; the air was good, 
although colder than the external atmosphere. 

The Moa's bones which were procured from this cave were 
found, some under the sand, some in crevices and corners, 
and some under the limestone floor. They were broken, and 
shewed evidence of having been rolled ; but we were after- 
wards told (when they refused to let us visit the cave again) 
that bones are to be found in the farthest extremity of the 
cave, under sand and soft limestone, and that the natives had 
obtained many bones here some years ago, which were 
burned because they saw no use of them. Among them was 
the pelvis and spinal column all adhering ; several of the 
bones we got were covered with a crust of limestone, In a 
crevice of the cave, in one of the galleries, slightly covered 
with sparry limestone, we picked up a most perfect skull 
and a few bones. This skull is unknown to me. It differs 
from all the Moa's skulls that I have seen, although I think 
it belongs to the genus Dinornis. I shewed it to Governor 
Grey, who informed me that he could not say what bird it 
was the skull of. I have transmitted it, therefore, with this 
paper, for examination.* 

I have already mentioned in the narrative, that we were 
unable to visit this cave a second time, to prosecute our 
researches ; but I have little doubt, if this were properly 
gone about, many bones would be found there ; for perhaps 
the Moas resorted to this cave as a place of refuge. All the 
bones that we got here had been evidently washed from the 
interior of the cave, or into the cave by water. 

Before the introduction of Christianity, this cave — " the 
cave of the Spirit of God " — was held in the greatest terror 

* This skull is in the possession of James Thomson, Esq. of Glendowan, 37 
Moray Place, Edinburgh. 

The Discovery of the Moa Bones. 275 

by all New Zealanders. The love of money made some 
Christian natives conquer their fears, and enter the cave 
three years ago to look for Moas' bones ; but the examina- 
tion was apparently made in a very hasty and imperfect 
manner. It was in such gigantic caves as this, that the 
richest harvest of fossil and sub-fossil bones have been found 
in Europe, South America, and Australia. 

History of the Discovery of the Bones of the Moa, and 
the Characters of the Genus Dinornis. — In the late Sir Ro- 
bert Peel's gallery of " modern worthies " at Drayton Manor, 
there hangs a portrait of Professor Richard Owen, and in his 
hand is depicted the tibia of a Moa. This is a just and ap- 
propriate connection ; for to the original mind of Mr Owen 
the world is indebted for the first hint of the existence of 
this gigantic bird. The discovery was made in this manner. 
In 1839 a Mr Rule lent Professor Owen a part of the thigh- 
bone of a Moa, which had been obtained in New Zealand, 
and from this single fragment he drew up a wonderfully cor- 
rect notice of the bird. This memoir was sent out to New 
Zealand, and distributed among some of the missionaries. 
In the Tasmanian Journal* for 1843, there appeared a 
very excellent account, by the Rev. Mr Colenso, of some 
Moa's bones which he had obtained in New Zealand ; but I 
was struck, on reading this paper, to find no mention made 
of Mr Owen's memoir, which was entitled " Notice of a 
Fragment of the Femur of a gigantic Bird in New Zealand." 
Since then Professor Owen has contributed, in several papers, 
observations on the Moa, which papers were founded on the 
collections of bones sent to England by Archdeacon W. 
Williams, Dr Mackellar, Mr Percy Earl, Colonel Wakefield, 
Mr Walter Mantell, and others. It is worthy of mention in 
this place, that not the least curious object in the Museum 
of the Royal College of Surgeons in London is the skeleton 
of this feathered giant, built up from some of these materials 
by Mr Owen. 

The Moa belongs to the Struthious order of birds, a family 

* This journal was originated and supported by Sir John Franklin, when 
Governor of Van Diemen's Land. 

276 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves in New Zealand. 

distinguished by having very short or rudimentary wings 
and massive legs. In their habits they are strictly terres- 
trial ; and this will be at once comprehended, when I men- 
tion that in this order we find the Ostrich, the Cassowary, 
the Rhea, the Emu, the Apteryx, and perhaps the Dodo. 

Bones of five different species of Moas have been found 
in New Zealand. The scientific term Dinornis is applied as 
a general term to the whole of them ; and we have the Di- 
nornis robustus, Dinornis struthioides, Dinornis dromioides 
Dinornis curtus, and Dinornis didiformis. But there are 
found in New Zealand, side by side with the large Moa's 
bones, the bones of other birds nearly allied to the Moa, 
although of less magnitude. The New Zealanders call them 
all Moas' bones ; but naturalists denominate the largest as 
the bones of the Palaptyrix, the next as the Aptornis, of 
which there are two species, and the smallest bones are called 
the Notornis ; and those who are curious about the dis- 
tinguishing features of each, I beg to refer to Mr Owen's 
papers. A specimen of the last species of these birds was 
caught alive in a remote, unfrequented part of the south 
island of New Zealand, in 1850, by some sealers, and kept 
alive for several days, and afterwards killed and eaten ; but, 
fortunately, the skin of this interesting bird, the link between 
the living and the dead, the last perhaps of a race coeval 
with the gigantic Moas, was preserved from destruction by 
Mr Walter Mantell, commissioner of Crown Lands, Welling- 
ton ; and facing the title-page of Dr Mantell 1 s beautiful 
work on " Petrifactions and their Teachings," there is an 
engraving of this bird, now denominated with great justice 
and propriety Notornis Mantelli. 

The largest species of Moa — Dinornis robustus — is sup- 
posed to have stood ten feet six inches in height ; but I 
think this is under the mark, for I saw the complete leg of 
a Moa put together (in a magnificent collection of bones in 
the possession of Sir George Grey, which were unfortunately 
destroyed in the conflagration of Government House in 1848), 
and the head of the femur or thigh bone was six feet from 
the ground. As the ostrich is seven feet high, and as 
the head of its femur is about half the height of the bird, 
I do not think (knowing that the legs of the ostrich are 

Different Localities of the Moa Caves. 211 

reckoned to be proportionally longer for its height than 
those of the Moa) I am wrong in concluding that the Moa, 
whose inferior extremity I saw put together, must have 
stood, when alive, about thirteen or fourteen feet high. The 
Moas were unable to fly, as their rudimentary wings were 
incapable of raising them from the ground, and the only 
bone that I have seen which I took for the humerus was 
sent to Professor Owen, and it was but a small one. The 
Moa had three toes on each foot, and some New Zealanders 
describe the domestic cock as being a perfect picture in 
miniature of that bird. The feathers of the Moa are de- 
scribed as having been most beautiful, which would lead us 
to infer that they were of various colours, for Maoris are 
all fond of gaudy colours ; the bones of the legs of the Moa 
were filled with marrow, and not with air like other birds ; 
portions of the eggs of the bird have been found among their 
bones, of a sufficient size to afford a chord to estimate the 
probable size of an entire shell, and the conclusion is, that a 
hat would have been a proper-sized egg-cup for a Moa's egg. 

Places on New-Zealand where Moas 1 bones have beenfound. 
— In the middle island Moas' bones were found by Percy 
Earl, Esq., at a place called Waikouaiti, seventeen miles 
north of Otago,* in a swamp which is almost submerged 
under the sea, and only visible at low water. Mr Walter 
Mantell conceives it to have been originally a swamp or 
morass, in which flax (Phormium tenax) once grew luxuri- 
antly. Some of the largest bones and finest specimens have 
been obtained from this part of the country. 

In the north island, Moas' bones have been found in the 
beds of rivers, running from mountain regions of the interior 
into Hawk's and Poverty Bays ; the collection of bones sent 
to England in 1842 by Archdeacon W. Williams, were ob- 
tained from this district, and also those described by Mr 
Colenso ; and bones have been found by Mr Walter Mantell 
at the mouth of a stream called Waingongoro, which empties 
itself into the sea about sixty miles to the south of Taranaki. 
The bones were imbedded in a sand flat, were very nume- 

* Mr Edward Shorthand, in his work entitled the " Southern Settlements of 
New Zealand, 1851," gives a very good account, with a map, of the bay and 
river of Waikouaiti. 

278 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand, 

rous, and most of them were as soft as pipe-clay. On a bluff 
near the embouchure of the river, Mr Mantell saw the sand 
flat strewn with bones of men, moas, and other birds. They 
had probably been brought down the stream, and originally 
covered over with sand, which sand had been drifted away 
when he saw them. Moas' bones have also been found by 
Mr Mantell near the above place, in circular holes contain- 
ing beds of ashes with charcoal. Moas' bones have been 
found by myself in two caves in the mountain limestone 
formation, near the western coast ; and I have seen bones 
which were brought from other caves in this district. There 
is a volcanic hill called Hikerangi, near Tuhua, thirty miles 
from the Taupo Lake, near the top of which, I was informed, 
there was a cave which contained Moas' bones. Dieffenbach 
mentions that the Rev. Mr Taylor found bones in a rivulet 
near Whanganui, which flowed from a mountain called 
Hikerangi. I purchased bones at Rotoaire, which were 
found in a cave on the hill between the lake and Taupo ; but 
as that cave was tapued in consequence of its being a place 
of sepulture, the natives would not conduct me to it. At 
Rickawa, near the south end of the Taupo Lake, the pa of 
the great chief Te Heuhea gave me a metatarsal bone, which 
he told me he had found among the scoriae rock, on a hill 
near Taupo ; and I have seen the femur of a Moa which was 
found in the sand at the mouth of the Waikato river, which 
river has its origin or spring in the Taupo Lake. No bones 
have ever been found north of Auckland. 

Are all the gigantic Moas extinct ? — There are a few New 
Zealanders who believe that some of these feathered giants 
still tread upon the earth ; but to prevent the least charge 
of credulity from being brought against myself, I shall not 
insert any of the stories which I have heard from the natives 
on this subject, because they all possess more or less the air 
of fiction, and none of them the least appearance of fact. 

There are also Europeans in New Zealand who believe 
that Moas are still in existence in some of the remote and 
unfrequented wilds of the middle island ; but such stories 
are unsupported by any evidence of a credible nature. A 
European informed Mr Colenso, in 1842, that a Moa was 

Is the Moa an extinct Bird ? 279 

then living in the snow-capped hills above Cloudy Bay, and 
that two Americans, who resided in the neighbourhood, 
equipped themselves with fire-arms, and proceeded in pur- 
suit of the monster They hid themselves in a thicket near 
the place where he lived, and shortly after they saw him 
stalking about in search of food ; but they were so petrified 
with horror at the sight, that they were unable to fire. 

They observed the monster, by their own account, for near 
an hour ere he retired, and were right glad to escape from 
witnessing a meal, where instead of eating they were all but 
eaten. This Moa was described as being about 14 or 16 feet 
high.* Mr Colenso did not place the least credit in this story. 

In a periodical^ of which only two numbers were pub- 
lished, there is a paper on the geology of New Zealand, by 
the Rev. Mr Taylour, in which it is stated that " he was 
informed by Mr Meurant, a government native interpreter, 
that in the latter end of 1823, he saw the flesh of the Moa 
in Molyneux Harbour, in the middle island, and that the 
flesh looked like bull-beef;'' and that he also saw a Moa's 
bone, which reached four inches above his hip from the 
ground, and as thick as his knee, with the flesh and sinews 
upon it. The natives told him that the Moa, whose flesh he 
had seen, was a dead one which had been found accidentally ; 
that they had often tried to snare them, but without success. 
A man, named George Pauley, now living in Foveaux Straits, 
told him he had seen a Moa, which he described as being an 
immense monster, standing twenty feet high ; he said he saw 
it near a lake in the interior, and it ran from him, and he 
ran from it ; that he saw its footmarks before he came to 
the river Tairi in the mountains. Thomas Chasseland, a 
man who sometimes interpreted for Meurant, and is well 
acquainted with the Maori language, used to say that he 
also had seen the flesh of the Moa, and at first he thought it 
was "human flesh." 

If these stories were all true, there could be little doubt 
that a Moa of the largest breed may still be living in the 
solitudes of the middle island ; and if so, probably some en- 
terprising colonist, from the settlements of Nelson, Otago, or 

* Tasmanian Jour., No. vii. ; 1843. t New Zealand Mag., April 1850. Wellington. 

280 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand. 

Canterbury, might obtain a living Moa, and realize fame and 
fortune by exhibiting it in the different capitals of Europe. 

It is painful to me attempt to throw discredit on any state- 
ment which has been introduced to the world by the Rev. Mr 
Taylour ; but if exaggerated stories like these are allowed 
to pass uncontradicted, after being put forward in such a 
way, they become every year more and more hurtful, because 
they increase in weight as they grow in years. It is, there- 
fore, solely for the sake of truth that I bring forward Mr 
Meurant' s story for the purpose of stating that I do not be- 
lieve it. I would not have noticed it at all if it had been 
confined to the New Zealand Journal ; but I observe it is 
quoted in a book of considerable weight.* I knew Mr Meu- 
rant personally ; he was an old New Zealand sealer, a pecu- 
liar race of men, now almost extinct, born in New South 
Wales, soon after the settlement of that colony. In early 
manhood Meurant abandoned the place of his birth, and 
adopted the adventurous life of a sealer, which he followed 
for many years ; he was an honest, good, intelligent man, 
but much given, as many uneducated travellers are, to the 
marvellous, and many of his stories were connected with the 
middle island of New Zealand. I well recollect, one dark 
night, five years ago, when crossing the Houraki Gulf in a 
very bad boat, that I sat up many hours listening to Mr 
Meurant's curious old stories about sealers and whalers, and 
the changes which time had worked on New Zealand and 
the New Zealanders. It was shortly after the earthquake 
at Wellington, in 1848, that this occurred ; and the conver- 
sation turned to it, and Meurant said that the earthquakes 
in the middle island were most fearful, and that he had 
seen the tops of the mountains touching each other from the 
violence of their shakings. I told this next morning to one 
of my companions, and he said, Do you not know that Meu- 
rant has a strong imagination ? Now, let me be clearly 
understood, for Mr Meurant is since dead, and cannot defend 
himself. I do not say that the whole of his story about the 
gigantic Moa is a fiction, — quite otherwise; I believe there 
was some slight foundation for it; most probably he may 

* Annals of Natural History, No. VIII. London, 1851. 

The probable Locality of the Moa. 281 

have seen a large Notornis Mantelli. This bird is two feet 
high, and such an animal was caught alive in 1850, — which 
time and Meurant's fertile imagination may have magnified 
into one of the largest of the feathered giants. I have asked 
several men who knew Meurant, what they thought of his 
statement about the Moa, and they all said that they could 
not bring themselves to believe it. 

For my own part, I never saw or heard of a New Zea- 
lander who had seen a large Moa, nor have I ever seen or 
heard an account of a large Moa having been seen, which 
carried the least evidence of truth on the face of it. That 
the gigantic Moa is extinct, I have not the smallest doubt ; 
but it is still probable that a few more living specimens of 
the Notornis Mantelli may yet be found in the southern 
parts of the middle island of New Zealand. This state- 
ment is made with the perfect knowledge that Sir Everard 
Home, R.N., when commanding Her Majesty's ship "North 
Star," in the Pacific Ocean in 1844, stated that he felt little 
doubt that a Moa (Dinornis) may still be found alive in the 
middle island.* Since that period considerable portions of 
the solitudes of the middle island have been explored by 
Mr Thomas Brunner, and by officers of Her Majesty's sur- 
veying ship Acheron, and by colonists from different settle- 
ments in search of roads and grazing districts, but none of 
these have seen the least trace of a living gigantic Moa. 

Is it probable that the Moa once lived on some of the Tro- 
pical Polynesian Islands ? — In the Connecticut sandstones 
of the Permian period, in North America, the footprints of 
gigantic birds have been seen.f In 1850 the bones and 
eggs of a gigantic bird were found in Madagascar, different 
from the Dodo, but approaching, although differing from, 
the Dinornis. \ Such discoveries suggest the question, 
whether it is probable that Moas may have once lived on 
some of the Polynesian islands scattered about in the Pacific 
Ocean % The bones of the bird, it is true, have never been 

* Professor Owen on the Dinornis, Part II. 
t Professor Hitchcock, Trans. American Academy of Arts, 1848. 
1 See Translation of M. Geoffrey St Hilaire's Paper on some Bones and Eggs 
of a gigantic Bird, from the Madagascar Annals of Nat. Hist, vol. vii. 1850. 

282 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand. 

found in any of these islands, neither have the inhabitants 
any tradition about the animal ; but the natives of the Poly- 
nesian islands apply the term Moa to the domestic fowl. Is 
this not a kind of proof that an animal resembling the New 
Zealand Moa had lived at one time in these islands ; other- 
wise, how is it to be accounted for that the same race of 
men should in one set of islands call a domestic fowl a Moa, 
and in another island confine the term Moa to the large 
struthious order of birds known to naturalists as the Dinor- 
nis ? This is an important point in the history of the New 
Zealand Moa. I shall, therefore, endeavour to explain it. 

There is strong evidence, drawn from a similarity in lan- 
guage, customs, physical appearance, and character, that the 
true Polynesian race which now people the numerous islands 
in the Pacific and New Zealand are of Malay origin, and 
that originally the present inhabitants of all these islands 
come from Malacca and Sumatra ; and on referring to the 
best dictionary of the Malay language,* I find the word mud\ 
is a species of pheasant ; that me mud means to make the 
voice peculiar to that bird ; and I dngdn me mud angkau de 
sini signifies " do not thou be moaning here." It is, there- 
fore, obvious that before the Polynesians migrated from their 
original country, they were acquainted with a bird which 
they called the Mud. On their arrival in their canoes at 
some of the Polynesian islands which they now inhabit, 
they probably discovered the domestic fowl of the islands 
in a wild state, in the woods (for this animal was found 
in a domestic state in all the tropical Polynesian islands, 
where they were first discovered by Europeans), they had to 
give the animal a name ; and being acquainted with two 
words in their own language to select from, mud smdrndnuk, 
— the first being applied to a species of pheasant in their 
native land, the latter being the term in the Eastern islands 
(through which they had probably passed) for a bird or fowl. J 
They could not properly apply the words dyam and hdyam, 
which are the Malay words for domestic fowl, to an animal 
which was running about wild in the woods ; and therefore 

* Dictionary of the Malayan Language, by W. Marsden, F.R.S. Lond., 1812. 
t U is sounded oo, as in moon, sloop, fool. The a, as in want, ball, call. 
| Marsden 's Dictionary of the Malayan Language. 

First arrival of the Inhabitants in New Zealand. 283 

they called this species the Mud — now changed to Moa, 
from some resemblance which it may have had in their eyes 
to the Mua of their native country. In process of time the 
wild bird became domestic, but still it retained its original 
name. Things were different with the Malay branch of the 
human race who migrated to New Zealand. When they took 
possession of it there were no domestic fowls indigenous to 
the country ; but they saw a new bird, as the ancient song 
says, to which they gave the term Moa, or Mua, — a name 
which the natives of the present generation say was given 
to it on account of its moaning voice. But although appli- 
cable in this way, yet the name may have been given to it 
from another cause. In course of time European vessels 
introduced the domestic fowl to the New Zealanders, but 
they could not apply the term Moa to it, as this name was 
already appropriated ; so they fell back on the word manuk, 
the term for a bird or fowl in the Eastern islands. Manu, 
in the New Zealand language of the present day, is the ge- 
neral term for all birds, though it is likewise often applied 
to the domestic fowl, as a distinct name. Tikaokao is pro- 
perly a name given to a cock from its crow, and heihei is a hen, 
a corruption probably of the English term for a female fowl. 
This tedious explanation, which I have considered it ne- 
cessary to enter upon for the elucidation of the history of the 
Moa, tends to shew the kind of proof which the language af- 
fords for advancing a knowledge of the history of the New 
Zealand race. 

Probable time at which the New Zealanders arrived in 
New Zealand. — This is an important point to ascertain to- 
wards the elucidation of the history of the Moa, and it is sa- 
tisfactory to find that we are not left entirely in the dark on 
this subject. 

The New Zealanders are in the habit of keeping a numeri- 
cal record of the chiefs who have lived and ruled since their 
arrival in New Zealand. They have sticks upon which a 
notch is made as each chief is gathered to his fathers ; and 
it was the duty of the priests to keep this knowledge alive 
among the people, and they did so by frequently going over 
before the assembled tribes the names of all their dead chiefs. 

284 Dv A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand. 

I have several of these sticks in my possession (Papatu- 
puna, as they are called), and the names of the ancestral 
chiefs of several tribes, written down from the mouth of well- 
informed people among the natives. It would therefore 
appear, taking the average of several tribes, that there have 
been between eighteen and twenty-five generations of men, 
since the arrival of the first settlers in New Zealand. The 
tribes appear all to have arrived in the country at the same 
time, although in different canoes ; and if we allow 22 years 
as the average reign of each of the chiefs, this will indicate 
that the present race of natives arrived in New Zealand four 
or five hundred years ago ; in other words, they arrived about 
the 15th century. My reason for assuming 22 years as the 
average duration of the reign of each of the chiefs, is calcu- 
lated in this way. In England, from William the Conqueror 
to William the Fourth, thirty -four sovereigns reigned for 
763 years, which gives 22J years as the average length of 
each reign, including those who died by violent deaths. 

It is difficult to ascertain what number of generations of 
New Zealanders have passed away since the time when the 
first settlers of the present race of natives landed in New 
Zealand ; because it appears they were often in the habit of 
recording the names of the brothers of the chiefs, as well as 
the chiefs themselves, — a practice which is apt to lead to the 
supposition that more generations of natives have passed 
away than ever did exist. There are two genealogical trees, 
however, which relate to the tribes Ngaiterangi and Ngati- 
wakaue, on which I place much reliance, because these genea- 
logical trees were carefully investigated before the resident 
magistrate at Rotorua, in order to ascertain which of these 
tribes had a right to the island of Motiti in the Bay of Plenty; 
and as a test of the accuracy of the genealogical evidence, 
the statements of each party were carefully inquired into by 
the opposite party. 

It requires a circumstance like this, or some historical in- 
quiry, to excite the New Zealanders to tax their memories 
about their ancestors ; otherwise a natural delicacy, or a fear 
of saying anything that may lead to mischief, makes them 
avoid the subject, unless specially inquired about. 

The time that has elapsed since the Moa was seen. 285 

Were there any gigantic Moas alive when the New Zealand- 
ers arrived in New Zealand ? — I think there were not many 
gigantic Moas in New Zealand at that time, for, although 
there are traditions enough to enable us to conclude that 
there must have been some of them cotemporary with the 
first New Zealanders, yet several tribes, e.g., the Ngapuhis, 
who live in the northern part of the north island, have no 
traditions about the Moa, and they have asked Europeans to 
describe to them what kind of an animal it was. The coun- 
try where the Ngapuhis tribe live is the narrowest part of 
the island, and no bones of the bird have been found in this 
district ; and if the Moas had been so numerous as to have 
furnished food for the inhabitants, according to Professor 
Owen's idea, we should have had a greater variety of tradi- 
tions about them. I have heard and read several accounts of 
what the natives saw when they first landed in New Zealand, 
but in none of these traditions is there any mention made of 
their having seen a Moa on the sea-coast. The Dodo was 
abundant, according to Leguat,* near the sea-coast. 

It is supposed that there were more Moas in the middle 
than in the north island, but I doubt this circumstance. All 
the bones that have been seen in the middle island have been 
found in a limited space, and in good preservation, — a fact 
which may have produced this opinion. 

Probable time which has elapsed since the last gigantic 
Moa was seen. — A few years before the death of the great 
chief Tee Rauparaha, he was asked if he had ever seen a Moa 
himself, or a man who had seen one, and he said he had not. 
As he was then about 80 years of age, his answer takes us 
back about 160 years ; and as I believe from careful inquiry 
that this is tolerably correct, I do think we will not be far 
wrong in assuming that all the Moas were extinct in this 
country 200 years ago, or about two centuries after the arri- 

* A New Voyage to the East Indies, by Francis Leguat and his Companions. 
8vo. London, 1708. 


286 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand. 

val of the New Zealanders in the island ; in other words, 
about the year A.D. 1650. 

The Dutch navigator Tasman visited New Zealand in 
] 642, but none of his crew landed, or had any colloquial in- 
tercourse with the natives, so that from this visit nothing 
about the Moas can be gleaned ; and no other European na- 
vigator, who has written an acount of his voyage, landed in 
New Zealand until after the Moas had become extinct. Cap- 
tain Cook was told about a gigantic lizard which had lived 
in the country, but nothing about a gigantic bird. 

Causes of extinction. — Professor Owen is of opinion that 
the Moas were exterminated by the New Zealanders using 
them as food ; and he attributes their extinction in a country 
destitute of large animals as one of the causes which led the 
New Zealanders to adopt the horrid practice of cannibalism. 
The first supposition is very doubtful, and the second is 
not probable. I admit the advent of the New Zealanders in 
New Zealand must have produced the destruction of a few 
Moas, but I cannot bring myself to believe that their ex- 
tinction was entirely brought about by this cause. Accord- 
ing to the most authentic sources, the New Zealand popula- 
tion, when at its greatest, never much exceeded two hundred 
thousand souls ; and for one hundred and fifty years after 
their arrival in the country, they could not have increased to 
one hundred thousand. Now let us imagine this small po- 
pulation spread over a country nearly as large as England — 
a population fearful of trespassing on the lands of other 
tribes — a population of indolent people — and we will have at 
once a strong argument against the opinion that the Moas 
were cut off from the earth entirely by human agency. 
There are mountain ranges where the feet of men have 
rarely trodden. I have walked through forests for thirty 
miles without seeing the sign of a habitation ; in such places 
the Moa could find ample shelter in the present day. The 
middle island of New Zealand offers a still stronger argu- 
ment ; on it the Maori population were scattered along the 
coasts, and were few in number ; and yet, according to the 
best information, no large Moa has been seen on that island 
for upwards of one hundred and sixty years. It is only ne- 

The time that has elapsed since the Moa was seen. 287 

cessary to call to mind the difficulty there was in extirpating 
wolves from England, to have a clear idea of the improba- 
bility of the New Zealand race having caused the extinction 
of the Moa. In a small island a race of large birds might 
be easily extirpated, and we have some recent examples of 
this ; but in New Zealand, I think, the New Zealanders 
arrived in time to see the last of the large Moas die. 

The circumstance of Moas' bones having been found in 
caves of more recent appearance than those found by Mr 
Walter Mantell in the cooking-holes of the New Zealanders 
at Waingongoro, would lead us to infer that some of the 
Moas died in these caves after the advent of the New Zea- 
landers. On asking a native of the cave district near Pa- 
rianiwaniwa, what brought all these Moas' bones into caves, 
he said, that long ago an eruption of Tongariro occurred, 
which set fire to the country, and that the Moas fled to the 
caves, and there perished. This tradition, although it may 
be an exaggeration of some local conflagration, is of some 
value, as shewing there were other causes which proved 
destructive to the Moas in addition to human agency. At 
Rotomarama, near the " cave of the spirit," one of my fellow- 
travellers asked a well-read Christian native, what destroyed 
all the Moas, and in reply he said it must have been the 
great flood. The similarity of the words Noah and Moa 
may have suggested this to his mind, but my friend got the 
better of the argument, by asking him if it was not stated in 
Scripture that Noah took a pair of every living creature with 
him into the ark, before the flood ; the man looked puzzled, 
and said " awa," — an exclamation the expressiveness of 
which cannot be rendered into English, but means " I don't 

There is another argument that the Moas died out, and 
were not extirpated by man, in the circumstance of the ani- 
mals being only found in New Zealand previous to their 
extinction ; for rarity, according to Professor Lyell, precedes 
the extinction of all species of plants and animals. It is appa- 
rently a law of nature, that certain races of men, plants, and 
animals, have a period of creation, increase, and decay. 
May we not then state, and with some probability we are 


288 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand. 

nearly right, that the period of the extinction of the gigantic 
Moa occurred about the 17th century, and that this event 
might have been slightly hastened, but not produced, by the 
hand of man. New Zealand appears to have been the last 
refuge for wingless birds ; but as sure as the race of men 
who peopled ancient Babylon and Nineveh, and other coun- 
tries, have become extinct, and as surely as many of the 
Polynesian race are now decaying, so certainly will the whole 
of the wingless birds in New Zealand, like the Moa, become 
extinct. They have run their course, have fulfilled their 
destiny, and are now following the law which the Creator 
has stamped on all his works. 

Professor Owen's idea that the want of food after the ex- 
tinction of the Moa may have caused the New Zealanders 
to adopt the disgusting custom of cannibalism is not at all 
likely ; for the motives which led the New Zealanders to eat 
human flesh were hatred, revenge, and to cast disgrace on 
the person eaten. That it was unlawful for women to eat 
human flesh, unless under some peculiar circumstances, will 
at once set at rest the supposition that human flesh was ever 
made a substitute for animal food. I do not make this 
statement without inquiry ; but the subject is foreign to this 
paper, otherwise I would enlarge upon it. 

Observations on some of the probable habits of the Moas. 
— I. They were of an indolent nature, and not much given 
to moving about. — This I infer, because the New Zealanders 
always describe them as being very fat ; and Mr Owen con- 
cludes they were a more sluggish bird than the Ostrich, in 
consequence of the small size of the neural canal of the 
spine, and the relative shortness of the ankle-bone meta- 

II. They lived in mountain fastnesses and secluded caves. 
— This I infer, because all tradition points to such districts 
as the probable places where Moas' bones are still to be 
found. The finding of bones in caves almost confirms this 
idea ; for if the Moas did not live in them, they resorted to 
them to die. The Ostrich and Emu live in plains ; perhaps 

Observations on the Habits of the Moa. 289 

the habits of the Moas were somewhat similar to these birds, 
and they may only have resorted to hills, forests, and se- 
cluded places, after the advent of the human race. The 
Kiwi or Apteryx is found in forests, hills, and secluded 
spots, and this strange bird may have some of the habits of 
the Moa. 

III. They lived chiefly on vegetable food. — This conclu- 
sion is drawn from the adze-like shape of the beak, from 
their bodies being described as very fat (no flesh-eating bird 
is ever fat), from nature having endowed them with feet and 
toes remarkably well adapted for uprooting fern root and 
other subterrestrial substances, which abound in New Zea- 
land, and from their swallowing stones to assist in diges- 
tion. No flesh- eating animal ever does this. 

IV. They were in the habit of swallowing stones to assist 
digestion. — This statement rests on tradition. The New 
Zealanders point out certain stones which they say have 
been in the stomach of a Moa. This habit is confined to 
vegetable-feeding birds. 

V. They were dull and stupid birds. — This is inferred, 
because the skull is low and flat, and is confirmed by the 
traditions of the New Zealanders. 

VI. They were in the habit of standing and resting on 
one leg. — My authority for this is not good, but I give it to 
convey some impression of what is now said by the New 
Zealanders about the habits of the Moas. A most intelligent 
Maori, who belongs to one of the interior tribes, told me 
that he knew where a Moa lived. I asked him where it 
was, and what the animal did all day. He said, it stood in 
a cave in which there was a waterfall, and that the bird 
stood first on one leg, and then on the other. All this story 
is fabulous, but the statement of its standing on one leg may 
probably have some foundation in the habits of the bird. 

Deductions drawn from the Moas' bones as to the probable 

290 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand. 

length of time which has elapsed since the birds were alive. — 
The best preserved Moas' bones that I have seen were those 
obtained from the swamp or morass at "Waikouaiti, in the 
middle island of New Zealand. This is, however, no proof 
that they were more recent than those found in a less per- 
fect state in the north island, because peats and morasses 
act as antiseptics, and bones have been preserved in a perfect 
state in such places for a great many centuries. The bones 
of birds are so much more delicate than those of quadrupeds, 
that very few of them are found in a half fossilized state. 
Even the bones of the Dodo, which strange animal was seen 
alive in considerable numbers at the Mauritius not many 
centuries ago, have apparently decayed away off the face of 
the earth. The very circumstance of Moas* bones being 
found in a tolerably perfect state is therefore a strong evi- 
dence of the recent existence of these birds. The natives 
near the cave of the Moa relate that their fathers were in 
the habit of taking the skulls of the Moas to keep the powder 
they used for tattooing, and pieces of the long bones as hooks 
to catch fish, in consequence of their hardness. Now, none 
of the bones or skulls that I saw in this cave were suffi- 
ciently perfect for such purposes, and therefore I must con- 
clude either that all the most perfect bones had been taken 
away, or that the process of decay among Moas' bones was 
very rapid. 

As perfectly fossilized bones are generally allowed to be 
of greater age than half fossilized ones, it is therefore ob- 
vious that some idea of the age of bones may be formed from 
the quantity of animal matter they contain. Let us apply 
this test to the Moas' bones. 

I carefully examined several Moas' bones from the cave 
of the Moa, and found that the quantity of animal matter 
contained in them was very different. In the cancellated 
structure of the heads of the long bones of the inferior ex- 
tremities, the proportion of animal matter was as low as five 
per cent., but in the shaft of the tibia, the ribs, and a piece 
of the sternum, 1 found it as high as ten per cent. In one 
cervical vertebra of a small bird, which had the outward shell 

Analysis of the Moa Bones. 


perfect, the quantity of animal matter was thirty per cent. — 
the animal matter retaining the figure of the bone after the 
inorganic matter had been extracted by muriatic acid. Se- 
veral of the tracheal rings were found entire, and had a 
remarkably recent-like appearance. 

For the purpose of testing the accuracy of my analysis, I 
transmitted several specimens of Moas' bones to Theophilus 
Heale, Esq., of the Great Barrier Copper Ore Mine, and he 
gave me the subjoined as the composition of the cancellated 
head of a very decayed tibia, viz. — 

Carbonic acid 

Animal matter 

Insoluble earthy matter 


Phosphoric acid 


A small amount of the peroxide of iron '00 

Loss 234 

4*80 decimal parts. 







Mr Heale found that the more solid bones contained a much 
greater amount of animal matter. The bone submitted to 
the foregoing careful analysis had a pale brown colour, was 
very light and porous, the outer shell was much destroyed, 
and the cellular structure, although perfect, contained a 
quantity of earthy matter. 

The composition of recent Moas' bones is unknown ; but 
as the bones of the Moas resemble the bones of quadrupeds 
in containing marrow, and as the bones of quadrupeds are 
composed of about one-third of animal, and two-thirds of 
earthy and alkaline salts, let us take them as a subject of 

It therefore appears that some of the Moas' bones had 
lost a considerable quantity of their animal matter, and 
others very little. Now, what conclusion can be drawn 
from this as to their probable age X 

I can find no experiments which will enable me to answer 
this question. In the widely-scattered bone brecciae of the 

292 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand, 

Mediterranean, Dr John Davy * was only able to find 
a trace of animal matter. M. Marcel de Serres and M. 
Ballard, chemists in Montpellier, procured some human 
bones from a Gaulish sarcophagus, supposed to have been 
buried some fourteen or fifteen centuries at least, and they 
had lost three-fourths • of their original animal matter, f 
Several skeletons of men were found in the West Indies, 
incrusted with a calcareous cement ; but they only retained 
a small portion of their animal matter; J whereas a skull 
three thousand years old was taken from a tomb in ancient 
Thebes, and contained about half of its animal matter. § In 
1845, the fossil remains of a gigantic Mastodon were ex- 
humed in the town of Newburgh, New York, and twenty- 
seven per cent, of animal matter was obtained from some of 
the bones || (tusks and teeth), while skulls found by Mr 
Stephens in Yucatan were almost entirely destitute of ani- 
mal matter.^ 

These examples tend to shew what length of time bones, 
under favourable circumstances, will retain their animal 
matter, and that no conclusion can be drawn as to the pro- 
bable age of the Moa's bones in the cave of the Moa, from 
the circumstance of some of them still retaining only one- 
seventh, and others nearly the whole of their animal matter. 

General Remarks. — Is it probable that New Zealand was 
once connected with Australia 1 This is not at all likely, 
seeing there is so little resemblance between the flora and 
fauna of the countries, and neither in the ossiferous caves or 
tertiary deposits of the continent of Australia have Moas' 
bones been found. 

Is it probable that New Zealand was once connected with 
America ? This, Professor Owen thinks, may have been the 
case at a remote geological period ; and he is inclined to re- 
gard New Zealand as one end of a mighty wave of the un- 

* Physiological and Anatomical Researches ; 1839. 

f Lyell's Principles of Geology. J Ibid. 

§ Dr John Davy. || Lyell's Principles of Geology 

% Incidents of Travel. 

Geological Conclusions on New Zealand. 293 

stable and shifting crust of the earth, of which the opposite 
end, after having been submerged, has again risen with its 
accumulated deposits in North America, shewing in the 
Connecticut sandstones the footmarks of the gigantic birds 
which strode its surface before it sank ; and to surmise that 
the intermediate body of the land wave along which the 
Dinornis may have travelled to New Zealand has progres- 
sively subsided, and now lies beneath the Pacific* 

This beautiful idea rests on Dr Deane's discovery, in 
1843, of the footprints of many species of three-toed birds 
of gigantic size, and of the imprints of others with four toes, 
with the prints of twelve kinds of quadrupeds supposed to 
belong to the Saurian, Chelonian, and Batrachian orders, in 
the sandstone in Connecticut. There still lives, to give some 
reality to the above in the secluded parts of South America, 
a three- toed wingless bird ; but to give weight to Professor 
Owen's idea, it would be requisite to discover the bones of 
some of these birds and quadrupeds, for we have high autho- 
rity for refusing to pin our faith to impressions without the 
discovery of bones. 

To those who believe in the doctrine of specific centres, 
or that every species of animals and plants on the surface of 
the globe originated in a single birthplace, there will be no 
difficulty in explaining how the Moa was confined to the 
New Zealand group of islands. New Zealand (they would 
say) was the centre of the creation of those numerous species 
of wingless birds we find upon it, some of which are strange 
to all other parts of the world. Perhaps New Zealand is 
only a part of a great southern continent, the remainder of 
which now lies at the bottom of the sea. Captain King, 
R.N., states there are soundings from Cape Maria Vande- 
man, in New Zealand, to Norfolk Island, and I have been 
told by old New Zealand whalers that there are soundings 
between New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. I cannot 
bring myself to believe that the gigantic Moas were ever 
hatched to live and die on the small spot of earth we now 
call New Zealand. 

* Memoirs on the Dinornis, Part II. 

294 Dr A. Thomson on the Moa Caves of New Zealand. 

It is a curious circumstance, that the few islands upon 
which the bones of large extinct birds have been found are 
all situated in the southern hemisphere, and there are some 
points of resemblance between the islands of the Mauritius, 
Madagascar, and New Zealand, sufficient to excite the atten- 
tion of the thoughtful and speculative. These islands are 
situated to the south of the line, between long. 45° and 180° 
east. They are chiefly of volcanic origin. The zoology of 
all three is peculiar. So far as that of Madagascar is known, 
it can scarcely be assimilated to that of Africa or Asia ; 
while it appears equally distant from that of Australia. 
There is, however, too little known about Madagascar, or 
the large bird, the remains of which have only lately (1850) 
been found, to allow me to speculate on the subject. But 
when I turn to the two islands most celebrated for the re- 
mains of feathered giants, the Mauritius and New Zealand, 
I find a wonderful similarity in some things. Both are sur- 
rounded by large oceans, in the neighbourhood of large con- 
tinents ; both are in a genial climate in the southern hemi- 
sphere ; both were discovered by Europeans much about the 
same time, and both have been only lately occupied by the 
human race. A rat* constitutes the quadruped indigenous 
to both islands, and in both the large birds which were ob- 
served upon them soon became extinct. Bontius, in 1658, 
saw the Dodo alive in the Mauritius. I infer New Zealand- 
ers saw a few Moas alive early in the seventeenth century. 
There is this great difference between the two places. We 
have written testimony of the existence of numerous Dodos 
in the Mauritius ; but, in the present day, some men doubt 
whether they ever lived, because the bones of the animal 
cannot now be found on the island. In New Zealand, on 
the contrary, the existence of the Moa rests on a few 

* It is doubtful whether the present rat of New Zealand is indigenous. 
It is very probable that it accompanied the early settlers. Similar animals are 
found over all the Polynesian Islands ; and the United States' exploring expe- 
dition met with rats on Gardner's Island, one of the Phcnix group, during 
their passage from the Fcejec Islands to the Sandwich Islands, — a circumstance 
which made them assume it had been inhabited by the human race. 

General Bemarhs on the Struthionidce. 295 

traditions and sayings, but the dead bones of the animal 
are abundant, and testify to a fact which no man can doubt. 

Let us look at the living wingless birds which still live in 
the world. They appear to be a condemned race, for we 
find the signs of decay stamped on the faces of them all, 
and they seem to have an inborn antipathy to the human 
race ; for wherever men appear they disappear, even with- 
out the use of destroying agencies. The Ostrich selects his 
residence in places where men can scarcely live, namely, 
under a burning sun, and on sandy deserts. The American 
Rhea vegetates in secluded places, and is seen with diffi- 
culty, for they can perceive the approach of men, when the 
eyes of men cannot observe them. The Emu is fast disap- 
pearing before the Anglo-Saxon colonization of Australia. 
The Apteryx selects the most secluded places to live in, and 
the Cassowary is very rare in the few islands where it is 
known to be indigenous. 

It would seem that this strange species of animals — birds 
without wings ! — were created to live in solitary places far 
away from the haunts of men. They may have been created 
at a period long prior to that of the higher order of quad- 
rupeds, for we see the marks of their feet in sandstones of 
an early date. 

New Zealand appears, according to the testimony of the 
natives, in former days to have abounded in Saurian rep- 
tiles of immense size. There were no land Mammalia on 
the islands,* but many birds, ferns, and fern-like plants. 
Some growing to the height of sixty feet are found covering 
a great part of the north island, and the largest and most 
abundant timber-trees, belonging to the Coniferse, are here 
in great plenty, and earthquakes are not unfrequent. 

Auckland, New Zealand, July 12, 1853. 

* The dog, rat, and bat, are perhaps introduced. 

296 On the Physical Geography of Norway. 

Norway audits Glaciers visited in 1851; followed by Jour- 
nals of Excursions in the High Alps of Dauphine, Berne, 
and Savoy. By James D. Forbes, D.C.L., F.R.S., Sec. U.S. 
Ed., Corresponding Member of the Institute of France, and 
of other Academies ; and Professor of Natural Philosophy 
in the University of Edinburgh, 

(Continued from page 169.) 

§ 2. On some Peculiarities of the Climate of Norway. — 
The time can hardly be said to be gone by when an erro- 
neous belief was prevalent as to the utterly inhospitable cli- 
mate of Norway. Bishop Pontopiddan cites the amusing 
mistake of our English Bishop Patrick, who describes a Nor- 
wegian as imagining a rosebush to be a tree on fire ; whereas 
roses are common flowers in many parts of Norway. He 
farther adds, that the harbour of Bergen is not oftener frozen 
than the Seine at Paris, that is, two or three times in a century, 
whilst the harbours of Copenhagen and Lubeck are frequent- 
ly blockaded with ice. This he justly ascribes to the influ- 
ence of the open sea. A still more singular fact is, that the 
smallest piece of drift ice is unknown on any part of the Nor- 
wegian coast, though it extends to lat. 71°, while off the coast 
of North America, they are occasionally seen in lat. 41°* 
Until a comparatively recent period, it was generally believed 
that the temperature of the North Pole was 32°, of the equa- 
tor about 86°, on an average of the year, and that everyplace 
had an intermediate temperature depending solely on its la- 
titude. The influence of sea or land in great masses in al- 
tering the climate — the former as a general moderator of ex- 
treme heat and cold, the latter in increasing the inequalities of 
climate — was next perceived, and the inflections (as they are 
called) of the isothermal lines, were clearly indicated by Von 
Humboldt. The isothermal lines are lines which pass through 
all points of the earth's surface in each hemisphere which 
possess the same average temperature. If the temperature 
depended solely on the latitude, they would form accurate 

* See the limit of drift ice indicated in the vignette map, accompanying the 
Genera] Map of Norway in this volume. 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 297 

parallels of latitude. But as the continents are hotter than 
the ocean between the tropics, and colder in higher latitudes, 
the lines of temperature have a descending loop over the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in the former circumstance, and 
an ascending one in the latter.* Thus, for example, the iso- 
thermal line of 40° Fahr., which passes nearly over Thrond- 
hjem in Norway (lat. 63°), and attains perhaps the 66th de- 
gree of latitude over the Atlantic, falls to the 48th degree 
in Canada (a little north of Quebec), and to the 50th or lower 
in the eastern parts of Asia, but rises again under the influ- 
ence of the Pacific Ocean to about 60° of latitude on the west- 
ern coast of North America. 

A farther step in these important and curious generaliza- 
tions (which are due primarily to Von Humboldt) consists 
in distinguishing the summer and the winter curves of tem- 
perature, which have an important bearing on the existence 
of perpetual snow and glaciers. Places with the same aver- 
age temperature may be yet, the one temperate and whole- 
some, the other nearly uninhabitable from extreme cold dur- 
ing winter, which is compensated by the almost tropical heat 
of the summer months. Thus whilst at Throndhjem the dif- 
ference of temperature of January and July is 40° Fahr., at 
Jakutzk, in Siberia, which is nearly on the same latitude, 
this difference amounts to 114°; and mercury is sometinies 
frozen for three months of the year. In the Faroe Islands, 
on the other hand, the climate of which is perfectly insular, 
the variation between January and July is only about 18°. 

Whilst then, Norway enjoys the average climate superior 
to any other continental country in the same latitude, it is 
also, on the whole, less visited by extremes of summer heat 
and winter cold. No doubt, the different portions of the 
country vary distinctly in this respect, the coast possessing 
the moderate or insular character, the interior or Swedish 
side a much severer one ; still, on the whole, the statement is 
true. It is vividly represented by the isothermal lines for 
January and for July, drawn by Professor Dove of Berlin, and 

* See the map of Isothermal lines in Berghaus' and Johnston's Physical Atlas. 
or in the neat and cheap maps published by the National Society. 

298 On the Physical Geography of Norway. 

copied in the small chart which occupies one corner of the 
map accompanying this work ; which at the same time shews 
the general position of Norway relatively to other countries, 
where it is observable that the northmost portion extends as 
near the Pole as the centre of Greenland. The blue curves 
which pass through places believed to have the same mean 
temperature of the month of January, shew that we must 
penetrate farther towards the Pole, in the neighbourhood of 
the Norwegian coast, in order to obtain a given degree of 
winter's cold than in any other part of the northern hemi- 
sphere. In fact, we may conceive the Atlantic as moderating 
the effect of winter by pouring in a flood of heat towards the 
arctic seas, through the enormous strait between Greenland 
and Norway, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the pro- 
per " Polar Basin," if such exist, and this flood of heat spends 
itself chiefly or entirely on the Norwegian side of the opening 
— the January isothermals falling with extreme rapidity into 
lower latitudes on the inhospitable coast of Greenland. Now 
this general expression of the phenomena evidenced by the 
isothermal lines, has, as is well known, a physical cause pre- 
cisely corresponding to it, and sufficiently explaining it. 
This is the continual direction of a current of the Atlantic 
waters, having the high temperature due to southern lati- 
tudes precisely in the line in which the arctic cold is thus 
powerfully repelled. The " Gulf Stream," taking its rise in 
the Gulf of Florida, proceeds northwards and eastwards, un- 
til it breaks on the shores of Europe and Northern Africa, a 
portion of it striking the western coasts of the British Isles, 
and being prolonged to the coast of Norway, imparting 
warmth to water and to land, and effectually repelling the 
invasion of floating ice, with which Finmarken would other- 
wise be continually menaced.* It has been' calculated 
that the heat thrown into the Atlantic Ocean by the Gulf 
Stream in a winter's day would suffice to raise the tempera- 
ture of the part of the atmosphere which rests upon France 
and Great Britain from the freezing point to summer's heat. 

* II faut s'eloigner de 20 a 30 licues marines des derniers promontoire9 
(North Cape) avant d'aperccvoir des iluts de glace ; encore sont-ils bien loin a 
l'horizon. — Von Buch, Annales de Chimie et de Physique, vol. ii., 181G. 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 299 

The fact of such a transference of the heated waters of the 
tropics into Northern Europe is popularly but convincingly 
proved by the common occurrence of finding West Indian 
seeds and woods upon the west coasts of Ireland, Scotland, 
and Norway. Captain Sabine relates that in the year 1823 
some casks of palm oil were thrown ashore at Hammerfest 
(lat. 71°), which were traced to the wreck of a vessel the year 
before at Cape Lopez in Africa.* The general direction of 
the Gulf Stream (only its feebler and reflected part, however) 
on the coast of Norway is indicated on the little chart before 
referred to, whilst on the west of the Atlantic a reverse 
stream marked, " Polar Current'' is shewn descending from 
Spitzbergen and the " Polar Basin/' between the coasts of Ice- 
land and Greenland, charged with icebergs, and of course ap- 
proaching the temperature of freezing salt water. This 
mass of water spends its cold on America, as the Gulf Stream 
does its heat on Europe, and finally sinks under the warm cur- 
rent off the coasts of the United States. 

The position of the red curves which pass through places 
which have the July temperature alike, is altogether different 
from that of the winter curves ; indeed in part of Norway (as 
also in Great Britain) they are very nearly at right angles. 
The summit of the July curves is found in Siberia, where the 
summer heat is overwhelming, which is moderated as we 
approach the shores of the ocean. It is by the amount of 

I the summer heat that the limits of perpetual snow are mainly 
determined. The part of Norway beyond the arctic circle is 
of course exposed to the continued action of the sun, day 
and night, during part of summer; hence the rapidity of vege- 
tation, and the intense heat which in some places prevails for 
a short time, — the thermometer as we have seen, rising to 
84° at Alten in lat 70°. 
The two sides of the Scandinavian peninsula differ exceed- 
ingly in climate, the eastern part tending to the continental, 
the western to the oceanic climate. The contrast between 
Bergen and Christiania in this respect has been stated in a 
former chapter. The table-land of Norway forms in all its 

* Note to Cosmos. 

300 On the Physical Geography of Norway, 

extent a most important barrier, which commonly separates 
the most opposite states of weather. The rain at Bergen is 
several times as great as that at Christiania. It falls chiefly 
in winter — that of Christiania in summer. When it rains or 
snows east of the Fille-field, it is most probably fine on the 
west. A sort of intermediate climate occurs on the western 
depression of the continent, but at some distance from the 
coast, and offers an interesting peculiarity ; it is the climate 
of the interior of the fiords, as on the Hardanger and Sogne 
near Bergen, the Throndhj em-fiord above that town, and Kaa- 
fiord, as contrasted with the climate of Hammerfest. In all 
these cases the climate improves as we recede from the 
shores, the corn ripens better, the mean temperature is 
higher, and, at least in the far north, vegetation is more luxu- 
riant. This arises mainly from the excessive amount of 
rain, fog, and cloud, which lowers out of all proportion the 
temperature of summer in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the coast. Bergen is universally known as one of the most 
rainy spots in Europe, and its position manifestly resembles 
that of Westmoreland, of Penzance, and of Coimbra, which 
enjoy an unenviable pre-eminence in this respect. The ave- 
rage fall of rain at Bergen exceeds 77 inches, while that at 
Upsala, on the continental side of Scandinavia in the same 
parallel, is only sixteen inches. At Bergen 21 per cent of 
the annual fall is in the three summer months, whilst at Up- 
sala it amounts to 33 per cent.* At Ullensvang, on an in- 
terior branch of the Hardanger-fiord, though plunged in the 
midst of lofty mountains, the climate has already greatly 
improved. At the head of the Sogne-fiord it is still better. 
The barley was ready there for the sickle, when it was hope- 
lessly green near Bergen. In Finmarken, again, the interior 
fiords, and the valleys connected with them, surpass incom- 
parably in climate the islands and outlying portions of the 
coast. The valleys of Bardu and Lyngen are the most 
northern corn-lands in the world, and at Alten the Scotch 
fir attains a height of 780 English feet above the sea, and 
the birch of 1500 feet. At Hammerfest, which is an island 

* Schouw, Climat d'ltalie, pp. 170, 171. 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 301 

exposed to the sea, and less than one degree of latitude far- 
ther north, nature seems almost torpid, the fogs are conti- 
nual, the birch-trees are mere bushes at the level of the sea, 
and scarcely anything can be reared in the gardens. In 
short, we have the climate of Iceland, neither excessive heat 
nor cold, but a benumbing mediocrity of temperature and 
a perpetual cloud. 

§ 3. On the Position of the Snow Line in Norway. — The 
occurrence of perpetual snow at a certain height above the 
sea in even the warmest regions in the globe, has in all ages 
excited the curiosity of geographers and naturalists. — Re- 
garded at first as a very simple indication of the depression of 
temperature as we ascend in the atmosphere, it has been care- 
fully studied and applied (often erroneously) to the determina- 
tion of climate. Closer examination has shewn that the pre- 
sence of perennial snow, — in other words, a predominance of all 
the causes tending to its accumulation over those which tend to 
its waste of fusion — is, indeed, a very complicated fact, and 
cannot be taken as the simple expression of any one of the ele- 
ments of climate. The snow line is far from having invariably a 
mean temperature of 32°, as was at one time supposed. Under 
the equator it is about 35°; in the Alps and Pyrenees about 25° ; 
and in latitude 68° in Norway it is (according to Von Buch) 
only 21°; yet, though there are regions both in the extremity 
of Siberia and in arctic America, of which the mean tempera- 
ture is below zero of Fahrenheit (as, for example, Melville 
Island), it is quite established, on the concurrent authority of 
those best aquainted with these regions, that nowhere in the 
Northern Hemisphere does the snow line attain the level of 
the sea. The explanation is to be sought principally in the 
intensity of the summer heat during the period of perpetual 
day, which effectually thaws the soil, though only to a trifling 
depth, and raises upon its surface a certain amount of brief 
vegetation suitable for the support of arctic animals. 

Another cause affecting exceedingly the level of the snow 
line is the amount of snow which falls. The interior of con- 
tinents being far drier than the coasts, the snow to be melted 
is a comparatively slight covering. The snow line on the north 
side of the Himalaya is at least 3000 feet higher than towards 

VOL. LVI. NO. CXII. — APRIL 1854. X 

302 On the Physical Geography of Norway. 

the burning plains of Hindostan. This is chiefly due to the 
excessive dryness of the climate of Thibet. In like manner* 
five times less rain falls on the coast of the Baltic than at 
Bergen. All this confirms the excellent generalization of Von 
Buch, that it is the temperature of the summer months which 
determines the plane of perpetual snow. It is thus easy to 
understand why the mean temperature of the snow line dimi- 
nishes towards the pole, because for a given mean temperature 
of the whole year the summer is far hotter in proportion. 
Also, places at which the temperature of the summer is low, 
are those which have a moderated or coast climate ; but there 
also the fall of rain and snow is most abundant, whilst in ex- 
cessive or continental climates the precipitations are compara- 
tively small. The red lines on the small chart which indicate 
the mean temperature of July, have therefore a peculiar sig- 
nificance as respects perpetual snow ; to take only one instance 
at present, they explain why in Iceland snow lies all the year 
at a height of only 3100 feet, whilst in Norway, on the same 
parallel, the snow line would approach 4000. 

The same general principle holds good in the Southern 
Hemisphere. Its temperature, on the whole, being greatly 
inferior to that of the north (though the extremes are less), it 
acts towards the rest of the globe in some measure as the 
refrigeratory of a great distilling apparatus (as some one has 
correctly observed), and its higher latitudes are the seat 
of almost continual storms and fog, of which the climate of 
Cape Horn is a familiar example. Summer there can hardly 
be said to exist, and the snow line is proportionally low. Ac- 
cording to Sir James Ross,* the first living authority on the 
subject, the snow line does reach the level of the sea in the 
antarctic regions, at a latitude between 67° and 71°, under 
which forests still grow in Norway, and even corn in some 
sheltered places. 

The following are the only estimates I have met with of 
the level of perpetual snow in Norway, although it is pro- 
bable that others exist. We shall commence with the south- 
west district. 

From a private letter with which he kindly favoured 


On the Physical Geography of Norvjay. 303 

1. The Folgefond, on the south-west of the Har danger 
country, is the most important of that region. An outlying 
hill (latitude 59 0, 9) above Rosendal, called Melderskin, is 
covered with perpetual snow (according to Hertzberg), though 
its height is only 4558 Rhenish, or about 4700 English feet. 
We may suppose the snow line to be at least 200 feet lower, 
as the summit is isolated, say 4500. 

2. Lat. 60°*1. On the western or seaward side of the 
Folgefond, nearMoranger-fiord, by my observation, the snow 
begins at 3800 or 3900 English feet.* 

3. Lat. 60°-l. The landward or eastward side of the Folge- 
fond ceases to be covered with snow according to the same 
authorities, at 1697 metres, or about 5240 English feet. 

4. This last elevation has been also determined by Nau- 
mann {Travels, i. 130), but with a very different result. The 
mean of two observations of 4100 and 3950 Rhenish feet cor- 
responds to 4150 English feet. 

All the preceding determinations are subject to some 
doubt. In the first the snow line is not directly measured 
at all, only the summit of the hill. In the second, the baro- 
meter was acting imperfectly. The third is unquestionably 
much too high from a comparison with the determined height 
of various parts of the " fond" (see Gcea Norvegica, p. 159), 
certainly many hundred feet above the snow line. The 
fourth, on the other hand, is as certainly somewhat too low, 
the observation having been taken (Naumann, i. 109) at an 
outfall or depression of the glacier. It seems to me very 
probable that a mean of the whole will be tolerably correct, 
which gives nearly 4400 English feet. 

5. Lat. 60°-2. Hartougen, in the Hardanger-field (Smith), 
5000 Rh. ft. = 5150 Eng.— Lat, 61°. The interior range of 
the Fille-field (Von Buch), 1694 metres, about 5560 English 
feet. Mean 5400 Eng. feet. 

6. Lat. 61 0, 5. Outlying portion of Justedals Brseen to- 
wards the sea, between Jolster and Indvigs-fiord, according 
to Naumann, about 4000 Rhenish, or 4120 English feet. 

* This observation though subject to some doubt, is well confirmed by the 
limit of the birch, as ascertained by Professor Christian Smith of Norway. 


304 On the Physical Geography of Norway. 

7. Lat. 61*6. Justedals Brasen, east side, near Lodals- 
kaabe (Von Buch and Bohr), mean 5460 English feet. 

8. Lat. 61°6. Storhougen, between Lyster and Justedal 
(Keilhau), 5000 French, or 5330 English feet. 

9. Lat. 61°*6. In the centre of the chain, near Otta-vand 
(Broch), 4610 Rhenish, or 4750 English feet. 

10. Lat. 62°-2. Dovre-field, according to Naumann, 5200 
Rhenish, or 5360 English feet. Dovre-field, guessed by Von 
Buch at 1582 metres, or 5109 English feet. 

11. Lat. 67°*1. Sulitelma, on the frontier of Norway, and 
Swedish Lapland. Wahlenberg is the sole authority. As 
reported by Von Buch, the snow line is at 1169 metres, or 
3840 English feet ; but there seems to be some mistake, for 
in Wahlenberg's Flora Lapponica, it is expressly said (In- 
trod.,p. xl.), that the summit of the mountain is 5796 French 
feet above the sea, and 2600 above the snow line, leaving, 
therefore, almost 3200 French feet for the height of the lat- 
ter. Von Buch's 1169 metres* is equivalent to 3600 French 
feet. Wahlenberg, in another place, assigns 3300 French 
feet as the general height of the snow line in Lapland (p. 
xxxv.) M. Durocher gives 1169 metres as the height (always 
on Wahlenberg's authority) in the Expedition du Nord, and 
1010 metres = 3109 French feet, in his paper in the Annates 
des Mines (1847, vol. xii., p. 79), which corresponds with none 
of the others. Under these circumstances, we must take 
"Wahlenberg's own authority, and conclude that the level of 
the snow line at Sulitelma is probably — 

On the west, or Norway side, 3200 French ■= 3410 English feet. 
On the east, or Lapland side, 3300 French = 3520 English feet. 

12. Lat. 70°. At Alten in Finmarken, which is somewhat 
removed from the immediate influence of the sea, the snow 
line is fixed by Von Buch at 1060 metres, or 3480 feet. But 
this being an insulated summit (Storvands-field), is hardly 

* See his Memoir on the Snow line in Norway, in the Annates de Chemie, 
already cited. It is an abstract of a larger essay to be found in the French 
translation by Eyries of his Journey in Norway, and in Gilbert's Annals for 
1812. See also Thomson's Annals of Philosophy, vol. iii., for a translation. 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 305 

comparable to Sulitelma, the greatest concentration of snowy 
mountains in the north of Scandinavia, and consequently 
colder in proportion. 

13. Lat. 70°*4. On the island of Seiland, level of perpe- 
tual snow, according to Keilhau, 2880 Rhenish, or 2970 
English feet ; according to Durocher, 886 metres, or 2910 
English feet — a close agreement. 

We are at first surprised to find so few and little ac- 
cordant determinations of the level of the snow line in 
Norway, but it is easily explained. In Norway (unlike 
Switzerland) the snowy regions are commonly remote from 
inhabited valleys ; they are of difficult access, and are rarely 
and casually visited by the curious traveller. The ascertain- 
ment of permanent from occasional snow, always difficult, is 
nearly impracticable except by continued and close observa- 
tion, and it is not to be expected that the natives should be 
able to give satisfactory information on a subject of so little 
interest to them. 

The substance of the preceding observations may be re- 
duced to this — 

First, The first four and the sixth observations tell us that 
in lat. 60° to 62° the snow line at a short distance from the 
coast may be considered to be at 4300 English feet, or there- 

Secondly, In the same latitude, towards the centre of the 
country, it rises (by the 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th observa- 
tions) to 5300 feet. 

Thirdly, In lat. 67°, in the interior, it has fallen to 3500 
feet, and is not much lower on insulated summits in lat. 70°, 
though on the coast it falls to 2900. This trifling effect of 
latitude is partly explained by the marked tendency of the 
summer isothermal lines to run parallel to the peninsula of 

Von Buch has remarked, that in Norway and Lapland the 
planes of vegetation of the pine and birch run nearly parallel 
to the plane of perpetual snow — the intervals, as observed 
by him at Alten, being given by the following table of limit- 
ing heights of vegetation above the sea : — 

306 On the Physical Geography of Norway. 


The Pine (Pinus sylvestris) ceases at 
The Birch (Betula alba) ceases at . 
Bilberry ( Vacciniutn Myrtillus) ceases at 
Mountain Willow (Salix Myrsinites) ceases at 
Dwarf Birch {Betula nana) ceases at 
The Snow line ..... 

237 metres = 780 Eng. ft. 
482 metres = 1580 Eng. ft. 
620 metres = 2030 Eng. ft. 
656 metres = 2150 Eng. ft. 
836 metres = 2740 Eng. ft. 
1060 metres = 3180 Eng. ft. 

From the growth of the birch he has estimated the level 
of the snow line in the islands of Qualoe and Mageroe, 
though neither of these rise to the requisite limit. It is pro- 
bable, however, that the direct sea blast to which those bare 
rocks are exposed must act chemically upon vegetation in a 
way which would render the deduction of the snow line con- 
siderably doubtful — which doubt is confirmed by the more 
recent determination of the snow line on the island of Sei- 
land, opposite to Qualoe. Still, as a guide to fill up the gaps 
of direct observation, I add some determinations of the limit- 
level of the common birch in Norway, chiefly taken from the 
Gaia Norvegica, from Naumann's Travels, and from the 
observations of Wahlenberg, and of Smith the Norwegian 
botanist. These are important, as indicating the law of the 
phenomenon. Von Buch estimates the interval between the 
limit of the birch and perpetual snow at about 1870 English 
feet throughout Norway ; Wahlenberg, at 1960 English feet ; 
which probably represents best the results in higher latitudes. 
In the following table, I have inferred the height of the snow 
line from the limit of the birch, by adding 1900 feet to the 
latter number ; and I have added in another column the direct 
determinations of the snow level previously given. 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 


Places where the Superior Limit of the Birch has 
been observed. 

Mean Limit 
of Birch in 

English ft. 

Snow Line in English ft. 



Lat. 59J°. Gousta-field, Tellemarken (inland) \ 
3500, 3290 Rhenish feet J 

Lat.59£°. Suledals-field, 3090, 2760 Uh.ft.(coast) 

Lat. 60°-61°. Hardanger-field, 3320, 3440 Rh. \ 
ft., Fille-field, 3300, 3630 Rh. ft. (inland) J 

Lat.60°.Hardanger-fiord,Ullensvang2900 Rh. 1 
ft.,Folgefond, 1900, 2100, Voss, 2630(coas«) J 

Lat. 62°. Lorn, central chain, 3150 Rh. ft.; Do- { 
vre, 3370, 3350, 3600, 3220 ; Roraas, 3400 ; I 
mean 3350 (inland) J 

Lat. 64°. North Throndhjems Amt, seven ob-^ 
servations, of which the highest is 2130 | 
Rh. ft. on the Swedish frontier; the lowest } 
1790 Rh. ft. on the Bbrge-field; mean 2000 | 
almost exactly ) 

Lat. 67°. Gilleskaal, Salten, near the sea, and \ 
also near great Icefields of Fondal, 1200 V 
Rh. ft. ; Stegen, 1320 (coast) J 

Lat. 67°. Sulitelma, W. side 1100, E. side 2100 1 
Fr. ft. (inland) • . . . j 

Lat. 68°. Lofodden 1510,* 1070, 1030 Rh. ft.; j 
mean (coast) J 

Lat. 69£°. Alten, Finmarken, and interior ge- \ 
nerally, 1550, 1550, 1300, 1420, 1150; Kaa- ) 
fiord, 1530 ; mean 1420 J 

Lat. 70°-6. Qualoe, 227 metres (Seiland, snow ) 
line) (coast) j 

Lat. 7l°-2. Mageroe, North Cape, 130 metres 




















By means of a graphical construction, derived from the 
preceding table, I have succeeded better than I could have 
expected, in representing the variation of the snow line, and 
the limit of the birch in Norway, in terms of the latitude. 
But it is absolutely necessary, on the roughest estimate, to 
distinguish the Coast climate from the Inland climate. It 
appears, on the slightest examination, that the limit both of 
the birch and of perpetual snow rises as we recede from the 
coast towards the interior, the amount, however, varying be- 
tween one latitude and another. By Coast, be it observed, I 
do not mean the actual shore exposed to the blast and spray 
of the open ocean, but generally (with some exceptions, how- 

* Lcidingen, sheltered exposure, Von Buch. 

t From excessive exposure not comparable to the others. The same remark 
ipplies in some degree to the preceding observations at Qualoe. 


On the Physical Geography of Norway. 

ever, as at Kaa-fiord, which lias a continental climate), the 
comparatively narrow space where the mountains have a de- 
cided western declivity. The result of the projection (due 
regard being had to the number and worth of the observa- 
tions upon which it is based) is, that the curves are nearly 
flat between 59° and 62°, where they begin to decline rather 
rapidly — passing from convex to concave about the 65th 
degree, from which point northwards they decline, but with 
extreme slowness. This form of the snow line is, I am per- 
suaded, in the main correct. The rapid fall north of the 
Dovre-field, its flatness in the south, and its slow declivity 
in the north, all correspond to observation. I shall now give 
a table founded on these curves, for every two degrees of 

Table of the Height of tiie Snow Line 
and Limit of the Common Birch (Betula alba) in Norway. 


Snow Line. 

Limit of Birch. 









Eng. Ft. 

Eng. Ft. 

Eng. Ft. 

Eng. Ft. 

Eng. Ft. 

Eng. Ft. 




































It will be understood that these numbers must be con- 
sidered as mere approximations. Errors of from 100 to 200 
feet may well occur in the best determinations of this kind. 
Besides, the distinction of Interior and Coast evidently does 
not admit of precision. 

Beyond the limits of Norway the depression of the snow 
line is probably much more rapid. Over the ocean we come 
into wholly new climatic conditions. The level of the snow 
line at Cherry or Beeren Island, lat. 74£-°, has been estimated 
at 180 metres, about 600 English feet, and at Spitzbergen, 
lat. 79|°, at ; but I have already stated that this last result 
is inadmissible. 

The preceding discussions establish completely the influence 
of climate in determining the rise of the snow plane towards 

On the Physical Geography of Norway. 309 

the interior. This is most conspicuous about lat. 60° to 62°, 
where the difference, it would appear, amounts to perhaps 1000 
feet ; but rapidly declines in lat. 64°, corresponding, in fact, 
to the peculiar change in the form of the peninsula (referred 
to at page 190), which there rapidly loses its massive and 
elevated character, and the climate becomes in consequence 
more maritime. The rise of the snow line may even be traced 
on the east and west side of the outlying mountains near the 
coast. It depends partly on the same cause as the rise of 
the snow line in the interior of Asia — the comparative dry- 
ness of the climate — but in great measure also on the greater 
effect towards the interior of the solar rays, which at Bergen, 
and on the coast generally, are so often obscured by clouds 
and fog. Wahlenberg long ago remarked the superior im- 
portance of the heat of the sun in melting snow, compared to 
the effect of rain.* This is also true in Switzerland, though 
exceptions are sometimes striking-! But in Norway, the 
rain which falls on summer snow can have no great warmth, 
nor be in any great quantity. We shall probably much ex- 
aggerate its effect, if we suppose that one-fourth of the yearly 
fall on the snow fields is in the state of rain, and that the 
mean temperature of that rain is 40° F. This quantity would 
thaw no more than one-fiftieth of the snow fallen at other 

We observe in passing, as the result of the comparison of 
the configuration of the country with the position of the snow 
line, that though the surface actually covered by perpetual 
snow in Norway be small, yet the mountainous districts and 
table-lands everywhere approach it so nearly, that the snow 

* " Calore solis nix melius solvitur quam pluviis omnibus calidis;" and more 
to the same purpose. — Flora Lapponica, Introd., lvi. 

+ The floods of September 1852 at Chamouni were caused mainly by a 
deluge of warm rain, which acted simultaneously on the glaciers and snows up 
even to the summit of Mont Blanc, which was seen all the while from Cha- 
mouni, whereas falling snow always conceals it more or less. My guide Au- 
guste Balmat mentioned these facts to me in a recent letter. 

| M. Durocher has computed, from the observations made at the convent of 
the Great St Bernard in Switzerland, which is but little below the snow line, 
that not more than one -ninetieth of the annual snow is dissolved by the rain. 

310 Notice of the " Silurian System of 

plane may be said to hover over the peninsula, and any cause 
which should lower it even a little would plunge a great part 
of the country under a mantle of frost. Nay, so nice is the 
adjustment, that even the convexity of the rocky contour has 
its counterpart in the fall of the snow line near the coast, 
and in the general depression towards the north. The inci- 
dence of this remark will presently be more fully perceived. 

Notice of the " Silurian System of Central Bohemia, by 
Joachim Barrande"* Communicated by James NlCOL, 
F.R.S.E., Regius Professor of Natural History, University 
of Aberdeen. 

Some time ago the introductory portions of this volume 
were noticed by us in the Edinburgh New Philosophical 
Journal, vol. 1. (January 1851), p. 107, from a copy kindly for- 
warded by the author. In this notice an account was given 
of some of the more important geological results at which M. 
Barrande had arrived by his long and laborious researches. 
Referring the reader to this article, we now proceed to the 
more immediate subject of this volume, which contains a 
highly interesting account of his investigations into the struc- 
ture of those singular crustaceans — the Trilobites — which 
form a large portion of the ancient fauna of Bohemia, and also 
of many districts of our own county. To shew the extent of 
these researches we may mention that they occupy more 
than 800 quarto pages, and are illustrated by above fifty 
plates, full of very beautifully executed figures. In collecting 
the materials for this curious history, M. Barrande was assist- 
ed by numerous workmen, trained under his own eye, to 
seek out and bring together the shattered fragments of or- 
ganic beings buried in these old strata. He pays a well- 
merited compliment to the zeal, skill, and intelligence of the 
humble Bohemian peasants employed in this minute and 
laborious research, who, he says, have improvised a nomen- 

* SyBteme Silurien da Centre do la Bohcme, par Joachim Barrand<\ Vol i., 
with vol. of plates. Prague and Paris. 

Central Bohemia, by Joachim Barrande." 311 

clature in their own language, both for the animals and the 
rocks in which they are found. Some of them who have 
been longest in his employment are not only able to catch 
the most evanescent traces of the minutest embryos with the 
microscope, but at once recognise any new or rare form in 
the district where they are engaged. 

M. Barrande has thus been enabled to extend his re- 
searches over a far wider range of localities, and to bring 
together a greater number and variety of specimens than 
would have been possible for an isolated individual. Some 
of the results of this wholesale mode of collecting specimens 
are not only curious, but of importance in the history of the 
animals. Thus the Dalmanites socialis is one of the most 
common trilobites in Bohemia. It is characteristic of the 
quartzites of his stage D., some beds in the Drabow moun- 
tains being quite full of fragments of it, which form often 
nearly the entire surface of the rock. Yet they were only 
fragments ; and it was some years before perfect specimens 
of the whole animal were found in another locality. But 
these were badly preserved, and though collected in hundreds 
did not give the information on the structure of the animal 
that was wanted. At length a new depository of them was 
discovered in the Drabow mountains, with perfect, well-pre- 
served specimens. In these, however, the body was always 
extended, and a new locality had to be discovered before any 
were found rolled up, as was the case with all of them it 
furnished. Eight years had been spent in these researches, 
and some thousand specimens of this Dalmanites had passed 
through his hands, but all of adult individuals, when a new 
locality enabled him to complete the history, and to trace 
out the singular metamorphoses it undergoes, as represented 
in the highly interesting series of figures in his twenty- sixth 

Ten years' researches were thus required to work out the 
history of this single trilobite, and the same was true of 
many others. A second result of this persevering diligence 
was the great increase in new species which it often produced. 
A quarry was sometimes wrought for several years without 
adding a new form to his list, when all at once some novel 

312 Notice of the u Silurian System of 

species would reward his toil. As a stimulus to geologists 
in other little explored regions, we may mention, that whilst 
Bohemia, previous to his time (1840), had only furnished 
twenty-two species of palaeozoic fossils to science, he has 
now raised the number to 1200 species, most of them fully 
represented by numerous fine specimens. 

The very high value of M. Barrande's researches, both in a 
zoological and geological point of view, will perhaps be best 
indicated by a brief notice of some of their results. He com- 
mences with a general account of the component elements of 
the body of the trilobites. In this he notices the broad and 
long forms which the various individuals of each species pre- 
sent, and which seem to correspond to the two sexes, — the 
males represented by the long, the females by the broad 
specimens. He also confirms Mr Salter's observations, that 
the former are besides indicated by more prominent eyes, 
and by numerous points, spines, or other ornaments on their 
shell, similar to what is well known to occur in insects at the 
present time. He then notices each of the three segments 
of the body — the head, thorax, and pygidium or tail — in suc- 
cession. On the head, he describes its general contour, the 
form of the glabella or median lobe, and of the furrows by 
which it is bounded. The sutures or joints by which the 
cephalic carapace is divided into several distinct pieces, are 
fully explained, and illustrated by figures of those observed 
in the forty-five genera he has studied. These joints have 
not been noticed in the recent Crustacea, and were probably, 
as Burmeister thinks, intended to facilitate a slight motion 
in the pieces when the animal rolled itself up. 

The eyes of the trilobites have always been regarded with 
much interest. He has found these organs in many species 
formerly supposed to be destitute of them ; but a few genera, 
as Agnostus, Ampyx, Dindymene, and Dionide, shew no trace 
of eyes; whilst in Conocephalites and Trinucleus some species 
possess and others want them. Singularly enough, all these 
genera belong to the lower Silurian rocks ; whereas only one 
species (of Ampyx) destitute of eyes has been hitherto ob- 
served in the upper Silurian stages. In one species, the 
Trinucleus Bucklandi, the eyes seen in the young specimens 

Cenfral Bohemia, by Joachim BarrandeS ' 313 

disappear in the old, as is the case in existing nature, in 
some sessile or parasitic crustaceans. In the structure of 
the eyes M. Barrande notices two types, — the first in Pha- 
cops and Dalmanites, which have the cornea opaque, like the 
other parts of the cephalic envelope, and penetrated by 
minute holes placed in quincunx, through which the lenses 
project ; the second, found in all the other genera, has a cor- 
nea different from the common integument, and either smooth 
on the surface or tuberculated over the individual lenses of 
the compound eye. The number of these lenses varies in the 
same species, increasing with age. It is still more variable 
in different species, as the following very interesting table 
will shew : — 

o • „ Lenses 

Species, in eye. 

Phacops Volborthi, Barr 14 

P. cephalotes, Corda 200 

Proetus sculptus, Barr 350 

Dalmanites Phillipsi, Barr. ... 150 

D. Hausrnanni, Brong 600 

Aeglina rediviva, Barr 750 

Bronteus Brongniarti, Barr. ... 1000 

B. palifer, Beyr 4000 

Asaphus nobilis, Barr 12,000 

Reraopleurides radians, Barr.... 15,000 

In the genus Harpes alone, simple eyes, like the stemmata 
or ocelli of the recent articulata, appear, and only two or 
three in number. Both these and the diverse forms of the 
compound eyes are represented in Plate 3. From this it 
would appear that the individual lenses are generally round 
or hexagonal in form, and never quadrangular, as in some 
modern Crustacea. This fact, and the smoothness of the 
cornea, would seem to indicate that the eyes of the trilobites 
were rather an agglomeration of simple eyes than truly com- 
pound eyes, like those of the higher Crustacea now living. 

M. Barrande next describes the other portions of the head, 
the cheeks, with the hypostome and epistome, pointing out the 
value of the characters which the forms of these parts furnish 
to the palaeontologist. We, however, pass on to the thorax, 
and to his account of the various segments of which it con- 
sists. As is well known, the number of these was at one 
time thought constant in each species or genera, and this prin- 
ciple was applied to their classification and determination. 
The analogy of existing nature might have taught us that 
this would probably be true only of full-grown individuals ; 

314 Notice of the " Silurian System of 

and M. Barrande's observations, as we shall soon see, fully 
confirm this view. It, however, appears, that in the adult 
trilobites the number of segments in every part of the body is 
constant for each species. Emmerich's law of the constancy 
of the number of segments furnished with pleurae (20), on the 
other hand, is not established. So also the supposed law that 
the number of segments in the thorax of each genus was con- 
stant, has not stood the test of M. Barrande's wide expe- 
rience, though, singularly, no exceptions have yet been ob- 
served in the genus Phacops, from which it was first deduced. 
Still less have his observations confirmed the supposed law 
of the constancy of the number of segments in the whole 
body of each genus or family of trilobites, the abdomen gaining 
in number as the thorax lost, and the reverse. As general 
results, M. Barrande finds the number of segments varying — 
in the head, from species in which no segmentation appears, 
to 6 segments in Paradoxus spinosus and others — in the 
thorax, from 2 in Agnostus to 26 in Harpes ungula ; in the 
Pygidium, from 2 in Sao hirsuta, and many others, to 28 in 
Amphion multisegmentatus ; and in the whole body from 11 
to 38, or in the last-named species perhaps to 52. In the 
same genus the number of segments in the whole body range 
from 24 in Dalmanites solitaria to 38 in D. auriculata. 

The power of rolling themselves up was long considered 
as highly characteristic of certain trilobites, and even made 
the basis of some systems of classification. M. Barrande 
gives many highly interesting observations on this faculty, 
for which we must refer to his work. Of the forty-five 
species he studied, twenty-seven have been ascertained to 
roll themselves up, — in eighteen it has not been ascertained ; 
but, except Ellipsocephalus, Ogygia, and Paradoxides, only 
few and fragmentary specimens have as yet been found of 
these species. On the whole M. Barrande concludes that 
this power was common to the tribe, and therefore not 
characteristic of particular genera or species. 

M. Barrande next notices the forms and characters of the 
pygidium, but we pass on to the section in which he treats 
of " the feet and organs of the trilobites." In regard to the 
former, his observations only confirm the fact that these or- 

Central Bohemia, by Joachim Barrande.^ 315 

gans either did not exist, or were of such a soft and perish- 
able nature as to leave no recognisable impression on the 
rock. Adouin and Burmeister both came to this conclusion, 
from considerations drawn from other features in their 
organization, and none of the instances of the supposed 
discovery of feet have borne the test of strict investigation. 
It is different with the intestinal canal of the Trinucleus, 
first observed by Professor Beyrich, which the author has 
also discovered in many specimens of the same species. 
These were found in the quartzites of the Drabow moun- 
tains, and the intestine which runs down the interior of the 
median lobe or axis, from the glabella to the posterior mar- 
gin of the pygidium, is either empty or full of a very fine 
clay. The chemical nature of this substance would be inter- 
esting, as giving, perhaps, some indications of the food of 
these crustaceans. 

Our limits compel us to pass, without further notice, the 
very important section on the nature and ornaments of the 
shell or test of the trilobites, some portions of which furnish 
valuable materials not only to the geologist, but to the zoolo- 
gist. The account of the metamorphoses which many of 
the trilobites are now shewn to undergo, is also well worthy 
of the study of the zoologist, as illustrating many particulars 
in this remarkable peculiarity of the articulata. In several 
species the author has followed the successive changes from 
the time when the young trilobite escapes from the egg* 
till it attained its full dimensions. In some this was not 
possible, as the animal in its early stages seems, like some 
recent crustaceans, not to have possessed a shell, and thus 
to have left no record of its first forms. The Sao hirsuta 
and Dalmanites socialis furnish the most complete series of 
changes, the young animal being represented merely by 
the head divided into three lobes, whilst the thorax is 
wanting or rudimentary, and no trace seen of the tail. In 
a second group, as Trinucleus ornatus and the Agnosti, 
even in the first period the head and pygidium are distinctly 
seen, but incomplete, and there is no trace of the thorax, of 

* The eggs themselves are figured in Plate 27, fig. 1-3. 

316 Notice of the " Silurian System of 

which the segments are only gradually developed. In some 
higher groups all the parts of the body are at all times re- 
cognisable, and the change is principally in the form and 
number of the segments. Such metamorphoses have now 
been established in sixteen genera and twenty-eight species. 
M. Barrande thinks that this number may be greatly in- 
creased by new discoveries, but would not extend it to the 
whole family of trilobites. Some naturalists have even 
endeavoured to call in question the fact altogether, though 
we must think without reason, when we take into account 
its certainty among the living families of crustaceans. M. 
Barrande refers such doubters to his collections for proof of 
its truth ; but as few can take a journey to Bohemia for this 
purpose, we think the remarkable series minutely engraved 
in the plates 7, 18, 26, 30, may serve for their conviction, 
if studied without prejudice. 

The geological distribution of these trilobites along with 
the other fossils was noticed by us in our former article on 
the introductory portion of M. Barrande' s work. He now 
sums up his observations on this and other Silurian regions 
in the following general propositions. 1st, " In consequence 
of local conditions, the fossiliferous formations of the Silurian 
system present in each country a series of distinct stages, 
each characterized, either by the nature of the rocks which 
compose it, or by a particular fauna, more or less distinct 
(tranchee). 2d, These local stages, considered individually 
do not exhibit in general any complete or constant agree- 
ment, when we seek to establish a parallel between them, 
by comparing distant countries with each other. In other 
words, the local stages of different countries are distinguished 
from each other, either by the nature of their rocks, or by the 
zoological composition of their faunas, or by the order of the 
succession of these. Nevertheless, it cannot be overlooked 
that there always exist very numerous relations between the 
animal forms that constitute the mass of these local faunas, 
even at great geographical distances. 3d, If we group the 
local stages in each of the Silurian regions according to the 
sum of the analogies noticed among the fossils of all kinds 
that they contain, and in particular in accordance with the 

Central Bohemia, by Joachim Barrande? 317 

succession of generic and specific forms in the tribe of tri- 
lobites, we find everywhere three grand physical masses 
similar one to the other, and superimposed in the same 
order. These masses or groups are characterised by as 
many general faunas — that is to say, faunas whose extent 
embraces the whole Silurian world, and which present among 
themselves a striking harmony, in respect both of their zoo- 
logical composition and the uniform order of their succession, 
wherever their presence has been determined. We distin- 
guish these three Silurian faunas by the names of Primor- 
dial fauna, second fauna, third fauna. The first two 
divide unequally the geological height of the lower Silurian 
formation, whilst in the third we comprise, provisionally, all 
the beings buried in the superior division." 

M. Barrande has represented the facts bearing on this 
subject, so far as the trilobites are concerned, in a very clear 
and striking manner, in Plates 50 and 51. His primordial 
fauna is by far the most distinct; no species, and in Bohemia 
only one genus, Agnostus (in Sweden also another, Amphion), 
of trilobites, passing from it into the higher beds. But we 
agree with him that this is no sufficient ground for separa- 
ting the beds containing this fauna from the other Silurian 
rocks as a distinct formation. Still less can we, for a similar 
reason, separate the second and third faunas, or the lower 
and upper Silurian groups, connected as they are, not only 
by many genera, but even by several species, including, 
as we must do, those in his " colonies." On looking at the 
plate, the true physical cause of the great break in the zoo- 
logical series is at once apparent. The primordial fauna is 
cut off by an enormous eruption of igneous masses (por- 
phyries, &c.) which destroyed all organic beings in the limit- 
ed basin of Bohemia. These are followed by conglomerates 
marking shallow seas, and a bottom on which trilobites could 
not live ; and it is only when the appropriate sea-bottom of 
schists and quartzites returns that they again reappear in 
great abundance, but of course, after such a long interval, in 
new types and forms. His .second division is closed in like 
manner by eruptions of trap ; but these we would conjecture, 
from the nature of the connected rocks, both less extensive, 
and effecting less physical change on the sea-bottom, and, 


318 " Silurian System of Central Bohemia.'* 

consequently, also less mutation in the co-existing organic 

We cannot now enter further on the rich field for specula- 
tion which this portion of M. Barrande's work presents, or 
notice the important conclusions at which he arrives. Still less 
will our limits permit us to follow him in his critical review 
of the various systems of classifying the trilobites, or in his 
minute and elaborate descriptions of the genera and species 
found in Bohemia. This portion of his work, with the 
accompanying series of plates, must henceforth be in the 
hands of every practical geologist who wishes to make him- 
self acquainted with the form and structure of these most 
ancient denizens of our globe. Even the zoologist, who 
wishes to review the varied forms of Articulate organization, 
will find it indispensable for his purpose, as containing not 
merely the largest mass of materials, but many interesting 
features in the form and structure of these animals which 
we do not remember to have seen mentioned elsewhere. 

In conclusion, we would congratulate M. Barrande on this 
successful result of his long and laborious undertaking. An 
exile from his own land for loyalty to his prince, he has well 
repaid the hospitality with which Bohemia received him, and 
connected his name indelibly with her scientific history. 
But in his success we must confess that we feel a special 
interest, from the connection in which it stands with the 
geological history of the British Islands. M. Barrande tells 
us he was specially led to the study of these ancient rocks by 
reading the Silurian System of Sir Roderick Murchison, which 
proved to him, as to so many other geologists, a sure guide 
in unravelling the mysterious history of the oldest of known 
creations. The benefits he derived from this classic work 
of our distinguished countryman he now repays with interest ; 
and we expect soon to see the influence of M. Barrande's 
valuable researches exhibited in new light dawning on many 
obscure points in the geological history of our own land. In 
this expectation we wish him all success in his labours, and 
shall look eagerly for the appearance of the two remaining 
volumes of this highly important work. We are glad to 
learn that the engraving of the plates for these volumes is 
now far advanced. 


On Vesicles in the Abdominal Cavity and Uterus, contain- 
ing a Mulberry-like Body rotating on its Axis, and on the 
Expulsion of the Ovisac from the Ovary. By Martin 
Barky, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. (Communicated by the 

Of such vesicles a very minute description has recently 
been given by Keber,* who found no fewer than eighty of 
them in seven-and-thirty rabbits. And large as the number 
of rabbits was. this indefatigable observer discontinued his 
researches only because no more of these animals could be 
obtained. He opened scarcely any rabbits without finding 
one or more of the vesicles in question. Their diameter was 
generally about J"' '. Some were smaller, others as large as 
1J"\ The smaller were tolerably round, the larger ones 
mostly elliptical, sometimes tapered at one end ; and some 
were bean-shaped. They had a fibrous membrane. Their 
position was either on the fimbria of the Fallopian tube, or 
on the tube itself, or on the peritoneum in its neighbourhood ; 
sometimes on the horns of the uterus, and in several instances 
imbedded in the mucous membrane of the latter near its 
junction with the Fallopian tube. They were attached by a 
ramification of bloodvessels. A ciliated and vibrating epithe- 
lium lined the inner surface of their membrane. A mulberry- 
like body was seen in their interior, consisting of corpuscles 
bearing cilia, by means of which it rotated on its axis. The 
rotations of this body lasted from an hour and a half to two 
hours. Its diameter averaged 3 y", that of its corpuscles 
about 2 £ o"'- Nothing like uniformity was presented by the 
vascular condition of the sexual organs, which in this respect 
varied greatly. Keber has given other details, not required 
in this communication. 

In my " Researches in Embryology " many years ago, 
vesicles such as those found by Keber were often seen im- 

* In his work entitled " Be Spermatozoorwm Introitu in Ovula" Konigs- 
berg, 1853. — The last number of this Journal briefly noticed Keber's observa- 
tions on these vesicles, as well as those, of the author of the present communi- 
cation. The latter now gives a more particular account of them, and of some 
recent observations of his own. 


320 Dr Martin Barry on Vesicles in the 

bedded in the mucous membrane of the uterus, and attached 
by bloodvessels near the junction of the uterus and Fallopian 
tube. But being in search of ova, which it was important 
to obtain without delay, I again and again passed the said 
vesicles by, and perhaps might never have given them more 
particular attention, had it not been that the small size of one 
of them, by bringing its centre into view, revealed the pheno- 
menon of a body rotating on its axis. The vesicle was ellipti- 
cal and measured in length \' rf . The rotating body had a 
diameter of F V", its corpuscles measured about 2 W- I 
watched it rotating for half an hour, though an hour and a 
half had elapsed after the rabbit had been killed before the 
examination of the rotating body was begun. Of this vesicle 
and what was seen of its contents I published an account, 
with a drawing, in 1839.* The observation was incidental, 
and the account given of it was far less complete than it would 
have been had I known of the rotating body sooner. Singularly 
enough, that body entire and rotating was seen by me but 
once. Elliptical brown punctate corpuscles, however, the 
debris of such a body, I afterwards repeatedly observed. 

Keber is. of opinion that whether found in the abdominal 
cavity or in the uterus, and however different in size, the 
vesicles in question are the same; and farther, that the vesicle 
in which I had incidentally observed a rotating body was one 
of these. In this opinion I agree with Keber. 

What are the said vesicles containing a rotating body ? 
Keber believes them to be ova. 

When in 1839 I saw a vesicle which contained a mulberry- 
like body bearing a perfect resemblance to the essential part 
of the mammiferous ovum in several of its phases described 
by me at the same time — that body rotating on its axis — the 
thought naturally arose : Have we not here a mammiferous 
ovum exhibiting rotation like that of some of the lower ani- 
mals \ The resemblance, however, did not extend beyond the 
rotating body. The membrane of the vesicle was fibrous, — 
it was connected by bloodvessels with the uterus, instead of 
lying in its cavity unattached, — there was only one membrane 

* Phil. Trans., 1839, p 355, PI. IX., fig. 151. 

Abdominal Cavity and Uterus. 321 

to be seen, — this was certainly not what had been the zona 
pellucida,— and the mulberry contained no large cell in its 
interior — my " queen-bee in the hive." I therefore did not 
venture to consider it an ovum. (But in 1841 I had the 
satisfaction to see from Muller's Archiv, that the said inci- 
dental observation of mine had led to the discovery of rota- 
tion in what was certainly the mammiferous ovum.*) 

I therefore cannot agree with Keber, that the vesicles in 
question are ova. What then are they 1 For I am satisfied 
that he is right in saying — and he was the first to say — they 
arise in the ovary. I will now mention a few facts that may 
assist in determining what these vesicles really are. 

Up to 1838 the cavity containing the mammiferous ovum 
in the ovary was known only as that of the Graafian follicle or 
Graafian vesicle. In that year - ]" I made known the mode of 
origin of the Graafian follicle, and in 1841J made several 
additions which shew how it stands related to a "cell." The 
Graafian follicle arises in the following way. There is first 
seen a large cell. The nucleus of this divides into a large 
number of nuclei, which in colour, form, and size, are exactly 
like the early state of mammiferous red blood discs. From 
their origin in a mother- cell, these nuclei after their libera- 
tion are found in groups. They form cells which are ellipti- 
cal at first, become more spherical, and sometimes tapered at 
one end. The number of these cells is countless. But very 
few of them are matured and make their appearance at the 
surface of the ovary, though the rudiments of an ovum are 
seen in all. They are highly elastic, and remarkably trans- 
parent. They acquire a vascular covering, and there is thus 
formed a Graafian follicle. Von Baer's " couche interne " 
of this follicle is the originally independent cell just referred 
to, and his " couche externe " is the vascular covering which 
that cell acquires. That cell I found to be common to all 
the Vertebrata, and in all these to arise, pass through stages, 
and acquire a vascular covering, in essentially the same way 
as in Mammalia. There is thus formed the capsule of the 

* Seen in one rabbit by Prof. Bischoff. 
t Phil. Trans., 1838. J lb., 1841, 

322 Dr Martin Barry on Vesicles in the 

Bird, &c. This capsule is analogous to the Graafian follicle 
of Mammalia. The Graafian follicle is therefore not a struc- 
ture peculiar to Mammalia, as had up to 1838 been supposed. 
The said originally independent cell — the foundation of both 
Graafian follicle and capsule — I proposed to call the ovisac. 

There are several points connected with the ovisac to 
which, on this occasion, I ask particular attention. 1. The 
capillaries in ramifying on the ovisac often include minuter, 
or as I called them parasitic ovisacs, which thus come to lie 
between the membrane of a large one and its vascular cover- 
ing. I once counted more than fifty in such a position in the 
capsule of a bird. 2. The ovisac readily admits of removal 
from its vascular covering, which, however closely applied, 
does not become connected, — there is no penetration of its 
membrane. 3. When research of the minutest kind is made 
on the mode of origin of the ovisac, its young membrane is 
found to be made up of nucleolated nuclei, which later stages 
shew to have had within them the elements of fibre. 

In 1839 I published the following fact.* An ovary of the 
Hog, with a high degree of vascularity in all the parts, pre- 
sented three ruptured Graafian follicles, with four on the 
point of bursting. None of these were distended beyond a 
moderate size. Bloody strings of a fleshy substance were 
hanging at the orifices of two out of the three ruptured 
Graafian follicles. In the infundibulum of this side there 
were several of the same kind of bloody masses of a string- 
like form, suggesting the idea of their having been rolled-t 
Some of the string-like masses found in the infundibulum, 
as well as those pendent at the orifices of the ruptured Graa- 
fian follicles, on being examined with the microscope, pre- 
sented a multitude of ovisacs, varying in size from ^Y" an( i 
less to \'". Of one of these, and of its ovum, I gave a draw- 
ingj. I added, " The presence of such objects in the infun- 
dibulum appears to be not un frequent in the Hog. I have 
observed them also in the Cat."§ 

* Phil. Trans., 1839, pp. 319, 320. 

t In connection with the rolled appearance of these masses, I referred to the 
muscular state ut certain periods of the middle coat of the infundibulum. 
J Phil. Trans., 1839, PI. V., fig. 102. § II.., p. 320. 

Abdominal Cavity and Uterus. 323 

No doubt, as I then suggested, the multitude of minute 
ovisacs thus found in the infundibulum are what from their 
position I termed parasitic, these having been involved in 
the rupture of a Graafian follicle, and thus expelled. Lying, 
however, as these do, between a larger ovisac and its vascular 
covering, the escape of the parasitic ovisacs implies the ex* 
pulsion of the larger one. And it is very possible that it 
was this larger ovisac with its ovum that I have just men- 
tioned as having been represented by a drawing.* 

Whether such was the case, however, it matters not. All 
that I wish to shew from the said observation is simply this : 
That ovisacs in large numbers are found outside the ovary, 
and therefore that ovisacs are expelled from that organ. 

But farther, I have reason to believe that in most instances 
the Hogs, in which are frequently found such ruptured Graa- 
fian follicles, have had no connection with the male. And 
lastly, from what I have since noticed in other Mammalia, 
and especially in the Rabbit, I am satisfied that the following 
is common to this class of animals, viz. — In the rutting season 
when there has been no connection with the male, the ovum 
does not escape from its ovisac ; for the ovisac itself is ex- 
pelled from the ovary with the unfecundated ovum contained 
in it. 

Of what I had thus seen to happen in Mammalia on the 
expulsion of an ovum from the ovary in the rutting season, 
when there had been no connection with the male, I was re- 
minded by Keber's facts. And the conviction arose, that 
the vesicles with a rotating body — certainly not ova — are 
ovisacs. In favour of such an opinion was the fibrous struc- 
ture of their membrane, t and their usually large size. I 
have already published this view, J and have since received a 

* Phil. Trans., 1839, PL V., fig. 102. 

t In the fibrous structure of the membrane of the vesicles containing a rotat- 
ing body, Keber foresaw an objection likely to be raised against his view that 
they are ova ; the vitellary membrane (zona pellucida) never becoming fibrous. 
This objection has been met by my opinion, that they are not ova but ovisacs. 
For drawings which I gave in 1841 of young ovisacs present, in the nucleolated 
nuclei of which their membrane is at first composed, the elements of future fibre. 
(Phil. Trans., 1841, PI. XXV., figs. 164 to 173.) 

t In the last number of this Journal. 

324 Dr Martin Barry on Vesicles in ihe 

letter from Dr Keber informing me that he adopts it. He 
adds, that on becoming acquainted with my observations on 
the escape of ovisacs in the Hog, he examined several of 
these animals slaughtered by the butcher, and in the very 
first of them found three escaped ovisacs on the outside of 
the Fallopian tubes. 

My health not admitting of much labour in microscopic 
research, I have lately requested for this purpose the assist- 
ance of a friend. He first examined two unimpregnated 
rabbits, recording and reporting the results, which I quote 
in his own words. In one rabbit, he says, " I found no trace 
of escaped ovisacs ; but removed as many as fifteen without 
any difficulty from different parts of the ovaries. They were 
of various sizes, §'" and under. They all were fibrous, .... 
contained one, two, or three ova, and were sufficiently clear 
to shew the ovum within when gently flattened.' 1 The other 
rabbit, five months old, he was informed had never had con- 
nection with the male. He brought me two vesicles from 
this rabbit. One of them, A, he says, " was still in the ovary, 
but formed a translucent glistening projection upon the sur- 
face. Its escape was almost spontaneous after the inclosing 
ovarian membrane had been torn." We examined this 
vesicle together. It was elliptical, about §"' in length, and 
fibrous. It contained three ova, one of them well formed, 
the others smaller and apparently aborted. This vesicle was 
evidently an ovisac, freed from its vascular covering. The 
other vesicle, B, my friend remarks, " was lying at one ex- 
tremity of the ovary, slightly attached to its surface, with 
the infundibulum in close proximity. There was therefore 
left upon its removal " [from the surface of the ovary] " a 
minute torn or abraded spot." Our joint examination of this 
vesicle yielded the following results, which are important as 
shewing in what respects a vesicle, B, attached to the surface 
of the ovary, resembled, and in what respects it differed from 
an ovisac (the vesicle A) almost spontaneously escaping from 
that organ. In size, B rather exceeded A, but had a diameter 
of less than a line. In the fibrous structure of their mem- 
brane, and in their elliptical form, B and A did not differ. 
There was neither " zona pellucida " nor anything that could 

Abdominal Cavity and Uterus. 325 

be called an ovum in B. But it contained a mulberry-like 
body such as I had seen rotating on its axis. 

These observations leave no doubt at all that the vesicles 
containing a mulberry-like rotating body have, as Dr Keber 
supposed, their origin in the ovary ; — that they are not, how- 
ever, ova, as he supposed them to be, but ovisacs. 

The said vesicles then being ovisacs, it is to be presumed 
that the former ovum is represented by the rotating mul- 
berry. How does the one become converted into the other \ 
From what I saw in the Hog, it would seem that some of the 
first changes, after the expulsion of the ovisac from the ovary, 
are liquefaction of the yelk, absorption of the vitellary mem- 
brane, and enlargement of the germ vesicle and spot.* What 
follows I cannot say. But it is difficult to believe that there is 
anything in the ovum or ovisac so likely to produce a ciliated 
rotating mulberry-like body as the dividing and sub-dividing 
germ spot ; for I shewed this spot to fill its vesicle by such di- 
visions, and this before fecundation. An altered form of the 
germ spot, therefore, I believe to be represented by the said ro- 
tating body. The spot, as I have already said, is that of an un- 
fecundated ovum. And in harmony with this is the important 
fact, that the rotating body in the vesicles in question, though 
perfectly resembling the mulberry in the fecundated ovum, 
is much smaller, and contains in its interior no large cell with 
a nucleus, which nucleus, according to my observations, is the 
first appearance of what can be called the embryo.\ 

As to what becomes of these escaped ovisacs with their 
remains of unfecundated ova, I am by no means of the opinion 
that any of them are ever fecundated in the Fallopian tube 
or uterus. My belief is that they are finally absorbed, for 
in the same localities you find corresponding vesicles con- 
nected by bloodvessels with the part where they are found, 
having a thinner membrane, and either no more than traces 

* Phil. Trans., 1839, p. 320, PI. V., fig. 102/. 

t Von Baer's " primitive trace" exhibits a later stage, an altered form of 
the nucleus of my large cell first seen in the centre of the mulberry, and then 
passing to the surface. 

826 Dr Martin Barry on Vesicles in the 

of an epithelial lining and of a mulberry, or no trace of these 
at all. Such states were also noticed by my friend in two 
rabbits which he examined, besides those already mentioned. 
In one he found two vesicles distinctly attached " by blood- 
vessels to the fold of peritoneum inclosing the ovaries and 
between them and the fringe of the tubes. The capillaries 
running over the surface of these fibrous sacs were very 
plainly seen with the current of blood in them ; yet they 
were so transparent as to admit of a full examination of the 

interior No trace of cells or the mulberry-like body." 

A third vesicle in nearly all respects the same he found in 
another rabbit attached to the fimbria? of the Fallopian 

Owen aptly termed the Infusoria a minute police, — their 
office being to take up and retain in organic life particles 
about to be lost from it.* This comparison may perhaps be 
applied to the capillaries that ramify over the vesicles contain- 
ing a rotating body ; but in the very opposite way. Instead 
of retaining them in organic life, the capillaries lay hold of 
these vesicles as foreign bodies to be expelled, and they ac- 
cordingly take them up and effect their expulsion. In this, 
however, they seem to be assisted by the vesicles themselves. 
For as the rotations exhibited by a fecundated ovum belong 
to the changes essential to development, so, it may perhaps 
be said, do the rotations of the imfecundated mulberry-like 
body in its ovisac belong to the changes leading to dissolu- 

The foregoing relates to the ovisac with an wnfecundated 
ovum; the following to the ovisac after fecundation. lam 
about to give the substance of several more of the facts pub- 
lished in my second series of " Researches in Embryology" 
in 1839, viz.— 

1. Fecundation of the mammiferous ovum takes place in 
the ovary. \ 

2. A large aperture is seen in the ovisac just before the 
expulsion of the Rabbit's fecundated ovum from the ovary. J 

« Huntcrian Lectures. t Phil. Trans., 1839, \>. 350. { lb., PI. V., fig. 98. 

Abdominal Cavity and Uterus. 327 

3. In Mammalia the ovisac does not continue long in 
the ovary after the expulsion of the fecundated ovum. A 
few hours after the Rabbit's ovum has been discharged, if 
lateral pressure be applied, the ovisac escapes from the thick 
vascular mass which has no connection with it. Of an ovisac 
thus removed with its large aperture, I gave a drawing.* 
Soon after, the ovisac is no longer met with in the ovary. 
There is now seen protruded from the centre of what was 
formerly the Graafian follicle, a mammillary process, noticed 
by several observers, very accurately figured by De Graaf, 
apparently mistaken by Cruikshank for the ovum, and not 
inappropriately compared to a sort of hernia by Coste. This 
mammillary process consists solely of an inverted portion 
of the vascular spongy substance which previously consti- 
tuted the covering'of the ovisac. In the Rabbit the expulsion 
of the ovisac seems to take place in three or four days after 
the fecundated ovum has escaped ; in the Sheep and Goat not 
so soon-t For the vesicle described by Dr Pockels as re- 
maining in the incipient corpus luteum eight days and more 
after the expulsion of the ovum in the Sheep and Goat, was 
evidently my ovisac. 

4. The ovisac therefore can take no part in the formation 
of the corpus luteum. J 

The large and sometimes elliptical aperture in the ovisac, 
which I figured,§ is obviously for the purpose not only of ad- 
mitting the fecundating element, but also for the passage 
through it of the fecundated ovum. (Such an aperture is 
not required where, as in the case of the wnfecundated ovum, 
the latter continues in its ovisac — the ovisac escaping with 
its ovum ; though it is by no means improbable that such 
an aperture may be intimated even here.) 

We have thus seen a vesicle — my ovisac — to exist in the 
ovary, — to be unconnected with its vascular covering, — to 
have a fibrous structure, — and, either with the ovum or after 
it, to be expelled from the ovary. This is in Mammalia, 

* Phil. Trans. 1839, PL V., fig. 98. t lb., 1839, p. 318. 

I lb., p. 350, § 261. § lb., PI. V., fig. 98. 

328 Dr George Buist on the 

where the expelled ovisac is probably absorbed. I have 
shewn a corresponding vesicle to be common to the other 
Vertebrata, and I am by no means disposed to limit the ovisac 
to this class of animals, believing it to correspond to the 
" schaalenhaut" of German authors in the lower ones. Its 
final destiny in different animals may be very different. But 
analogy forbids the supposition that, exist where it may, the 
ovisac in any two animals essentially differs in its relations to 
what may be present of a vascular covering. It is equally 
improbable that while the ovisac is expelled from the ovary 
in Mammalia, it remains in that organ elsewhere. 

The Physical Geography of Hindostan. ByDr Geo. Buist, 
Bombay. Communicated by the Author. 

General Description. — Our recent conquests have extended 
our north-west frontier to almost everywhere beyond the 
Indus, and the British dominions now stretch from the sea 
to the mountains, all around from Soonmayance in Scinde 
to Arracan in Burmah ; and the region to which the follow- 
ing remarks pertain is the same in its physical as its political 
boundaries and area. It forms a vast irregular lozenge, com- 
posed of two triangles, one of them nearly equilateral, resting 
on opposite sides of the 22d parallel. The peninsula of Hin- 
dostan proper — of about 1200 miles each side, extending 
from the latitude of Cutch and Calcutta, and so southward to 
Ceylon, in latitude 7° — constitutes the southernmost of these 
and is bounded to the south-east and south-west by the Bay 
of Bengal and the Arabian Sea ; the other, which rests on 
this, base to base, is obtuse-angled and scalene, its apex 
reaching north beyond Attock, and its base extending along 
the shores of Scinde to Cape Monze, and those of the Bay of 
Bengal to the mountains eastward of Chittagong, or from 
the 67th to the 90th eastern meridian. It comprises an area of 
1,309,200 square miles, surrounded by a boundary of 11,260, 
or one-half the circuit of the globe. Of these square miles 
S00/788 belong to England, 508,412 to native states. 

The features of this vast country are almost endlessly di- 
versified. A huge range of mountains walls it in on the north- 

Physical Geography of Hindostan. 329 

east, north, and north-west, with a general equatorial direc- 
tion, bending at the extremities south-east and south-west. 
A magnificent chain, constituting the Western Ghauts, runs 
nearly parallel to the shore, along the whole western sea- 
board, from Goozerat south to Ceylon. A large equatorial 
mass, forming the Vindergah range on the north and Satpoo- 
tra on the south, bending eastward from this, constitutes 
the basins of the Taptee and Nerbudda. The Gomsoor and 
Rajmahal hills, which bound the delta of the Ganges on the 
west, constitute almost independent masses ; and the range 
along the eastern side of the peninsula towards the seaboard 
is, as compared to the Western Ghauts, irregular in struc- 
ture and inconsiderable in elevation. Shelving or sloping 
gently from the inner sides of the latter of these, is the 
vast table-land of the Deccan, resting on the highlands of 
Malwa on the north, under the 20th parallel, and extend- 
ing eastward and southward, till terminated by the moun- 
tain spur which stretches from the Nhilgherries towards 
Madras. Stretching again from the base of the mountains 
on both sides of the peninsula on to the shore, and so ex- 
tending all round the sea-coast, is a low border on the 
eastern or Coromandel, and the Concan on the western or 
Malabar coast. It varies from 5 to 50 miles in breadth, and 
its average elevation is about 30 feet above the level of the 
sea. A large portion of it is obviously of very recent marine 
origin; and on the northern and southern portion of the 
shores of Western India it is broken up into numberless 
islands, of which the group of fourteen — of which Bombay 
is one — is the best known and most beautiful. 

It will be thus seen that the peninsula of Hindostan con- 
sists of three distinct parts, — a central table-land, of an ave- 
rage elevation of about 1500 feet, and a maximum of about 
2500 feet, sprinkled with magnificent isolated conical hills, 
some 2000 above the plain and 4000 above the sea, of a vast 
circumvallation of mountains, spreading out into a great 
mass on the north-west, and presenting on the west two 
stupendous groups, rising at Mahabaleshwar, near Bombay, 
under the 18th parallel, to the elevation of 4500 feet, — the 
Nhilgherry group, under the 12th parallel, attaining an alti- 

o30 Dr George Buist on the 

tude of 8500 feet, — and, thirdly, of the low land on the 
seaboard betwixt the foot of the hills and the shore. 

Without at present taking into account the Sooliman and 
the Himalaya mountains, India, beyond the limits of the pen- 
insula northward, exhibits four grand divisions of surface, — 
1st, The great river deltas of the Indus and Ganges, consist- 
ing of almost pure alluvium, yearly adding to its mass, and 
which furnish by far the most fertile portions of the country ; 
2d, The Doabs, which may be described as the converse of 
the deltas — the latter being the rich lands which lie around 
the mouths, the former those which separate the branches 
of our principal rivers ; both being to a greater or less extent 
subject to inundations, the Doabs being particularly acces- 
sible to artificial irrigation ; 3d, The Great Desert, which 
lies to the eastward of the Indus, and southward of the 
Sutlej, towards Delhi, and which long formed the defence of 
the British frontier ; and, lastly, The Terai, or gravel belt, 
which skirts the base of the mountains, — a tract of compara- 
tively inconsiderable size, but so singular in point of struc- 
ture as to be deserving of a separate notice. 

The Terai, or Tauri, is a large gravel belt, filling, to the 
depth of from 15 to 150 feet, a narrow, basin-shaped hollow, 
from 5 to 15 miles in breadth, and from 500 to 600 in length, 
skirting the base of the Himalayas. It is so penetrable to 
water, that rivers, after traversing it for a short distance, 
sink down and disappear under its surface, re-appearing 
again when a fault, dyke, or other obstruction, is met with, 
once more to disappear when this is passed. The marshes 
thus formed are so malarious, that the husbandmen by whom 
portions of the Tarai are tilled hasten away from it as evening 
approaches, and make their abode high up amongst the hills. 
The insalubrious character of this singular region, at certain 
seasons of the year, pervades the vast Saul forests which skirt 
its margin all along ; they are waterless, rivers sinking be- 
neath them, and emerging in the Terai ; and Nepaul is girt 
around by a border at times so dangerous to human life that 
for months together no one attempts to traverse it. 

River Systems of India. — In India we have two stupen- 

Physical Geography of Hindostan. 


dous river systems — the Himalayan and Hindostanee — 
drawing their supplies from totally separate sources, and 
traversing or surrounding the whole of the districts subject 
to the visitation of famine. The Indus, with its five magni- 
ficent tributaries which intersect the Punjaub, and the Ganges 
and Burrampootra, with their gigantic branches, derive their 
principal supplies from the melting of the snows ; and the 
more fiercely the sun shines on the hills, and the more insuf- 
ferable that are the heats below, the more plentifully do these 
gelid storehouses give up their treasures. The whole of the 
Hindostanee system of rivers, again, consisting of the Saber- 
mutti, the Mhye, the Nerbudda, the Taptee, all discharging 
themselves into the Gulf of Cambay, in Western India ; the 
Godavery, the Kistna, and the Cauvery, falling into the Bay 
of Bengal, originate in the western mountains, and are fed 
by the rains which fall over these, to the extent of 100 
inches on an average, during the months of June, July, and 
August. Both systems, whether fed by snow or rain, are in 
flood at the same period of the year, that being just the sea- 
son when moisture is most required. Both draw their sup- 
plies from mountains too rocky or barren to require mois- 
ture, and too steep to retain it, and which send to the ocean, 
through tracts of the finest country in the world, supplies of 
water sufficient to transform them into one universal garden. 
The following table is given by Hamilton of the probable 
length of some of the rivers of India : — 

Miles to the sea. 












. — Gairsuppa, Western Ghauts, top of fall to 
surface of basin, 888 feet, depth of basin, 300 — total, 1188 ; from 300 to 
600 feet across during the rains. Yeanna, Mahabaleshwar, 600 feet. 
Cavery, Mysore, 300 feet. Bouti, in Bundelcund, 400 feet. Katra, in 
Bundelcund, 398 feet. Chai, in Bundelcund, 362 feet. Keuti, in Bun- 
delcund, 272 feet. Garsippa, near Honoor, 1000 feet, and 60 feet across. 

1. Indus, ...... 

2. Jumna (to its junction with the Ganges, 780 miles), 

3. Sutlej (to the Indus, 900), 

4. Jhylum (ditto, 750), 

5. Gunduck (to the Ganges, 450), 

6. Godavery, . 

7. Krishna, 

8. Nerbudda, 

9. Mahanuddy, 

10. Tuptee, 

11. Cavery, 

Remarkable Cataracts 

332 Dr George Buist on the 

When we tind India generally talked of as one country of 
moderate extent, and nearly uniform condition and character- 
istics, it is not wonderful that the phenomena of the atmo- 
sphere should be spoken of with as much looseness as the geo- 
graphy of the land. The climate of India is in reality still 
more various and diversified than the features of the country. 
In the south, showers are frequent all the year round ; on 
the southern Coromandel coast three months of violent rain 
occur in winter, the rest of the season being dry ; while a 
few degrees to the north of this, on both sides of the Bay of 
Bengal, and all over Western India, the precise converse of 
this is the case. In Central India the rain becomes ex- 
tremely light, and occurs mostly about midsummer ; in the 
north there are both the summer and winter rains ; in Scinde 
and Beloochistan there is no rainy season whatever, and the 
heavy showers which occur irregularly, and at intervals of 
years, are productive of sickness, and considered injurious to 
the country. 

To go, however, more into detail : — From the conjoined 
influences of the heat of the sun and the rotation of the 
earth, there are two vast currents of air constantly cir- 
cling round the globe from east to west, called the north- 
east and south-east trade-winds, the two being separated 
from each other by a belt of turbulent and irregular cur- 
rents, and frequent precipitation, called the rains, calms, 
or variables. These three great bands of air move somewhat 
to the north and south, according as the sun is to the north- 
ward or southward of the line ; and where they impinge upon 
a continent or peninsula stretching towards the equator, a 
branch is broken off, and a current, varying according to the 
season of the year, produced, called a monsoon. On the western 
side of India, north to the Gulf of Cutch, and on the western 
shore of Burmah and the peninsula of Malacca, this blows, for 
betwixt two and five months in summer, according to the lati- 
tude, from south-west ; for the greater part of the rest of the 
year from north-west, an interval of storms and calms occur- 
ring in both cases at the period of change. It is usually held 
that this takes place about a week or ten days after the 
passage of the sun northward or southward over the parallel 

Physical Geography of Hindostan. 333 

of the place, and that the rains which always accompany it 
follow and retire a few days afterwards. On the eastern 
side of the peninsula again, from Ceylon to considerably 
northward of Madras, lying in the lee as it were of the land, 
the monsoons blow from north-east and south-east, the former 
of which occurs in midwinter, being their rainy season. 

Few things can be more striking than the state of the 
atmosphere or the aspect of the sky just as these periodical 
alterations are about to arise. Taking what appears at 
Bombay as an example : from the beginning of November to 
the end of May the sky has been perfectly cloudless, and not 
a shower has fallen. Regular sea and land breezes setting 
in before noon and daybreak respectively, the former blowing 
from north-west for ten or twelve hours, the latter from due 
east for five or six, with intervals of calm between, have 
filled up the day and night. While this state of matters still 
continues, and not the slightest indication is given of coming 
change, the stranger observes to his astonishment a sudden 
and simultaneous bustle amongst the whole community. The 
tents occupied by the troops, and the flimsy dwelling-places 
which had hitherto afforded accommodation to the European 
population, are suddenly pulled down and swept away, as if 
their occupants were fleeing before some fearful pestilence. 
The most substantial buildings, if thatched, have their roofs 
stripped off and renewed, and in any case have them tho- 
roughly repaired, while all doors and windows facing the 
south-westward are boarded up, matted over, or in some way 
or other secured. Square-rigged vessels strike their upper 
masts, lower their yards, and make immediate provision for 
a storm, while as yet there is nothing whatever to warn the 
stranger of coming change ; and the lighter native craft are 
hauled up beyond the reach of the waves, and thatched over 
with a thick roofing of palmyra leaves. Large clouds at 
length begin to make their appearance daily about noon over 
the western mountains, and advancing up the sky eastward, 
right in the teeth, as it would seem, of the wind then blow- 
ing, exhibit the most magnificent display first of sheet, after- 
wards of forked lightning. This goes on from day to clay for 
about a week, the electrical displays becoming more vivid 

VOL. LVI. NO. CXII. — APRIL 1854. Z 

334 Dr George Buist on the 


and intense every night. Until the rains actually fall, the 
clouds invariably disappear immediately after dark, and two 
hours after the sun has gone down surrounded by the em- 
blems of coming tempest, the stars shine out everywhere 
down to the very edge of the horizon, and not a flock or film 
of vapour is to be seen staining the deep blue of the serene 
expanse from side to side of the firmament. Suddenly, and 
in general after a day of unusual tranquillity, a little after 
sunset, a blast at once darts forth from the east, followed by 
a gush of rain as if the windows of heaven had been opened, 
the thunder roars and lightnings flash incessantly, the 
quivering light of a continuous succession of flashes being 
sometimes sufficient for five or ten seconds on end to permit 
the smallest print to be read. Sometimes it shoots upwards 
from the earth, sometimes it seems to rain down in long 
streams, like a string of red-hot beads, reaching from the 
clouds to the sea ; most frequently it darts in long zig-zags 
horizontally from cloud to cloud, or bursting in all direc- 
tions from a single point like a shower of coruscations shot 
on every side. This state of matters generally lasts from one 
to two hours, when the wind veers round to south-westward, 
blowing with increased steadiness and diminished force, and 
the voice of the thunder, which had just before pealed in 
a succession of tremendous claps or roars, is heard lowly 
bellowing in the distance. 

It may be mentioned in passing that although all our con- 
tinued storms blow on us from the south-west, and the sea 
breezes during the fair weather are north-westerly, that our 
casual blasts invariably burst upon us from the mountains to 
the east of us, as if these formed the grand magazine of 
thunder and storm. The first burst of the monsoon seldom 
lasts more than a single night and part of a day, and the 
second dawn presents the most wonderful change in the scene 
that can be imagined. The burnt and parched earth seems 
now washed and refreshed everywhere, long spikes of grass 
of the tenderest green already shoot up from what a few 
days before were brown and barren plains ; deep and filthy 
pits and unseemly tracts, half choked up with rubbish, straw, 
and withered leaves, are now the basins of pellucid pools and 

Physical Geography of Hindostan. 335 

lakes, or the channels of majestic streams. The rays of the 
sun, no longer fierce and intolerable as they were a week be- 
fore, shaded by intervening vapours or transient clouds, pre- 
sent that interminglement of alternating light and shade in 
the landscape which, beautiful in itself, becomes doubly de- 
lightful from the contrast it exhibits to the uninterrupted 
and unceasing glare of the previous part of the year. After 
a few days' weather of this sort the rains return with re- 
doubled violence, and continue to pour down for forty or 
fifty days, at an average of above an inch a -day, the ordinary 
fall in June, July, and August, amounting at Bombay to about 
70 inches. Within a week or ten days of the commence- 
ment of the rains, so soon as the surface of the soil is fairly 
saturated, and occupied everywhere by rivulets or pools of 
standing water, the whole earth seems to swarm with fish. 
They are of four or five different varieties, such as abound 
in the sea along-shore, and can live either in fresh or salt 
water. They vary in size from an inch in length to that of 
the forefinger, and are caught in myriads in baskets or in nets 
affording sport to the boys, and an agreeable article of food. 
Though their appearance has been mentioned by every one 
who has attempted to describe the rains for the last two 
centuries, it has never been so satisfactorily accounted for 
as could be desired. Colonel Underwood of the Madras 
Engineers, mentions a case when he was overtaken by a 
furious shower in the midst of the dry season, when the earth 
was at once covered with fish, which must have fallen from 
the heavens. But this scarcely seems to account for those 
which appear some ten days after the burst of the monsoon. 
Equally remarkable with this, though without its mystery, 
is the appearance of myriads of frogs of the most enormous 
dimensions, which occurs at the opening of the rains. At 
night their croakings fill the air whenever a shower falls ; 
and they are seen in hundreds by the margins, or in the 
waters of every pool — at times resting on the lotus leaf, at 
times hurrying from the pursuit of the water-snakes which 
hunt and devour them. They are of a bright greenisli yellow, 
and measure from six to seven inches from snout to vent, 
often bounding from six to nine feet at a spring. The rains 


336 Dr George Buist on the 

slacken off early in August, and after the first full moon 
an offering is made, and a festival held by the natives to 
propitiate the ocean god, and vessels laid up in the end of 
May prepare for sea. After some weeks of open weather 
the Malabar coast is usually visited in the end of September 
or beginning of October by a furious burst of thunder, rain, 
and easterly wind called the Elephanta, from its occurring 
as the sun enters the constellation of the Elephant, this 
finally closing the rainy season. 

On the Bengal side the rains are about a week later in 
setting in than at Bombay. The amount of fall at Calcutta 
is nearly the same, but seems more violent while it lasts, 
and is somewhat less continuous. Along the whole of East- 
ern and part of Central India, the rains are preceded by 
furious whirling squalls, called north-westers, from their 
coming down from the direction of the Himalayas, as our 
eastern squalls do from the Ghauts ; three or four of these 
occur during the months of April and May, and are fre- 
quently accompanied by furious hail-storms, the hail being 
on an average about the size of walnuts, frequently that of 
duck's eggs ; single hailstones have occasionally been found 
from one to three pounds in weight. There are, indeed, 
four cases on record within the last 70 years of masses of 
ice having fallen from the firmament of from half-a-ton to a. 
ton-and-a-half in weight. Recent observations have shewn 
that the maximum fall of rain occurs, as might be expected, 
at the ordinary altitude of the principal layers of rain cloud, 
between 3000 and 5000 feet above the level of the sea, and 
the amount of fall regularly decreases above this as the 
higher regions of air are attained. The discharge where 
this sea of vapour impinges on a cold mass of mountains is 
tremendous. At Mahableshwar it amounts to betwixt 200 
and 300 inches, it exceeds 200 on the same level at the 
Nheilgerries, and at Cheraponge in the Cashia Hills north- 
west of Calcutta there is an average fall of no less than 610 
inches, above 20 feet occasionally falling in the month of 

In the north of India there are both winter and summer 
rains, though the former are always the lighter of the two. 

Physical Geography of Hindostan. 337 

The regions to the leeward of the mountain walls, against 
which the clouds borne up from the sea first dash and dis- 
charge themselves, are comparatively dry, and the sudden- 
ness with which the transition takes place is often most re- 
markable. At Paunchghunny, 500 feet lower down, and ten 
miles farther east than Mahabaleshwar, where from 250 to 300 
inches fall, they have seldom more than 20 inches, while the 
average of the table-land of the Deccan scarcely exceeds 25. 
When the rain clouds approach the arid plains of Seinde and 
Outch, they appear to ascend and become absorbed by the 
air, passing on to precipitate themselves on the mountains to 
the northward. There is much reason to believe that the 
fall of rain is diminished by the absence or destruction of 
trees. Were vegetation sufficiently fostered in Seinde by 
means of irrigation, it might cause it to have its regular 
rainy season like the lands around. 

Two events strike with surprise the ornithologist on the ap- 
proach of the monsoon. Nearly all the kites, hawks, vultures, 
and carrion birds disappear from the sea-coast, while the crows 
begin to build their nests and hatch their young just at the sea- 
son that seems most unsuitable for incubation, when the eggs 
are often shaken out, or the nests themselves are destroyed by 
the storm, and the poor birds are exposed in the performance 
of their paternal duties to all the violence and inclemency of 
rain and tempest. At the instigation of a sure and unerring 
instinct, the carnivorous birds, as the rains approach, with- 
draw themselves from a climate unsuitable to the habits of 
their young, betaking themselves to the comparatively dry 
air of the Deccan, where they nestle and bring forth in com- 
fort, and find food and shelter for their little ones. The 
earth, once saturated with rain in the low country, abounds 
in grubs, snails, and worms, the food of the young crows, 
which the parents pick up in the soft and moistened soil, the 
rising generation coming forth just as the means of supply- 
ing them with suitable sustenance become plentiful. The 
scenes connected with this, which follow the conclusion of 
the rains, are curious enough. While the Mahommedans bury, 
and the Hindus burn, the Parsees expose their dead in large 
cylindrical roofless structures called Towers of Silence, 

338 Dr George Buist on the 

where birds of prey at all times find an abundant repast. 
Their family cares and anxieties over for the season, the 
carrion birds, which had left in May for the Deccan, return 
in October to Bombay, and make at once for the usual scene 
of their festivities, now stored with a three months' supply 
of untasted food. As they appear in clouds approaching 
from the mainland, the crows, unwilling that their dominions 
should be invaded, hasten in flocks to meet them, and a battle 
ensues in the air, loud, fierce, and noisy ; the flapping of the 
wings, the screaming and cawing of the combatants resound- 
ing over the island, till the larger birds succeed, and having 
gained the victory, are suffered thenceforth to live in peace. 

It is just after the rains have well set in, that those 
beautiful exhibitions of thousands of fire-flies flashing out 
in concert become visible. These brilliant little insects are 
generally seen dancing alone amongst shrubs and underwood, 
occasionally congregating in vast multitudes around iso- 
lated trees, which they at times render wholly luminous. At 
times the whole countless host flash out for a few seconds, 
and simultaneously, at intervals of similar amount, becoming 
dark again, and so they flash and flash for hours on end. 
Sometimes they shoot in long columns into the air, like the 
coruscations of fire-works, becoming bright and dark by 
turns, or having reached a considerable altitude, they seem 
to pour down in a shower of sparks. 

Principal Falls of Rain in India — Eastern India and 
Bay of Bengal. 




Fall of Rain 

Cheerapoonj, . 


25° 16' 

91° 43' 

610 in. 

Sylhet, . 


24° 40' 

92° 40' 

209 „ 

Tavoy, . 

sea level. 

14° 5' 

98° 10' 

208 „ 


sea level. 

16° 30' 

97° 37' 

175 „ 


18° 26' 

94° 18' 

178 „ 


sea level. 

20° 8' 

92° 54' 

155 „ 

Darjeeling, . 


27° 3' 

88° 18' 

125 „ 

Shores of Western India 




Fall of Rain 



17° 43' 

74° 35' 

248 in. 

Attagherry, . 


11° 25' 

170 „ 



18° 30' 

74°' 30' 
76° 20' 

168 „ 



11° 30' 

164 „ 



18° 33' 

74° 2' 

138 „ 

Angara Kandy, 

Malabar Coast. 


76° 30' 

124 „ 

Cannanorc, . 



75° 20' 

121 „ 

Physical Geography of Hindosian. 339 

Average fall of Bain — At Bombay for 30, and Calcutta and 
Madras for 8 years, near the level of the sea : — 








February, . 












May, . 




June, . 




July, . 








September, . 








November, . 




December, . 




Total, . . 52.27 76.08 66.59 

Remarkable Falls of Rain in India and other parts of 
the World.— At Geneva, 25th October 1822, 32 inches fell in 
twenty-four hours ; at Flangurques, 6th September 1801, 14 
inches fell in eighteen hours ; on the 20th May 1827, 6 inches 
fell at Geneva in three hours ; at Perth, on the 3d August 
1829, four-fifths of an inch fell in half-an-hour ; on the 22d 
November 1826, nine-tenths of an inch fell at Naples in thirty- 
seven minutes. — Forbes, Rep. Brit. As. 1840. 

In India. — At Mahabaleshwar, in 1834, 302 inches fell in 
one hundred days ; on the 4th of October 1846, 10 inches fell 
at Chittledrooj in twenty-four hours ; at Bombay, in 1 844, 7J 
inches fell in twenty-four hours ; 2 inches fell in seventy 
minutes on the 1st, 9.43 inches on the 10th, and 12 inches 
on the 26th July 1849.— Sykes, Phil. Trans. 1850 ; Rep. 
Brit. As. 1849. 

At Rajkote, on the 26th and 27th July 1850, 26 inches fell 
in twenty-four hours, and 35 inches in 36 hours ; 7 inches 
fell in one hour and a half at Ahmed. 

With this general review of the principal physical features 
and climate of India, we may next pass to some of the leading 
peculiarities of the ocean which surrounds it, and here I may 
perhaps be permitted to quote from what has already ap- 
peared in the Transactions of the Bombay Geographical 
Society, a work so little known in this country, that there is 

* Occasional showers occur at Bombay sometimes all the year round, of which 
no account has been published in the Register. The majority of years are 
rainless from October to June. 

340 Dr George Buist on the 

not much risk of its having fallen beforehand in the way of 
the general reader. 

4 ' It is more than probable that besides the currents occa- 
sioned by the trade-winds, monsoons, and sets of the tides — 
we have a group of movements intermingled with these,'' 
dependent mainly on evaporation. When it is remembered 
that on the western shore of the Arabian Sea, including in 
this the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, from the line northward, 
we have an expanse of coast of no less than 6000 miles, and 
a stretch of country of probably not less than 100 miles in- 
land from this, where the average fall of rain does not amount 
to four inches annually, where not one-half this ever reaches 
the sea, and where to the best of our knowledge, the eva- 
poration over the ocean averages at least a quarter of an inch 
daily all the year round, or close on eight feet annually, some 
idea of the enormous abstraction of water in the shape of va- 
pour may be formed. On the assumption that this extends no 
further, on an average, than 50 miles out to sea, we shall have 
no less than 39 cubic miles of water raised annually in vapour 
from the northern and north-western side of the basin, which 
must be supplied from the open ocean to the south, or the rains 
on the east. The fall of rain on the western side of the ridge 
of the mountain chain from Cape Comorin to Cutch averages 
pretty nearly 180 inches annually, and of this at least 160 
is carried oif to the sea : that on the Concan to 70 inches, of 
which probably 30 flow off to the ocean ; or betwixt the two 
over an area of twenty miles from the sea-shore to the Ghauts, 
and about 1200 miles from north to south, or an area of 
24,000 square miles in all, we shall probably have an ave- 
rage discharge of nine feet, or close on forty cubic miles of 
water, — an amount sufficient, were it not diffused, to raise 
the sea on our shores three feet high over an area of 72,000 
square miles. 

The waters of the ocean cover nearly three-fourths of the 
surface of the globe ; and of the thirty-eight millions of miles 
of dry land in existence, twenty-eight millions belong to the 
northern hemisphere.* The mean depth of the ocean 

* Since t bo above was written, Lieutenant Walsh, of the United StatesNavy, 
has Bounded to the depth of about six miles, and in Oetober 1852, soundings 
were mad" in Lat. 46 49' >S., long. 37' 6' \V., from on board Her Majesty's Ship 
Herald, with an American line, to the depth of 7706 fathoms, or above 7 miles. 

Physica I Geog raphy of Hindos tan . 341 

is somewhere about four miles — the greatest depth the 
sounding line till of late has ever reached is five-and-a- 
quarter miles. The mean elevation of the land again is 
about one thousand feet — the highest point known to us 
is nearly as much above the level of the sea, as the 
greatest depth that has been measured is below it. The at- 
mosphere again surrounds the earth like a vast envelope : 
its depth, by reason of the tenuity attained by it as the super- 
incumbent pressure is withdrawn, is unknown to us, — but 
is guessed at somewhere betwixt fifty and five hundred miles, 
its weight and its constituent elements have been determined 
with the utmost accuracy. The weight of the mass is equal 
to that of a solid globe of lead sixty miles in diameter. Its 
principal elements are oxygen and nitrogen gases, with 
a vast quantity of water suspended in these in the shape of 
vapour ; and communicating with these a quantity of car- 
bon, in the form of fixed air, equal to restore from its 
mass many-fold the coal that now exists in the world. 
In common with all substances, the ocean and the air 
are increased in bulk, and consequently diminished in weight, 
by heat; like all fluids, they are mobile — tending to 
extend themselves equally in all directions, and to fill up 
depressions in whatever vacant spaces will admit them ; 
hence, in these respects, the resemblance betwixt their move- 
ments. Water is not compressible or elastic, and it may be 
solidified into ice, or vapourized into steam ; air is elastic — it 
may be condensed to any extent by compression, or expanded 
to an indefinite degree of tenuity by pressure being removed 
from it — it is not liable to undergo any change in its consti- 
tution beyond these, by any of the ordinary influences by which 
it is affected. These facts are few and simple enough — let 
us see what results arise from them. As the constant ex- 
posure of the equatorial regions of the earth to the sun must 
necessarily here engender a vast amount of heat, — and as 
his absence from the polar regions must in like manner pro- 
mote an infinite accumulation of cold,— to fit the entire earth 
for a habitation to similar races of beings, a constant inter- 
change and communion betwixt the heat of the one and 
cold of the other must be carried on. The ease and simpli- 
city with which this is effected, surpass all description. The 

342 Dr George Buist on the 


air heated near the equator by the overpowering influence of the 
sun, is expanded and lightened : it ascends into upper space 
leaving a partial vacuum at the surface to be supplied from 
the regions adjoining. Two currents from the poles towards 
the equator are thus established at the surface, while the 
sublimated air, diffusing itself by its mobility, flows in the 
upper regions of space from the equator towards the poles. 
Two vast whirlpools are thus established, constantly carry- 
ing away the heat from the torrid towards the icy regions, 
and these becoming cold by contact with the ice, carry back 
their gelid freight to refresh the torrid zone. Did the earth, 
as was long believed, stand still while the sun circled round 
it. we should have two sets of meridional currents blowing 
at the surface of the earth directly from north and south 
towards the equator, in the upper regions flowing back again 
to the place whence they came. On the other hand were the 
heating and cooling influences just referred to to cease, and the 
earth to fail in impressing its own motion on the atmosphere, 
we should have a furious hurricane rushing round the globe 
at the rate of 1000 miles an hour — tornadoes of ten times 
the speed of the most violent now known to us, sweeping 
everything before them. A combination of the two influences, 
modified by the friction of the earth, which tends to draw the 
air after it, gives us the Trade-Winds — which sweep round 
the equatorial region of the globe unceasingly at the speed 
of from ten to twenty miles an hour : the aerial current, quit- 
ting the polar regions with the comparatively tardy speed from 
east to west imposed on it by the velocity due to the 70th 
parallel, is left behind the globe, and deflected into an oblique 
current as it advances southward, till, meeting the current 
from the opposite pole near the equator, the two combine and 
form the vast stream known as the Trades, — separated in two 
where the air ascends by the belt of variable winds and rains. 
Impressed with the motion of the air constantly sweeping its 
surface in one direction, and obeying the same laws of motion 
the great sea itself would be excited into currents similar to 
those of the air were it not walled in by continents, and sub- 
jected to other control. As it is, there are constant currents 
flowing from the torrid towards the frigid zone, to supply 
the vast mass of vapour there drained off; while other whirl- 

Physical Geography of Ilindostan. 343 

pools and currents, such as the gigantic Gulf Stream, come to 
perforin their part in the same gigantic drama. The cur- 
rent just named sweeps from the Cape of Good Hope across 
the South Atlantic to the Gulf of Mexico, and by the Straits 
of the Bahamas. Here it turns to the eastward again, tra- 
velling along the coast of America at the rate of from forty 
to a hundred miles a day : it now stands once more across 
the Atlantic, and divides itself into two branches — one finds 
its way into the Northern Sea, warming the adjoining waters 
as it advances, and turning back, most likely to form a second 
great whirlpool, rejoining the original stream near New- 
foundland. The main branch seeks the northern shores of 
Europe, and, sweeping along the coast of Spain and Portugal, 
travels southward by the Azores to rejoin the main whirl- 
pool. The waters of this vast ocean river are to the north of 
the tropic greatly warmer than those around : the climate of 
every country it approaches is improved by it, and the Lap- 
lander is enabled by its means to live, and cultivate his barley 
in a latitude which everywhere else, throughout the world, 
is condemned to perpetual sterility. But there are other laws 
which the great sea obeys, which peculiarly adapt it as the 
vehicle of interchange of heat and cold betwixt those regions 
where either exists in excess. Water, which contracts re- 
gularly from the boiling point downwards, at a temperature 
of 40° has reached its maximum of density, and thence begins 
to grow lighter. But for this beneficent provision, the various 
recesses of the frozen ocean would be continually occupied with 
a fluid, at the freezing point, which the least access of cold 
would convert into one solid mass of ice. The non-conducting 
power of water, which at present acts so valuable a part in the 
general economy, so far from being a blessing would be a curse. 
No warmth could ever penetrate to thaw the foundations of 
the frozen mass — no water find its way to float it from its 
foundations, so that, like the everlasting hills themselves, 
rooted immoveably in its place, every year adding to its 
volume, the solid structure would continually advance to 
the southward, hermetically sealing the Polar Ocean, thus con- 
demned to utter desolation, and encroaching on the North Sea 
itself. Under existing circumstances, so soon as water is 
cooled down to 40" it sinks to the bottom, and, still eight de- 

344 Dr George Buist on the 

grees warmer than ice, it attacks the bases and saps the 
foundations of the icebergs — themselves gigantic glaciers 
which have fallen from the mountains into the sea, or which 
have grown to their present size in the shelter of bays and 
estuaries, and by accumulations from above. Once forced 
from their anchorage, the first storm that arises drifts them to 
sea, where the beautiful law which renders ice lighter than 
the warmest water enables it to swim, and floats southward 
a vast magazine of cold to cool the tepid fluid which bears it 
along, — the evaporation at the equator causing a deficit, the 
melting and accumulation of the ice in the frigid zone 
giving rise to an excess of accumulation, which tends, 
along with the action of the air, and other causes, to institute 
and maintain the transporting current. These stupendous 
masses, which have been seen at sea in the form of church 
spires and Gothic towers and minarets, rising to the height of 
from 300 to 600 feet, and extending over an area of not less 
than six square miles, the mass above water being only one- 
tenth of the whole, are often to be found far within the tropics. 
A striking fact dependent on this general law, has just been 
brought to light ; there is a line extending from pole to pole 
at or under the surface of the ocean, where an invariable 
temperature of 39 0, 5 is maintained. The depth of this varies 
with the latitude ; at the equator it is 7200 feet — at lat. 56° it 
ascends to the surface, the temperature of the sea being here 
uniform throughout. North and south of this the cold water is 
uppermost, and at lat. 70° the line of uniform temperature de- 
scends to 4500. But these, though amongst the most regular 
and magnificent, are but a small number of the contrivances 
by which the vast and beneficent ends of Nature are brought 
about. Ascent from the surface of the earth produces the 
same change in point of climate as an approach to the poles ; 
even under the torrid zone, mountains reach the line of 
perpetual congelation at nearly a third less altitude than 
the extreme elevation which they sometimes attain : at the 
poles, snow is perpetual at the ground, and at the different 
intervening latitudes reaches some intermediate point of con- 
gelation betwixt 1000 and 20,000 feet. In America, from the 
line south to the tropics, as also in Africa, within similar lati- 
tudes, vast ridges of mountains covered with perpetual snow, 

Physical Geography of Hindo start. 345 

run northward and southward in the direction of the meri- 
dian right across the path of the Trade-Winds. A similar 
ridge, though of less magnificent dimensions, traverses the 
peninsula of Hindostan, increasing in altitude as it ap- 
proaches the line, — attaining an elevation of 8500 feet at 
Dodabetta, and above 6000 in Ceylon. The Alps in Europe 
and the gigantic chain of the Himalayas in Asia, both far 
south in the temperate zone, stretch from east to west, and 
intercept the aerial current from the north. Others of lesser 
note, in the equatorial or meridional, or some intermediate 
direction, cross the paths of the atmospherical currents in 
every direction, imparting to them fresh supplies of cold, as 
they themselves obtain from them warmth in exchange ; in 
strictness, the two operations are the same. Magnificent 
and stupendous as are the effects and results of the water 
and of air acting independently on each other, in equalising 
the temperature of the globe, they are still more so when 
combined. One cubic inch of water when imbued with a 
sufficiency of heat, will form one cubic foot of steam — the 
water before its evaporation, and the vapour which it forms, 
being exactly of the same temperature, though in reality, in 
the process of conversion, 1700 degrees of caloric have been 
absorbed or carried away from the vicinage, and rendered 
latent or imperceptible ; this heat is returned in a sensible 
and perceptible form, the moment the vapour is converted 
once more into water. The general fact is the same in the 
case of vapour carried off by dry air at any temperature that 
may be imagined (for down far below the freezing point 
evaporation proceeds uninterruptedly), or raised into steam 
by artificial means. The air, heated and dried as it sweeps 
over the arid surface of the soil, drinks up by day myriads of 
tons of moisture from the sea — as much indeed as would, 
were no moisture restored to it, depress its whole expanse at 
the rate of four feet annually over the surface of the globe. 
The quantity of heat thus converted from a sensible or per- 
ceptible to an insensible or latent state, is almost incredible. 
The action equally goes on, and with the like results, over 
the surface of the earth, where there is moisture to be with- 
drawn, as over that of the sea. But night, and the seasons of 
the year, come round, and the surplus temperature thus 

346 Dr George Buist on the 

withdrawn and stored away at the time it might have proved 
superfluous or inconvenient, is reserved, and rendered back 
so soon as it is required ; and the cold of night, and rigor of 
winter, are modified by the heat given out at the point of 
condensation, by dew, rain, hail, and snow. 

There are, however, cases in which were the process of 
evaporation to go on without interruption and without limit, 
that order and regularity might be disturbed which it is the 
great object of the Creator apparently for an indefinite time 
to maintain, and the arrangements for equalizing tempe- 
rature, the equilibrium of saltness, be disturbed in certain 
portions of the sea, and that of moisture underground in the 
warmer regions of the earth. To prevent this, checks and 
counterpoises interpose just as their services come to be re- 
quired. It could scarcely be imagined that in such of our 
inland seas as were connected by a narrow strait with the 
ocean, and were thus cut off from free access to its waters, the 
supply of fresh water which pours into them from the rivers 
around, would exactly compensate the amount carried away 
by evaporation ; salt never rises in steam, and it is the pure 
element alone that it is drawn off. We have in such cases 
as the Black and Baltic seas an excess of supply over what is 
required, the surplus in the latter case flowing off through the 
Dardanelles, in the former through the Great and Little Belts. 
The vapour withdrawn from the Mediterranean exceeds by 
about a third the whole amount of fresh water poured into it ; 
the difference is made up by a current through the Straits of 
Gibraltar in the latter ;* and a similar arrangement, modified 
by circumstances, must exist in all cases where conditions 
of things are similar, — the supply of water rushing through 
the strait from the open ocean being in exact proportion to 
the difference betwixt that provided from rain or by rivers, 
and that required by the drain of vapour. Seas wholly iso- 
lated, such as the Caspian and the Dead Sea, attain in course 
of time a state of perfect equilibrium — their surface becoming 
lowered in level and diminished in area, till it comes to be ex- 
actly of the proper size to yield in vapour the whole waters 

* Captain Smith's excellent work on the Mediterranean, published since the 
above wa9 written, throws much valuable light on all these subjects. 

Physical Geography of Hindostan. 347 

poured in. The Dead Sea, before attaining this condition of re- 
pose, has sunk thirteen hundred feet below the Mediterranean, 
the Caspian about one-fourth of this. Lakes originally salt, and 
which to all appearance are no more than fragments severed 
from the sea by the earthquake or volcano, and which have no 
river or rain supplies whatever, in process of time dry up and 
leave a mass of rock salt in their former basin. Such is the 
formation in progress in the Lake Assal, in north-eastern 
Africa, nearly five hundred feet below the level of the sea, 
its waters having been this much depressed by evapora- 
tion, having now almost altogether vanished, one mass of 
salt remaining in their room. As it is clear in a case such 
as that of the Mediterranean, that where salt water to a large 
extent was poured in, and fresh water only was drawn off, a 
constant concentration of brine must occur, the proposition 
was laid down by the most distinguished of our geologists, 
and long held unquestionable, that huge accumulations of 
salt, in mass larger than all that Cheshire contains, were 
being formed in its depths. The doctrine, eminently impro- 
bable in itself, is now met by the discovery of an outward 
under current, in all likelihood of brine. It is matter of 
easy demonstration, that without some such arrangement as 
this, the Red Sea must long ere now have been converted in- 
to one mass of salt, its upper waters at all events being 
known in reality to differ at present but little in saltness 
from those of the Southern Ocean. The Red Sea forms an 
excellent illustration of all kindred cases. Here we have 
salt water flowing in perpetually through the Straits of 
Babelmandeb to furnish supplies for a mass of vapour calcu- 
lated, were the strait shut up, to lower the whole surface of 
the sea eight feet annually, — and even with the open strait, 
to add to its contents a proportionate quantity of salt. But 
an under-current of brine, which, from its gravity, seeks the 
bottom, flows out again to mingle with the waters of the 
great Arabian Sea, where, swept along by currents, and 
raised to the surface by tides and shoals, it is mingled by the 
waves through the other waters which yearly receiving the 
enormous monsoon torrents the Concan and the Ghauts supply, 
become diluted to the proper strength of sea water, and 
rendered uniform in their constitution, by the agitation of 

348 Dr George Buist on the 

the storms which then prevail. Flowing back again from 
the coasts of India, where they are now in excess, to those of 
Africa, where they suffer from perpetual drainage, the same 
round of operations goes on continually ; and the sea, with all 
its estuaries and its inlets, retains the same limit, and 
nearly the same constitution, for unnumbered ages. A like 
check prevents on shore the extreme heating and desiccation 
from which the ground would otherwise suffer. The earth is 
a bad conductor of heat ; the rays of the sun which enter its 
surface, and raise the temperature to 100 or 150°, scarcely 
penetrate a foot into the ground ; a little way beneath, the 
warmth of the soil is nearly the same night and day. The 
moisture which is there preserved free from the influence 
of currents of air, is never raised into vapour ; so soonas the 
upper stratum of earth becomes thoroughly dried, capillary 
action, by means of which all excess of water was withdrawn, 
ceases ; and even under the heats of the tropics, the soil 
two feet down will be found on the approach of the rains 
sufficiently moist for the nourishment of plants. The 
splendid flowers and vigorous foliage which burst forth in 
May, when the parched soil would lead us to look for nothing 
but sterility, need in no way surprise us ; fountains of water 
boundless in extent, and limited in depth by the thickness of 
the soil which contains them have been set aside, and sealed 
up for their use, beyond the reach of those thirsty winds or 
burning rays which are suffered only to carry off the liquid 
w r hich is superfluous and would be pernicious if left, removing 
it to other lands where its agency is required, or treasuring it 
up in the crystal vault of the firmament, as the material of 
clouds and dew, — and the source, when the fitting season 
comes round again, of those deluges of rain which provide for 
the wants of the year. 

Such are some of the examples which may be supplied of 
general laws operating over nearly the whole surface of the 
terraqueous globe. Amongst the local provisions ancillary to 
these, are the monsoons of India and the land and sea-breezes 
prevalent throughout the tropical coasts. When a promon- 
tory such as that of Hindostan intrudes into the region of the 
trade-winds, the continuous western current is interrupted, 
and in its room appear alternating currents from the north- 

Physical Geography of Hindostan. 349 

east and south-west, which change their direction as the 
sun passes the latitude of the place. On the Malabar Coast, 
as the sun approaches from the southward, clouds and 
variable winds attend him, and his transit northward is in a 
week or ten days followed by that furious burst of thunder 
and tempest which heralds the rainy season. His southward 
transit is less distinctly marked ; it is the sign of approach- 
ing fair weather, and is also attended by thunder and storm. 
The alternating land and sea-breezes are occasioned by the 
alternate heating and cooling of the soil, the temperature of 
the sea remaining nearly uniform. At present, when most 
powerfully felt, the earth by noon will often be found to have 
attained a temperature of 120°, while the sea rarely rises 
above 80°. The air, heated and expanded, of course ascends, 
and draws from the sea a fresh supply to fill its room ; the 
current thus generated constitutes the breeze. During the 
night the earth often sinks to a temperature of 50° or 60°, 
cooling the conterminous air, and condensing in the form 
of dew, the moisture floating around. The sea is now from 
15° to 20° warmer than the earth, — the greatest difference 
between the two existing at sunrise ; and in then rushes the 
air, and draws off a current from the shore. 

We have not noticed the Tides, which, obedient to the sun 
and moon, daily convey two vast masses of water round the 
globe, and which twice a month, rising to an unusual height, 
visit elevations which otherwise are dry. During one-half of 
the year the highest tides visit us by day the other half by 
night : and at Bombay, at springs, the depths of the two dif- 
fer by two or three feet from each other. The tides simply 
rise and fall in the open ocean, to an elevation oP two or three 
feet in all ; along our shores, and up gulfs and estuaries, 
they sweep with the violence of a torrent, having a general 
range of ten or twelve feet, — sometimes, as at Fundy in 
America, at Brest and Milford Haven in Europe, to a height 
of from forty to sixty feet. They sweep our shores from filth, 
and purify our rivers and inlets, affording to the residents of 
our islands and continents the benefit of a bi-diurnal ablution, 
and giving health and freshness and purity wherever they 
appear. Obedient to the influences of bodies many millions 

VOL. LVI. NO. CXII. — APRIL 1854. - 2 A 

360 Dr George Buist on the 

of miles removed from them, their subjection is not the less 
complete ; the vast volume of water, capable of crushing by 
its weight the most stupendous barriers that can be opposed 
to it, and bearing on its bosom the navies of the world, im- 
petuously rushing against our shores, gently stops at a given 
line, and flows back again to its place when the word goes 
forth — " thus far shalt thou go, and no farther ;" and that 
which no human power or contrivance could have repelled, 
returns at its appointed time so regularly and surely, that 
the hour of its approach, and measure of its mass, may be 
predicted with unerring certainty centuries beforehand. The 
hurricanes which whirl with such fearful violence over the 
surface, raising the waters of the sea to enormous elevations, 
and submerging coasts and islands, — attended as they are by 
the fearful attributes of thunder and deluges of rain, — seem 
requisite to deflagrate the noxious gases which have accu- 
mulated — to commingle in one healthful mass the polluted 
elements of the air, and restore it fitted for the ends designed 
for it. It is with the ordinary, not with the exceptional, 
operations we have at present to deal, and the laws which 
rule the hurricane form themselves the subject of a treatise. 

We have hitherto dealt with the sea and air, — the one 
the medium through which the commerce of all nations is 
transported, the other the means by which it is moved along,— 
as themselves the great vehicles of moisture, heat, and cold, 
throughout the regions of the world — the means of securing 
the interchange of these inestimable commodities, so that 
excess may be removed to where deficiency exists, deficiency 
substituted for excess, to the unbounded advantage of all. 
We have selected this group of illustrations for our views, be- 
cause they are the most obvious, the most simple, and the 
most intelligible and beautiful, that could be chosen. Short 
as our space is, and largely as it has already been trenched 
upon, we must not confine ourselves to these. 

We have already said that the atmosphere forms a 
spherical shell surrounding the earth to a depth which is 
unknown to us by reason of its growing tenuity, as it is re- 
leased from the pressure of its own superincumbent mass. 
Its upper surface cannot be nearer to us than fifty, and can 

Physical Geography of Hindostan. 351 

scarcely be more remote than five hundred miles. It sur- 
rounds us on all sides, yet we see it not : it presses on us with 
a load of fifteen pounds on every square inch of surface of our 
bodies, or from seventy to one hundred tons on us all, yet we do 
not so much as feel its weight. Softer than the finest down — 
more impalpable than the finest gossamer, — it leaves the 
cobweb undisturbed, and scarcely stirs the slightest flower 
that feeds on the dew it supplies ; yet it bears the fleets of 
nations on its wings around the world, and crushes the most 
refractory substances with its weight. When in motion, its 
force is sufficient to level the most stately forests and stable 
buildings with the earth — to raise the waters of the ocean 
into ridges like mountains, and dash the strongest ships to 
pieces like toys. It warms and cools by turns the earth and 
the living creatures that inhabit it. It draws up vapours 
from the sea and land, retains them dissolved in itself or 
suspended in cisterns of clouds, and throws them down 
again as rain or dew when they are required. It bends the 
rays of the sun from their path to give us the twilight of 
evening and of dawn — it disperses and refracts their various 
tints to beautify the approach and the retreat of the orb of 
day. But for the atmosphere, sunshine would burst on us 
and fail us at once — and at once remove us from midnight 
darkness to the blaze of noon. We should have no twilight 
to soften and beautify the landscape — no clouds to shade us 
from the scorching heat, — but the bald earth as it revolved 
on its axis would turn its tanned and weathered front to the 
full and unmitigated rays of the lord of day. It affords the 
gas which vivifies and warms our frames, and receives into 
itself that which had been polluted by use, and is thrown off 
as noxious. It feeds the flame of life exactly as it does that 
of the fire — it is in both cases consumed, and affords the food 
of consumption — in both cases it becomes combined with 
charcoal, which requires it for combustion, and is removed by 
it when this is over. «' It is only the girdling encircling air," 
says a writer in the North British Review, " that flows above 
and around all, that makes the whole world kin. The car- 
bonic acid with which to-day our breathing fills the air, to- 
morrow seeks its way round the world. The date-trees that 

2 A2 

352 On the Physical Geography of Hindostan. 

grow round the falls of the Nile will drink it in by their 
leaves ; the cedars of Lebanon will take of it to add to their 
stature ; the cocoa-nuts of Tahiti will grow rapidly upon it ; 
and the palms and bananas of Japan will change it into 
flowers. The oxygen we are breathing was distilled for us 
some short time ago by the magnolias of Susquehama, and 
the great trees that skirt the Orinoco and the Amazon — the 
giant rhododendrons of the Himalayas contributed to it, and 
the roses and myrtles of Cashmere, the cinnamon tree of 
Ceylon, and the forests older than the flood, buried deep in 
the heart of Africa far behind the Mountains of the Moon. 
The rain we see descending was thawed for us out of the 
icebergs which have watched the Polar star for ages ; and the 
lotus lilies have soaked up from the Nile and exhaled as va- 
pour snows that rested on the summits of the Alps." " The 
atmosphere,"" says Maun, " which forms the outer surface of 
the habitable world, is a vast reservoir, into which the supply 
of food designed for living creatures is thrown, — or, in one 
word, it is itself the food in its simple form of all living 
creatures. The animal grinds down the fibre and the tissue 
of the plant, or the nutritious store that has been laid up 
within its cells, and converts these into the substance of 
which its own organs are composed. The plant acquires the 
organs and nutritious store thus yielded up as food to the 
animal, from the invulnerable air surrounding it." But 
animals are furnished with the means of locomotion and of 
seizure — they can approach their food, and lay hold of and 
swallow it ; plants must await till their food comes to them. 
No solid particles find access to their frames ; the restless 
ambient air, which rushes past them loaded with the carbon, 
the hydrogen, the oxygen, the water — everything they need 
in shape of supplies, — is constantly at hand to minister to 
their wants, not only to afford them food in due season, but 
in the shape and fashion in which alone it can avail them. 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

(Continued from page 152.) 

X. Antimony Formation. — The principal, and, for the 
most part, sole representative of this formation, is antimonite. 
With regard to the periods of formation, of which there may 
be several, it may be regarded as certain that it is more re- 
cent than the argentiferous and auriferous quartz, and an- 
terior to the fluo-barytic formations. It is indeed stated to 
occur likewise in the clinoedritic formation. Its bedding is 
quartz, rarely ever absent. 

It is a remarkable circumstance that antimonite has al- 
ways been found to contain at least a trace of gold. In 
some localities the proportion is sufficiently large for extrac- 
tion, and even metallic gold is sometimes associated with it. 
The antimonial minerals by which it is accompanied are 
kermes, zundererz, berthierite, zinkenite, plagionite, wolfs- 
bergite, &c. Galena and blende are likewise associated with 
it sometimes. Barytite occurs frequently implanted. 

The lodes at Wolfsberg (Harz) probably present the great- 
est variety of constituent minerals, but scarcely anything is 
known of their order of succession. 

XI. Manganese and Iron Formation. — Hematite, specular 
iron, and more rarely common brown hematite, are frequently 
associated with the manganese oxides, especially pyrolusite* 
which is pseudomorphous, partly after manganite, partly but 
less frequently after polianite. In some instances the man- 
ganite and polianite have been found in their normal state. 
In addition to these occur psilomelan, more rarely braurite 
and hausmannite. The pseudomorphs after all of these 
minerals are very numerous. At Laisa (Hesse Darmstadt) 
there occurs very fine pseudomorphous pyrolusite after man- 
ganite ; and it would appear that in some instances psilome- 
lan has been converted into pyrolusite, and that the man- 
ganese in black, reniform masses, compact and without 
lustre in the interior, are of this nature. 

In Saxony the association of iron and manganese oxides 
appears to indicate that the former were first precipitated. 

354 On the Pa rag en e tic Relations of Minerals. 

The iron oxides then contain at least traces of manganese, 
while the manganese oxides are free from iron. This fact 
is in accordance with the chemical fact, that when a solution 
of iron and manganese peroxides is treated with ammonia, 
the iron is first precipitated. However, at the Thuringer 
wald, hematite appears to follow manganese oxides, but this 
may be connected, in some manner, with the subsequent dis- 
locations which the lodes have suffered. 

There are many lodes in which iron oxides or manganese 
oxides occur separately. They appear in Saxony to be iden- 
tical with amethyst lodes, in which manganese or iron oxides 

This formation is closely connected with barytite, and it is 
known that baryta is present in most ores of manganese. 
However, the barytite is always implanted upon the manga- 
nese, and for this reason it will be treated of in the next 
section. Barytite has been observed implanted upon hema- 
tite, which occurs, on the other hand, above fluorite and 
calcite, as do manganese oxides above calcite, although indeed 
the former presence of these spathic]minerals may only be in- 
dicated by pseudomorphs. The paragenesis of manganese 
oxides with calcite is remarkable. Pyrolusite and varvicite, 
which have originated from manganite, occur pseudomorph- 
ous after calcite, the apices of the scalenoedrous still con- 
sisting of calcite, and the metamorphosis may easily be seen 
to have originated from the saalbands. 

It would seem that this formation belongs to nearly, if not 
the same period as the fluo-barytic, barytite appearing as 
the latest member ; but a closer acquaintance with the for- 
mation must decide this point. 

The most recent rock in which the manganese and iron 
formation occurs is phonolite. 

The general peculiarities of the lodes of this formation are 
as follow : — 

1. Sulphurets are almost altogether absent. 

2. Pseudomorphs are more numerous here than in any 
other formation. It may without exaggeration be said that 
there is not any manganese lode in which at least one kind 
of metamorphosis has not taken place. The majority of 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 355 

manganese minerals are pseudomorphous, and the iron 
minerals are likewise rich in pseudomorphs. 

3. A certain simplicity in the substances contained in these 
lodes is obvious. The reason has yet to be ascertained why 
the more valuable metals are almost altogether wanting, 
and why the lodes of other formations are poor in ore in the 
neighbourhood of manganese iron lodes,Jas at Johanngeor- 
genstadt ; and there is reason to believe that an examina- 
tion of this phenomenon would lead to interesting results. 

XII. Fluo-barytic Formation. — This formation, when con- 
sidered in conjunction with the minerals imbedded in it, is 
certainly inferior to none in either technical or scientific in- 
terest. For convenience sake, it will be better to overlook at 
first the occurrence in it of useful ores, a proceeding which is 
also justified by the fact, that many lodes of considerable 
magnitude belonging to this formation are known, in which 
no traces of either of those minerals have been found. 

The great distribution of the minerals constituting this 
formation becomes more strikingly ' apparent, when it is re- 
membered that they are found here and there, covering most 
of the formations previously mentioned, and that they serve as 
support for five of the following formations. It might indeed 
be advantageous to class all the known lode formations as, 1, 
Those older than the fluo-barytic ; 2, Those contemporaneous 
with ; and 3, Those which are more recent than it. 

The two most important minerals of this formation are, as 
its name indicates, fluorite and barytite. In most of the lodes 
of this formation they may be regarded as constant associates. 
However they do occur apart, and this is true more especially 
of the barytite. 

The largest known lode of fluorite is that at Liebenstein 
(Meiningen), called the Flossberg, and traversing zechstein. 
Barytite lodes are often very large, for instance in Saxony, 
and likewise very numerous. Miiller enumerates 1052 known 
in the Erzgebirge through mining operations, and probably 
this number is insignificant compared with that of the lodes 
which are unknown. 

In some instances coclestine occurs together with barytite, 
or as its substitute. 

356 On the Pamgenetic Relations of Minerals, 

Among the carbonites belonging to this formation may be 
named, as most important, pearl-spar, the lightest of the so- 
called brown spars, and tautokin, characterised by its far great- 
er density. It is much to be desired that these two minerals, 
so interesting as regards the geognosy of lodes, should be ex- 
amined chemically. The analyses of brown spars are indeed 
numerous, but in the absence of data for the angles and den- 
sities, they are comparatively valueless to the mineralogist. 
When associated with barytite, the former of these minerals 
is seated under, the latter upon it. Chalybite and some 
varieties of calcite are likewise frequent associates. On the 
contrary, witherite, strontite, alstonite, barytocalcite, and 
neotype occur but rarely, and only in particular limited lo- 
calities. Pinguite, chloropal, and hyposiderite, must be re- 
garded as altogether sporadic, and rare productions of recent 

Quartz again is frequent, partly as the bedding of the for- 
mation, more frequently as a subsequent production ; in the 
latter case constituting a large number of pseudomorphs. 

Even the barytite presents, although rarely, impressions 
of crystalline minerals immediately antecedent to it, shewing 
that the formation of barytite was here and there connected 
with the destruction of previously existing minerals. 

Fluorite and barytite have been decomposed even still more 
frequently. These two minerals, and likewise the implanted 
calcite, have been removed, particularly during and still more 
after the formation of the more recent quartz. Hence origi- 
nate the extremely numerous quartz and horn stone pseudo- 
morphs after those minerals. They are partly incrustation, 
partly replacement pseudomorphs, sometimes both. The 
numerous tabular impressions in the quartz and galena of 
Andreasberg (Harz) shew clearly that barytite once existed 
there in great quantity, although at the present time not a 
particle is to be found, and baryta occurs there only in the 
hornstone of the more recent zeolite formation. In the Kur- 
pring Friedrich August mine at Freiberg, the barytite has 
partially disappeared, and pseudomorphous quartz occupies 
its place. Witherite produced by the alteration of barytite, 
is of rare occurrence, and in all probability owed its origin, 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 357 

like the aphrite produced from gypsum, to streams of car- 
bonic acid. 

In no other formation are repetitions of the same consti- 
tuents so numerous as in this ; three or four are frequent, 
and in the Reich er Seegen mine at Sachsenburg, pearl-spar, 
barytite, and tautoklin, are repeated at one place twenty -two 
times, without a vestige of ore. 

The minerals occurring in the fluo-barytic lodes will be 
considered under the head of the following formations, with 
the exception of the iron pyrites, because here this mineral, 
whether alone or associated with others, always presents a 
characteristic chemical feature — it is arseniferous. It is highly 
probable that iron pyrites very generally contains arsenic, 
although in too small a proportion to be easily recognised. 
Fritzsche likewise found in the pyrites of this formation, co- 
balt and nickel to the amount of 1 per cent. On the contrary, 
pyrites occurring imbedded or disseminated in slate and 
other rocks, gave no indications of arsenic. Even iron pyrites 
locally implanted upon arsenical pyrites in old formations 
gave no sign of arsenic. 

The question of the origin of the barytite contained in the 
lodes naturally suggests itself. When it is remembered that 
this mineral is almost always accompanied by sulphurets 
and arseniurets, which can only have been derived from the 
interior of the earth, we perhaps cannot do otherwise than 
assume that its source was the same. But in what state \ 
Certainly not as a melted mass, scarcely as an aqueous solu- 
tion. Professor Breithaupt is disposed to consider that it 
was introduced into the lodes as sulphuret of barium, and 
subsequently oxidised, and believes the probability that the 
interior of the earth consists chiefly of metallic sulphurets 
to be a sufficient ground for this opinion. 

XIII. Later Cobalt and Nickel Formation, Group A. — 
The constituents of this formation at Schladming (Styria), and 
Oberwallis (Switzerland), are — 1. The variety of rothnickelkies, 
whose specific gravity is 7*3, always containing a small per- 
centage of sulphur, and probably constituting a distinct spe- 
cies. 2. That variety of nickel-glance called gersdorfite or 
stirian. True spiescobalt, metallic arsenic, and even arse- 

358 On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

nical pyrites, are said to occur at Schladrning. If the latter 
mineral is really present, it may perhaps indicate that the 
lode is of very remote date. Calcite is a recent member. 

Judging from the little known of a cobalt and nickel for- 
mation in the Pyrenees, it is not improbable that it should 
be included under this group. 

Group B occurs principally in the Saxon Voigtland, the 
Harz, Nassau, Hungary, and Missouri. It is principally 
imbedded in spathic iron, and can scarcely be regarded as 
other than sporadic. Nickel is more abundant than cobalt. 

The lodes of this group present in a marked manner the 
peculiar characters of these deposits ; their saalbands inter- 
sect the rock, especially when it has a schistose structure. 
The principal minerals are linneite and the less dense varie- 
ties of nickel-glance, amoibite, and gray nickelkies. Although 
galena is sometimes found, the other members of the pyritic 
formation — zinc-blende and arsenical pyrites — are entirely 

With regard to the succession of pyritic arseniurets and 
sulphurets in general, the same uniformity obtains, which is 
more prominent in the third group of this formation. 

1. The mono-arseniurets have been formed prior to the 
binarseniurets, and it has already been pointed out that this 
is the case with sulphurets. 

2. The arseniurets have been formed before the sulphurets. 
Group C. — Perhaps the purest cobalt minerals occur at 

Schneeberg and Allemont ; at other places nickel minerals 
preponderate; and probably there is in general a greater 
quantity of nickel than of cobalt. The association of mine- 
rals containing gold and silver may serve to characterize this 

Spathic iron seldom occurs as the bedding ; and when it 
does there is an approximation to the previous group. Bary- 
tite is particularly characteristic, although sometimes its 
existence is only indicated by pseudomorphs, it having been 
removed during, or rather after, the subsequent formation of 
quartz. This quartz contains traces of cobalt. It may in 
general be assumed that the more abundant the later quartz 
above heavy spar, the more the latter has been removed. 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 359 

Still the bedding of heavy spar is not always wanting, even 
at Schneeberg, and then the auriferous and argentiferous 
minerals are generally associated with it. Calcite has like- 
wise frequently been decomposed during the formation of 
quartz, which is often pseudomorphous after it, and these 
pseudomorphs sometimes present regular twins, in which one 
primary rhombohedron of quartz is joined parallel to the 
plane — J R of the calcite crystal. 

Moreover, the lode quartz in this formation is always dif- 
ferent from the rock quartz, — the latter having a fatty, the 
former a vitreous lustre ; sometimes also being in the form of 
amethyst. The presence of quartz older than barytite, as 
well as the association of quartz in general, distinguishes 
this group from the previous and following group, from 
which quartz is entirely absent. 

Group D. — Although very little is known of the occurrence 
of cobalt and nickel in the rocks of the coal formation, it 
still appears desirable to call attention to the fact. Cotta 
states that at the Regenberg (Gotha) asbolan occurs in lodes 
in carboniferous sandstone, so frequently as to admit of being 
worked advantageously. 

At Bockwa (Saxony) there was found, a few years since, 
upon small lodes in the upper pitch coal-seams, erythrine, 
— a mineral which must always be regarded as a product 
of decomposition ; and as iron pyrites, copper pyrites, ga- 
lena, and zinc-blende, likewise occur in lode fissures of the 
coal-seams of Saxony, it is very probable that this erythrine 
has originated from some pyritic mineral containing an es- 
sential admixture of cobalt and arsenic. However insignifi- 
cant this phenomenon may be, it nevertheless gives a hint as 
to the date of the formation in question. 

Group E. — The lodes belonging to this group are situated 
in cupreous slate, and the overlying members of the zech- 
stein. If greywacke, clay- slate, or granite, lie immediately 
under the zechstein, cupreous slate and old red sandstone 
being wanting, the lodes continue productive, although to an 
inconsiderable distance, in the older rocks. Wheu the lodes 
bear barytite, they extend to some depth, but are unproduc- 

3G0 On the Paragenctic Relations of Minerals. 

tive. They do not bear ore either in the old red sandstone or 
the schistose rocks, except when covered by the zechstein. 

It may perhaps be assumed that a sudden eruption of 
substances containing metals, especially copper, took place 
in the sea from which the cupreous slate and other members 
of the zechstein were deposited, and undoubtedly from lode 
fissures. The contorted position of the fish in the cupreous 
slate is a sufficient evidence of their sudden death. A si- 
milar opinion was already entertained by Werner ; but the 
metallic substances with which the sea was impregnated 
were not precipitated at once, and probably not entirely 
until the formation of zechstein was completed. In several 
parts of this series — for instance, at the south-western 
Rothenberge — to nearly 150 feet above the cupreous slate, 
nodules, and disseminated masses of copper pyrites, are 
found, which have been partially converted into malachite 
and brown iron ochre. If, then, cupreous slate is of sedi- 
mentary origin, still the copper, silver, and other metals pre- 
sent in it, have been derived from eruptions through lode 
fissures. If there were any clue to these lodes, it is probable 
that they will be found to yield rich supplies of ore. 

The true primitive cobalt and nickel minerals usually occur 
in lodes called " riicken," because they are almost always con- 
nected with elevation or depression of the sedimentary rocks, 
partly in cupreous slate alone or in weissliegenden, or when 
it and the old red sandstone are wanting, somewhat lower 
down in the slate rocks ; partly, but generally only for short 
distances, in the upper zechstein. The vertical height of the 
lodes is consequently in many cases very limited. Although, 
in some districts where this formation exists, the occurrence 
of the minerals above the cupreous slate is unknown, it is 
certainly the case near Saalfeld. But under all circumstances, 
where the lodes are continued in the rothliegenden or schis- 
tose rocks, they are wholly unproductive where the covering 
of zechstein is wanting. 

Although no true cobalt or nickel minerals are found 
even in cupreous slate, when it has no " riicken,'' still there 
is at Saalfeld, sometimes in the delicate fissures parallel to 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 361 

the planes of stratification, a coating of erythrine, together 
with malachite and chessylite ; moreover, cobalt has been 
detected by analysis as one among the numerous ingredients 
of this slate. Vanadium has likewise been met with recently 
in the Mansfeld slags ; it has probably originated from some 
cupreous mineral, in which it existed as a substitute of anti- 
mony or arsenic. 

Friesleben expressly states that cobalt and nickel minerals 
occur less in cupreous slate itself than in the riicken, — i.e. 
in the lodes traversing it, or when actually in the slate, in the 
immediate proximity of these riicken. 

All these circumstances render it probable that the con- 
tents of the lodes called " riicken" have been formed by la- 
teral secretion, the more so as they do not extend downward 
to any depth. A direct ascension is thus out of the question 
here. Quartz would, in such a case, have been brought up 
from the granite and greywacke slate, but there is no trace 
of quartz or of silicates. It is not improbable that the car- 
bonaceous matter of the cupreous slate has chiefly contri- 
buted, by reduction, to the formation of the pyritic minerals, 
containing also cobalt, nickel, and arsenic. 

Asbolan, or black erdcobalt, is one of the minerals which 
contains cobalt with traces of nickel. This occurs in the 
lodes above the cupreous slate ; in zechstein, which is espe- 
cially rich in hydrated oxide of iron; indeed, the lodes which 
bear it do not even extend into the cupreous slate, and ap- 
pear to be fissures formed by drying, with which zechstein 
abounds. It has been found by experience that the asbolan 
near Saalfeld decreases as the cupreous slate is approached. 
The stalactitic form, and the considerable percentage of 
water in asbolan, may perhaps be evidence in favour of its 
being an infiltration product. The large quantity of manga- 
nese in asbolan may be accounted for by the fact, that the 
spathic iron, from which the hydrated oxide of iron has prin- 
cipally originated, contains manganese. 

As might be expected, the group in question of the cobalt 
nickel formation, is not deficient in the associates of cupreous 
minerals. In the Mansfeld district they are not very abun- 
dant on the riicken in cupreous slate and wiesliegenden, still 

362 On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

copper glance occurs, and as a rarity, digenite. At Saalfeld 
the cupreous minerals occur in the lodes, especially above 
the cupreous slate, and even when this is absent ; because, 
as has been stated, the beds of zechstein are partially im- 
pregnated with cupreous minerals ; rich deposits of fahlerz, 
copper pyrites, and barytite, together with the numerous 
products of these minerals, have been found here in zechstein. 
The fahlerz generally contains cobalt, a fact which accounts 
for the efflorescence of erythrine from it; the most usual de- 
rivative is, however, the so-called ferruginous copper green. 
Erythrine has been found upon fahlerz, and indeed upon 
the crystal planes, where they appear somewhat decomposed, 
without any other mineral containing cobalt being visible 
among its associates. Such fahlerz contains even some ar- 
senic. Still it is stated that rothnickelkies and spiess-cobalt 
have been met with in lodes at a considerable elevation 
above the cupreous slate. But all the minerals with a me- 
tallic lustre here mentioned are known to occur at Saalfeld 
in lodes, in cupreous slate, or immediately beneath it, the 
latter especially at Kaulsdorf. 

According to Friesleben the cupreous slate, especially at 
Mansfeld, appears to be richer near the riicken rather than 
otherwise. This fact may be regarded as a further proof 
that the metallic substances have generally accumulated 
towards the riicken. 

Barytite as a lode substance, is a very constant associate 
at all depths ; but it is remarkable that it is always more re- 
cent than the fahlerz, and older than the pyritic minerals con- 
taining cobalt and nickel. For this reason, perhaps, the 
fahlerz is wanting in the riicken of copper — slate, and weiss- 
liegenden, heavy spar being there the oldest member. Calc- 
spar and arragonite appear as more recent members, and it 
is only in some few instances that there is a second genera- 
tion of copper pyrites, almost solely in very small crystals 
upon the calc-spar. In the immense and long-worked 
deposits of brown iron ore at Kbnitz, Kamsdorf, and Saalfeld, 
which belong to the zechstein, and have, perhaps, entirely 
originated from spathic iron, as is indicated by the frequent 
pseudomorphs, and the association of compact and frothy 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 363 

wad — the usually accessory derivatives of this mineral, — 
barytite is, in all instances, more recent than spathic iron or 
brown iron ore, and lies in numerous veins in them. 

The fahlerz and copper pyrites belong only or principally 
to lodes in zechstein above the cupreous slate, and the fah- 
lerz has most likely not often been found without a covering 
of heavy spar. Here, as in all other formations, it has been 
found that it is richer in silver when accompanied by little 
or no copper pyrites. The galena, which occurs very 
rarely indeed, may perhaps be referred to the same date as 
the fahlerz. If, then, the barytite is taken as the boundary, 
two formations must be distinguished in the lodes, — that of 
fahlerz and that of cobalt and nickel minerals, even although 
they may be very closely connected. This distinction is 
supported by the circumstance that barytite has not been 
deposited upon the first formation until after the fahlerz has 
suffered decomposition. Consequently, the constituents of 
the fahlerz must have first been set in motion, and those of 
the cobalt and nickel minerals afterwards. 

Sometimes the minerals whose formation has preceded 
that of the barytite are mixed up together with those which 
have been formed subsequently, partly in a fractured state, 
and even so-called spheroidal masses are found ; phenomena 
which undoubtedly indicate violent disturbances of the lodes. 
At the Neidhammeler-zuge, near Saalfeld, fragments of fer- 
ruginous zechstein are surrounded by fahlerz, copper 
pyrites, barytite, and then the numerous decomposition pro- 
ducts, ferruginous copper green, copper lazure, malachite, 
erythrine, kupferschaum, &c. Yellow and brown earthy 
cobalt and copper — manganese ore likewise occur here, — and 
these originated either from the hardening of mud, or are de- 
composition products, — and ochery hydrated oxide of iron, 
impregnated with oxide of cobalt. Even metallic copper has 
in some rare instances been found in spike-shaped distorted 
crystals, entirely surrounded by brown iron ochre. 

In the riicken of Schweina and Gliicksbrunn spies cobalt 
is the only abundant primitive mineral of the cobalt nickel 
formation ; roth nick elkies with chloanthite is rare. Bis- 
muth appears to be entirely wanting. The lodes, moreover, 

364 On the Paragenetlc Relations of Minerals. 

bear ore only to the depth of a few yards, corresponding to 
the thickness of the cupreous slate, and the weissliegenden. 
In the rothliegenden and in granite they terminate abruptly. 
(This is likewise the case in the riicken of Sangerhausen 
and Rothenburg, where rothnickelkies and nickel-glance pre- 
dominate almost to the entire exclusion of spies cobalt.) In 
the Riechelsdorf lodes pyrites containing nickel and cobalt 
occur in the zechstein above the cupreous slate, although 
near to it, and extend to a small distance beneath it. Traces 
of bismuth have also been met with here. 

According to previous observation, gold and silver mine- 
rals are altogether absent from this formation ; still the 
fahlerz contains as much as J per cent, of silver, and although 
this mineral, strictly speaking, does not belong to this group 
of the formation which commences with heavy spar, as has 
been shewn, it has been included because it appears in the 
same lodes, and because it not unfrequently contains cobalt. 

As regards the great variety of minerals occurring in the 
lodes, the Saalfeld district is the most important. 

It must be admitted that these five groups of the cobalt 
nickel formation cannot be referred to one and the same 
period, but must, perhaps, be separated into several lode 
formations. The Chilian is undoubtedly distinct, and should 
perhaps be placed immediately after the fifth formation. 
Again, a group which includes lode quartz as an essential con- 
stituent should, perhaps, be separated from one in which it is 
absent. The want of observations respecting the relative age 
of the individual lodes in which cobalt and nickel minerals 
occur, the absence of spathic iron, and especially of barytite, 
or their pseudomorphs, in some places have rendered it 
necessary to consider under one head groups of minerals 
which will, without doubt, hereafter be found to differ. 
Still the course here adopted has the advantage of present- 
ing a connected view of the known modes of occurrence of 
bodies which in a mineral ogical, chemical, and geognostical 
point of view are very closely related. 

Further, the localities enumerated admit of the conclusion 
being drawn, that the most recent group belongs to a period 
between the completion of the old coal formation, and but 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 305 

little subsequent to the zechstein ; up to the present time 
at least, it is not known that cobalt or nickel minerals occur 
in a sedimentary formation more recent than the latter. 

XIV. Barytic, Lead, and Zinc Formation. — Although this 
formation is characterised as barytic, the most frequent 
Iodic substance next to barytite is fluorspar. The lodes may 
in other respects be classified into two groups, according to 
the presence or absence of quartz. 

Among the minerals galena is the most characteristic. It 
is generally poor in silver, irt some rarer instances without 
any. There is perhaps no other formation of which it is an 
essential member where it has suffered so many alterations. 
The most ordinary products of decomposition are cerussite, 
hyromorphite, mimetite, anglesite, leadhilite, phosgenite, 
mendipite, plumbocalcite, and the very rare schwebleinz 
(superoxide of lead). 

(To be concluded in our next Number.) 

On the Fossil Plants found in Amber. By Professor 


[Berlin Academy, Bulletin, 1853, pp. 450-476 ; and Leonhard u. Bronn's N. 
Jahrb. f. Min. u.s.w. 1853, pp. 745-749.] 

Since Prof. Goeppert recognised the Taxodites dubius of Stern- 
berg, which occurs abundantly in the plant-bed at Schosnitz, Silesia, 
as the Taxodium distichum, Rich., now living in the southern parts 
of the United States and in Mexico, and found also some fossil Plants 
from Schosnitz to be identical with living species, thus pointing out 
the identity of some tertiary plants with the living, he has had the 
opportunity of examining a collection of 570 specimens of Amber, 
containing plant-remains, belonging to M. Menge of Dantzig, and 
30 specimens bequeathed by M. Berendt. With these the author 
has been enabled to raise the number of the species of plants in the 
Amber Flora from 44 to 163, of which only Libocedrites salicor- 
nioides and Taxodites Europceus occur fossil out of the Amber, and 
30 are identical with existing species. The constitution of the 
Amber Flora, as at present known, is shewn in the following table.* 

* For the lists of genera and species, see the works ahove referred to. 
VOL. LVl. NO. CXII. — APRIL 1854. 2 B 

366 Professor Goeppert on the 

Number of Number identical with 
Species. existing Species. 

Plants cellulares. 

I. Fungi 16 4, certainly ; perhaps all. 

II. Alga? 1 1 

{6 or 7 (with species on 
the E. and W. coasts of 
Arctic America.) 
IV. Musci hepatici : *) OA . , - , ., 

Jungermanniea. j 39 Hymens « » 

V. Musci frondosi 19 ( V 3 > «* rtain ly ; P er " 

[ haps all. 
Plants vascularis. 
III. Cryptogamae (Acotyledones.) 
Pecopteris Humboldtana, Gopp. & Behr. 
IV. Monocotyledones. 

Carex eximia, Gopp. and Menge. 


Alisma plantaginoides, Gopp. & Menge. 
V. Gymnospermae. 

Cupressineae 20 2 

Abietineae 31* 1 

Gnetacese 1 

VI. Monochlamydeae. 

Betulaceae 2 

Cupuliferae 10 

Salicineae 3 

VII. Corolli florae. 

Ericineae 22 3 

Vaccineae 1 

Primulaceae 2 

Verbasceas 2 1 

Solaneae 1 

Scrophularineae 1 

Lonicereae 1 

VIII. Choristopetalae. 


Crassulaceae 1 1 

The whole Flora as yet known consists of 24 Families, 64 Ge- 
nera ; comprising 163 species. t 

The following are the general results of Prof. Goeppert's re- 

A considerable number of tertiary species of plants (especially 
Plantce cellulares) are still living. 

* Of these, eight (the species determined from the fossil woodj afford Amber. 
t The number of species may probably be raised to about 180, by additions 
from about 50 specimens of which the relations are barely determinable. 

Fossil Plants found in Amber. 367 

The flora of the Amber being destitute of tropical and sub-tropical 
forms, it is to be referred to the Pliocene period. 

The remains only of forest-plants have been preserved in the 

This flora much resembles the present, especially in the Cellular 
plants ; the Cupressinece, however, are now almost wholly wanting in 
our latitudes, and the Abietinece and the Ericinece are not abundant. 
The four species, of Thuia, Andromeda, and Sedum, which are iden- 
tical with the living, are indeed northern forms ; on the other hand, 
the Libocedrus Chilensis is found on the Andes of Southern Chili. 

The flora of the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America, is 
at present less rich in species of Cupressinece and Abietinece than 
that of the Amber, although it possesses some of the species found 
in the latter ; nor are the existing northern species of Coniferce so 
rich in resinous products as were the trees of the Amber-flora with 
which the Dammara Australis of New Zealand can alone in this re- 
spect be compared, the branches and twigs of this tree being stiff 
with white resin-drops. 

If we take into consideration the enormous extent which the forests 

Abies alba, Abies ovata, 

nigra, Larix Dahurica, 

balsamea, — Sibirica, and 

Sibirica, Pinus Cembra, 

at present attain in North America and Northern Asia, we are led 
to infer a similar extension in former times of the Amber-forests 
throughout the northern regions ; to which, indeed, the wide distri- 
bution of amber in the late tertiary deposits of North America, 
Holland, North Germany, Russia, and Siberia to Kamtschatka, bears 

If we judge from the proportion which the fir-forests bear to the 
rest of our northern flora generally, we shall infer, from the preva- 
lence of the Coniferce, in the Amber, the existence of a very rich 
flora contemporaneous with the latter, and of which but a small part 
has as yet been presented to our notice. Germany contains 6800 
species of Cryptogamce, according to Rabenhorst, and 3454 species of 
Phanerogamce, according to Koch. The proportions are — 

The German Flora. The Amber Flop . 

Species. Classes. Spec! 

Cryptogams 8 6800 6 60 

Families. Species. Families. Species. 

Phanerogamse 135 3454 20 102 

Cupuliferse ... 12 10 

Ericineae ... 23 24 

Proportion of trees and plants .. j g ^ 1 =1:10 • • • { 9 q j = 10 = 1 


868 On the Fossil Plants found in Anther. 

Amber is never found isolated in large or small masses in the 
bituminous wood of the Brown-coal with resin-ducts of a single row 
of cells, which never contain yellow masses of resin, but only dark- 
brown transparent resin-drops, as in the Cupressinece, or the Cupres- 
sinoxylon of Goeppert. The compound resin-ducts of tha Abietinem 
alone are filled with amber. 

It is probable that the amber and its plant-remains have been 
drifted to the places in which they are now found. The author 
knows of no well-authenticated instance of the occurrence of amber 
in the Brown-coal formation itself; it occurs in the drift-beds above 
it, where, however, it does not appear to have originally belonged. 
Scheerer has found it in Norway ; Von Brevern, atG ischiginsk in 
Kamtschatka ; Rink, in Haven Island, near Disco Island, Green- 
land ; and in these instances it is generally in drift-beds. The sup- 
position, however, that it belongs to the Drift-period is difficult to 
substantiate, the flora of that period being as yet but little known. 
The stomach of the fossil Mastodon found in New Jersey contained 
twigs of Thuja occidentalis (found in the Amber-flora) ; and in the 
Erie Canal, in New York State, at a depth of 118 feet there have 
been found freshwater shells, together with portions of Abies Cana- 
densis, which still grows in the neighbourhood, and leaves of which 
are recognised (though with some doubt) in the amber. The fossil 
wood of the Drift-beds of Siberia, also, is nearly related to that of 
the present day.* 

The height at which amber is found at the Castle on the Riesen- 
gebirge near Helmsdorf is nearly 1250 feet [German] above the sea 
level, and at Grossman's Factory near Tannhausen, at 1350 feet. 

The amber is not derived from one species of wood only (Pinites 
succinifer), as Professor Goeppert formerly thought, but also from 
eight other species, including the Pinus Rinkianus, in which Vau- 
pelt observed the amber of Disco Island. 

It is probable that all the A bietince, and perhaps the Cupressinece, 
have furnished their share of the resinous matter (at first consisting 
of various specifically different resins) that afterwards by fossiliza- 
tion became amber ; and this is supported by the author's experi- 
ments in the formation of amber from resin by the wet process, as 
in his experiments on the formation of coal from recent plants.f 

In form the amber is either like drops, indicative of a former semi- 
fluid condition, or as the casts of resin-ducts and cavities. Large 
nodular masses occur, which must have been accumulated in the 
lower part of the stem or the root, as in the Copal trees. — (Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society, vol. x., No. 37.) 

* See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. vi. Part 2. Miscell. p. 66.— Tkansl. 
t Ibid., p. 33.— Tkansl. 




1. Climate of Finmarken. — " I shall here add," says Professor 
Forbes, " a few particulars which give a general idea of the climate 
of this part of Norway. For eleven years (1837-48), the average 
temperature at 9 a.m. was 34°*50 ; at 9 p.m., 32°-83 ; mean 33 0, 66. 
Von Buch estimated it, solely from the upper level of the Pine 
(640 feet above the sea), at nearly 1° Reaumur, or 34 0, 25 
Fahrenheit, a remarkable coincidence. The mean temperature of 
February, which is decidedly the coldest month, is 15°*4; and of 
August, which is usually the hottest, 54°- 3. This range is, how- 
ever, small, compared with the actual extremes on particular days, 
which I find to be the following, during three years, for which they 
are specified; but of which those for 1848 only are certainly taken 
with self-registering instruments : — 

1846. 1847. 1848. 

Maximum 83°3 84°7 86°-9 

Minimum 14-8 3 -1 20 2 

Range 98-1 87*8 107 -1 

Hence it appears that the thermometer rarely, if ever, falls below 
the zero of Fahrenheit, whilst there is not, perhaps, another part of 
the earth's surface on this parallel where mercury does not freeze in 
winter. The fall of rain and snow in these three years was only 
18 # 18, 16*81, and 17*19 inches."* — {Norway and its Glaciers, by 
Professor James D. Forbes.) 

2. Proposed Meteorological Survey. — We regret to have to an- 
nounce to the scientific public, on the authority of Captain James, 
Royal Engineers, that the proposed second conference at Brussels, for 
making arrangements for the mutual interchanges of the principal 
results obtained from the meteorological observations taken on land 
in all parts of the world, cannot, under the present aspect of our 
foreign relations, take place this year. 

The opinions of all the most eminent meteorologists in Europe and 
America are strongly in favour of such a combination and system 
of co-operation, and we trust the war which is now pending may be 
of short duration, and that this conference may still be held at no 
distant day. 


3. Amount of 'pressure borne by Animal Life in profound 
depths. — The real amount of pressure borne by animal life in pro- 
found depths is truly an interesting element for consideration and 

* See Reports of British Association for 1849 and following years. 

370 Scientific Intelligence . — Hydrography. 

experiment. At 16 fathoms a living creature would have to sustain 
only about 60 pounds to the square inch, and at 60 fathoms as 
much as 180 pounds. At 100 fathoms depth the pressure would 
amount to 205 pounds ; and at 700 fathoms the creature must 
bear with impunity a quantity equal to 1830 pounds upon the square 
inch ; while the pressure of 1000 fathoms of superincumbent water 
on the same area considerably exceeds a ton. — (Rear- Admiral 
Smyth, K.S.F., on the Mediterranean, p. 193.) 

4. Sea Pressure. — " In proportion to the descent into the sea 
does the pressure of the superior portion upon the inferior become 
greater; and as a column of sea water, 11 yards in height, is nearly 
of the same weight as a column of air of an equal base, extending 
from the surface of the earth to the limit of the atmosphere, it fol- 
lows that, at a depth of 1100 yards, the water sustains a pressure 
of 100 atmospheres. How enormous, then, must this pressure be 
on beds still lower, if the mean depth of the sea, at a distance from 
the coasts, extends for several miles, as the laws of gravitation seem 
to indicate." A question thence arises as to the depth of water 
necessary to produce the liquefaction of gases. Estimating the 
height of a column of water equal to the pressure of an atmosphere, 
in the usual way, at 34 feet, and neglecting the saline contents of 
the sea, as well as the probable compression of water itself at vast 
depths, Dr Faraday has shewn (Philosophical Transactions for 1823) 
the pressure and temperature at which the gaseous substances below 
enumerated become liquid in his experiments, and it results that 
those gases could not exist as such below the depths marked in 
feet on the last column. 

Sulphurous acid gas liquifies, under 2 atmospheres, at 45° 68 

Cyanogen gas, 3«6 ... 45° 123 

Chlorine gas, ... ». 4 ... 60° 136 

Ammoniacal gas, ... ... 6*5 ... 50° 221 

Sulphuretted hydrogen gas, 17 ... 50° 578 

Carbonic acid gas, ... ... 36 ... 32° 1224 

Muriatic acid gas, ... ••• 40 ... 50° 1360 

Nitrous oxide gas, 50 ... 45° 1700 

— [Rear- Admiral W. H. Smyth, K.S.F.,on the Mediterranean Sea.) 

5. The Colour of the Ocean. — The usual tint of the Mediterranean 
Sea, when undisturbed by accidental or local causes, is a bright and 
deep blue ; but in the Adriatic a green tinge is prevalent ; in the 
Levant basin it borders on purple, while the Euxine often has the 
dark aspect from which it derives its modern appellation. The clear 
ultramarine tint is the most general, and has been immemorially 
nuticed, although the diaphanous translucence of the water almost 
justifies those who assert that it has no colour at all. Seamen 
admit of one conclusion in regard to colour, namely, that a green 

Scientific Intelligence. — Hydrography. 37 I 

hue is a general indication of soundings, and indigo blue of profound 
depth. — -{Rear- Admiral W.H. Smyth, K.S.F., on the Mediterranean 
Sea, p. 125.) 

6. Admiral Smyth on the Temperature of the Ocean. — The result 
of my experiments leads to the conclusion that there actually exists a 
very sensible diminution between the surface temperature and that 
obtained at great depths, and the difference may be roundly esti- 
mated at about one degree for every twenty fathoms of line near 
the surface, save where the agency of subterranean currents may 
be at work, for such streams are undoubtedly connected with oceanic 
influences; but below about 180 fathoms, to our utmost depths, the 
temperature varied but little from 42° or 43° of the Fahrenheit 
scale. We found that at equal depths the warmth is rather higher 
along shore than in the offing ; still no reliance can be placed here 
upon thermornetrical indications of an approach to land or a great 
bank, as taught in the Atlantic Ocean, and the supposed heating of 
the waves is a mistaken sensation produced by the cooling of the 
atmosphere in the meantime. The mere surface temperature is 
very variable, according to the weather and the altitude of the 
sun, differing at sunrise and in the afternoon by three or four 
degrees, and even more. — (Rear-Admiral W. H. Smyth, K.S.F., on 
the Mediterranean Sea, p. 124.) 

7. Captain Allen s proposal of converting the Dead Sea into a 
north-eastern extension of the Mediterranean. — There is certainly 
no natural feature of the earth's surface more astounding, or more 
difficult of explanation, than the existence of this long deep fissure, 
which, being 630 feet below the Mediterranean at the Lake of 
Tiberias, deepens in the Dead Sea to 1300 feet below the general 
sea-ievel. With the nature of the hilly country between the Medi- 
terranean and the Sea of Tiberias we are pretty well acquainted, 
and we are reminded by Captain Allen that a line of communica- 
tion might be established without traversing any very high ground. 
Hence it is possible that the modern spirit of enterprise might 
adopt the suggestion of a ship canal, as shadowed out by this officer, 
through which the waters of the Mediterranean, rushing for a number 
of years, might be cascaded into the low country, and thus sub- 
merging a great area, now pestilential and of little or no value, 
render the Dead Sea a south-eastern extension of the Mediterranean. 
But still there would remain a space of land to be cut through from 
the Dead Sea depression into the Red Sea ; and the first question 
is, what is the nature of that barrier, and what its altitude. 

But before we can arrive at any explanation of this problem 
in ancient or geological geography, or form any rational con- 
jecture of the eventual possibility of opening such a water 
communication between Europe and Southern Asia, it is essen- 
tial that the true physical features of the region, particularly 
of the tract between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea, be de- 

372 Scientific Intelligence. — Hydrography. 

lineated. For this purpose the proposal of Captain Allen to effect 
in his own person a survey of such lands, accompanied by a com- 
petent officer of the Royal Engineers,* is well worthy of our country, 
and I hope will be ordered by her Majesty's Government. — (Sir 
Roderick Murchisori s Address to the Royal Geographical Society, 
vol. xxii., p. 15.) 

8. Arctic Glaciers. — As, doubtless, large portions of our continents 
were under water when vast erratic blocks were transported to great 
distances by icebergs and deposited on what are now plains of terra 
firma, so these must have proceeded from ice-clad continents. 
Among others, I have laboured' with my associates to shew how all 
the higher portions of Scandinavia and Lapland constituted a 
glacial centre in a former icy period which sent off its stone-bear- 
ing ice vessels to what is now the dry land of Germany, then a 
sea bottom. Dr Rink now comes out with a demonstration, that in 
the present period all the vast continent of Greenland, as far as is 
known, is one vast interior of ice, through which the rocks scarcely 
protrude, and though of no great altitude, is yet sufficiently high in 
its central parts to afford a slight incline in the general and onward 
march for the enormous ice-field, until, protruding its arms into deep 
and long lateral fronds, huge bergs are in certain favouring spots 
broken off from the parent mass, and calve (as the Danes term their 
launch), before they sail away into Davis Straits and southwards. 

9. Alpine, Norwegian, Himalayan, Snowdon, Cambrian, and 
Highland Glaciers. — The glaciers which have been observed in the 
Alps, Norway, and Himalayan mountains, are separate ice streams, 
which fill valleys, and radiate from certain lofty centres, carrying 
with them the materials out of which their moraines are formed. And 
in some of our insular tracts, such as Snowdon and the Cumbrian 
mountains, we can easily explain how such glaciers must there also 
have acted from similar centres, and have scratched and polished the 
shoulders of the valleys as they descended. But as several authors 
have observed, and as Mr Robert Chambers has well shewn, in a re- 
cent memoir,f replete with good new observations on the west coast 
of the Highlands, there are many lofty tracts in Scotland, as well as 
in Norway and other countries? Striation seems to be quite indepen- 
dent of the outline of the ground, thus indicating a grand and general 
movement of ice. 

It is to countries which present such phenomena that the memoir 
of Dr Rink forcibly applies ; and it leads us to imagine that there 
was a period when Scotland, particularly all the Highlands, was ana- 

* Steps were taken a few months ago to carry out this project, and General 

Sir J. Burgoyne, with whom I consulted, was quite prepared to furnish the 

requisite engineer officer, hut the season was considered too far advanced. I 

.1 the Government will sanction the execution of the enterprise next 

winter or spring. 

1 1 Li. n. New Phil. Journal, April 1853, p. 229. 

Scientific Intelligence. — Mineralogy. 373 

logous to what Greenland now is, and when an icy mantle extended 
itself from higher plateaux into the fronds or friths on its sides. — 
(Sir Roderick Murchison's Address to the Royal Geographical 
Society, vol. xxiii., p. lxxxiii.) 

10. Professor Dove on Oceanic Currents. — The influence of oceanic 
currents, says the Earl of Rosse, on the temperature of the regions in 
which they prevail, was very inadequately appreciated before the pub- 
lication of these researches. Of these currents, the most important, and 
infinitely the most interesting to ourselves, is that so well-known as 
the Gulf Stream. Its immense influence in moderating the winter 
cold along the shores of western Europe, is shewn by the singularly 
abnormal position of the winter isothermals in that region ; and not 
only is this fact of great interest in itself, and of first-rate impor- 
tance in meteorology, but it has also enabled the geologist to form a 
far more accurate estimate than otherwise it would have been possible 
to have done of the probable climatal influences of particular con- 
figurations of land and sea, and thus to overcome, not by arbitrary 
hypothesis, but by logical deduction, some of the greatest apparent 
anomalies in speculative geology. The former existence of glaciers 
in our own islands need no longer be regarded as a mystery, for it 
is now demonstrable that they would be highly probable, if not ab- 
solutely necessary, consequences of any configuration of land and sea, 
which should divert the Gulf Stream from its present course ; and 
the geologist has no difficulty in conceiving such a configuration, not 
merely as a possible, but as one which probably did exist during the 
glacial period. I mention this as an instance of the diffusive influ- 
ence of a great step in one science on the progress of science either 
more or less directly associated with it. A further and very important 
conclusion has been deduced by Professor Dove, from the monthly 
isothermals ; I mean the fact that the mean temperature of the sur- 
face of the globe, as a whole, is higher when the sun is in the northern 
than in the southern signs. The explanation is, that the northern 
hemisphere has more land than sea at the surface, and the southern 
much more sea than land, and that from the different action of the 
sun's rays on the solid and fluid surfaces, it follows that the hot 
summer of the northern hemisphere, added to the milder winter of 
the southern, gives a mean of general temperature several degrees 
of Fahrenheit higher than the cool summer of the southern, together 
with the cold winter of the northern hemisphere. — {Proceedings of 
the Royal Society, vol. vi. No. 99 ; Earl of Rosse' 's Address at the 
Anniversary Meeting of the Royal Society, London. 

11. On the supposed new metal Aridium. — Some years since 
Uligren published a paper upon a substance found by him in a Nor- 
wegian chromic iron ore, and which he considered as the oxide of a 
new metal, closely resembling iron in its chemical properties and 
relations. Bahr has carefully examined the mineral in question, 

374 Scientific Intelligence. — Mineralogy. 

and finds that the so-called oxide of aridium is merely oxide of iron, 
with a little phosphoric, acid and oxide of chromium. — (Journal fur 
Practische Chemie, ix. 27.) 

12. Density of Selenium. — Schaflfgotch has determined the den- 
sity of selenium, and deduces from a great number of experiments 
the following conclusions : — 1st, Selenium has two different spe- 
cific gravities (at 16 R.), namely, 4-282 and 4*801. The smaller 
number belongs to an amorphous and glassy condition, the higher 
one to a granular crystalline state ; the two states may be con- 
verted into each other at pleasure. 2d, The blood- red flocky Sele- 
nium, as precipitated in the cold, has the density of amorphous 
Selenium, whether its colour and apparent volume have been changed 
by heat or not. — (American Journal of Science and Arts, 2d series, 
No. 49, p. 123.) 

13. Dolomite. — M. J. Durocher has obtained dolomite artificially 
through the action of magnesia vapours. He put in a gun-barrel 
some anhydrous chloride of magnesium, and a porous carbonate of 
lime, the latter being so placed that it could be reached only by 
vapours from the former. The gun-barrel was closed, and then 
kept at a low red-heat for three hours. The limestone, when taken 
out, was partly scoriaceous externally, and covered with a mixture 
of chloride of calcium, and chloride of magnesium within ; it was 
altered mostly to a dolomite, as ascertained by analysis. — (American 
Journal of Science and Arts, vol. xvii., No. 49, 2d series, p. 128.) 

14. Crystallized Furnace Products. — F. Sandberger has an- 
nounced the occurrence, as furnace products, of graphite in 6-sided 
tables near Dillenburg ; metallic copper in threads, and rarely octa- 
hedral crystals, near Dillenburg ; antimonial nickel in long hexa- 
gonal needles, at Ems ; galena in cleavable cubes, at Holzappel 
and Ems ; magnetic iron in octahedra ; 3 Cu 2 O+SbO 3 in copper red 


or yellow hexagonal tables, at Dillenburg ; Ti Cy -f- 3 Ti 3 N 
Bodensti in. — (American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. xvii., 
No. 49, 2d series, p. 128.) 

15. Purification of Graphite for Lead Pencils. — Runge pro- 
poses to purify poor graphite for pencils, by digesting, for thirty- 
six hours, the finely powdered mineral with about double its weight 
of concentrated .sulphuric acid, then diluting the acid with water, 
and washing the powder i'vee from acid. Graphite thus powdered 
is very much cheaper than the ordinary English, and is quite as 
pure as the best liorrowdale black-lead. The decanted sulphuric 
acid contains iron, sulphate of alumina, &c. ; the latter may be 
separated when large quantities of graphite are operated upon. 
Runge also proposes to add a little lamp-black with the graphite, in 
order that the lines made by the pencils may have a deeper shade of 
Mack. Probably certain kinds of manganese may be used for the 
same purpose. — (La Technologist^ April 1853, p. 360; Dublin 
Journal of Industrial Progress, No. I, p. 21.) 

Scientific Intelligence. — Geology. 375 

16. Arctic Minerals. — Before we take leave of arctic subjects, 
says Sir Roderick Murchison, let me remind you that, judging from a 
memoir communicated by M. Lundt of Denmark, and lately read to 
our society by Sir Walter Trevelyan, on the mineral produce of the 
southern parts of Greenland, we have every reason to think that 
valuable ores of copper may be found to extend far to the north of 
the tracts around Disco, where the minerals in question were ob- 
served. Judging from the few rocks submitted to my inspection by 
Captain Inglefield, and which were collected in the more northern 
parallel of 77°, I should infer, from their crystalline character, that 
a very large portion of this region may prove to be metalliferous, 
and that industry may there be rewarded with spoils of the land, as 
well as by catching the whales and seals of the sea. — (Sir Roderiek 
Murchison s Address to the Royal Geographical Society r , vol. xxiii., 
p. lxxxiii.) 


1 7. The Lower Silurian Rocks of the United States. — One of the 
chief geological facts ascertained in reference to the origin of life in the 
crust of the globe, is the discovery of certain fossil animals (trilobites) 
in strata lower than any in which they had been found in America, 
but which are precisely on the same horizon as the lowest fossil- 
bearing Silurian rocks of Britain, Scandinavia, Russia, and Bohemia, 
where trilobites also occur in the same relative position. Excuse 
me, then, if I say that I felt no small pride when I saw that M. 
Owen had mapped all these rocks as lower Silurian, and as agreeing 
with those which, under that name, I have defined to be the lowest 
fossiliferous rocks of Europe. These and other palseozoic rocks, the 
equivalents of our Devonian, are surmounted by carboniferous masses 
of such extent, that one of them may be mentioned as a coal-field 
larger than England. — (Sir Roderick Murchison s Address to the 
Royal Geographical Society?) 

18. Nature of the Coral-Reefs between the coasts of Florida and 
Mexico. — I must, indeed, specially allude to an admirable illustra- 
tion of the true nature of the coral-reefs between the coasts of 
Florida and Mexico, the " Keys" of the seamen. In a separate 
report on the topography of that tract, in relation to the former, 
present, and probable future condition of such reefs, Professor 
Agassiz has successfully shewn how all such surveys ought to be 
made in conjunction with naturalists. For, quite independent of the 
important additions to natural history knowledge which are obtained, 
statesmen as well as hydrographers thus ascertain the causes of in- 
crease or decrease of coral reefs, and learn that whilst no human 
power can arrest the growth of such reefs, there are channels 
amidst them which will remain deep in long periods of time, and 
the outlines of which, when well defined by lighthouses, may be the 
salvation of much life and property. In other words, the fixed and 
stable points, of land and the channels which are dangerous, are 

876 Scientific Intelligence. — Geology. 

thus accurately defined by the great naturalist Agassiz. — (Sir Ro- 
derick Murchison's Address to the Royal Geographical Society, 
vol. xxiii.) 

19. Geological conclusions in regard to the Russian Interior 
Seas.— There is perhaps no feature of more commanding interest in 
its bearing on the physical outlines of the earth at a period which 
approaches near to our own era, than the fact, which geological re- 
searches have established, that there has existed a vast interior sea, 
which covered all the area between Constantinople on the west, and 
Turkestan on the east, or a length of nearly two thousand miles, whilst 
it ranged irregularly from south to north over a space broader than 
the present Caspian Sea is long, or of about one thousand miles. Of 
this great submerged area, the Seas of Azof, the Caspian, and the 
Aral, are now clearly the chief detached remnants. For, as I for- 
merly explained, the very same species of mollusca which are now 
living in these seas, are found in a fossil state in limestones forming 
cliffs on their shores, or on those of the Black Sea, or in masses ef 
intermediate land, which are simply the elevated bottoms of a once 
continuous vast internal sea, the whole of whose inhabitants were as 
distinct from those of the then ocean as are the present inhabitants 
of these detached Caspians from those of the present Mediterranean 
and ocean. — (Sir Roderick Murchison s Address to the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, vol. xxiii., p. lxxxvii.) 

20. On the 'probable depth of the Ocean of the European Chalk 
Deposits. By Professor H. D. Rogers (Prov. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
1853, 297-) — Various geologists, and among them Professor Ed. 
Forbes, in his excellent and learned Palaeontology of the British 
Isles, in Johnston's Physical Atlas, have suggested that the ocean of 
the chalk deposits of Europe was a deep one ; and in evidence of 
this, Professor Forbes cites the " striking relationship existing to 
deep sea form of the English Chalk Corals and Brachiopods, adding, 
that the peculiar Echinoderms (Holaster, alerites, Ananchytes, 
Cidaris, Brissus, and Goniaster) favour this notion, as also the pre- 
sence of numerous Foraminifera." 

21. Professor Rogers' objections to Professor F orb es" 1 Deep- Sea 
Genera. — I beg leave to present a difficulty in the way of this con- 
clusion. Several of these genera of Echinoderms, as Ananchytes, 
Cidaris, &c, occur in the greensand deposit of New Jersey, referable 
by every fossil test to the age of the greensand and chalk of Europe. 
And this American stratum was unquestionably the sediment of quite 
shallow littoral waters. That they must have had a trivial depth 
is proved by the circumstance that they repose in almost horizontal 
stratification, at a level of not more than from one to two hundred 
i'eet lower than the general surface of the hills and upland region to 
the N.W. of the margin of the zone they occupy as their outcrop. 
It is obvious that a depression of the cretaceous region, such as 
would cover the present deposits with a deep sea, would have like- 

Scientific Intelligence. — Geology, 377 

wise overspread the low gneissic hills to the N.W. of the Delaware, 
which present no traces of having ever been submerged during the 
cretaceous or any secondary period. 

22. Mr Ayres' objections to Professor Forbes* Deep-Sea Genera. 
— Mr Ayres remarked, that of those genera of Echinoderms, which 
Mr Forbes regarded as deep-sea genera, two or three are found in 
North America, in water not two hundred feet deep. Terebratula, 
which has been generally regarded as only an inhabitant of very deep 
water, and whose structure has been described as admirably adapted 
to the depth at which it has been found, and which Professor Owen 
has demonstrated, cannot exist at a depth of less than two or three 
hundred fathoms, exists at Eastport, Me., in water so shallow that it 
can be taken by hand. In the same locality and position, radiata are 
found, which have heretofore been thought to be only inhabitants of 
deep water. Some of Professor Forbes' genera are also found in less 
than ten fathoms of water. — {American Journal of Science and 
Art, vol. xvii., No. 49.) 

23. Artificial Silicification of Limestone. — It is some years since 
M. Kuhlmann of Lille proposed to preserve pieces of sculpture, &c, 
by impregnating them with a solution of silicate of potash — SiO 3 
KO + CO 2 CaO^SiO 3 CaO + CO 2 KO. This process has been 
used on a grand scale in certain parts of the cathedral Notre Dame. 
The architect of the cathedral reports as follows : — 1. That the in- 
filtration of silica made " sur les terrasses et contre-fort du choeur, 1 ' 
in October 1852, has preserved the stone from the green moss that 
covers stone in moist places. 2. That the gutters and flagging of 
limestone subjected to this process present surfaces perfectly dry, 
covered with a silicious crust. 3. That upon the stone so prepared, 
dust and spider webs are less common than upon the stone in the 
ordinary state. The report also states, that tender stones have been 
rendered hard ; they have lost part of their porosity, and after being 
washed, they dry more rapidly than stones not silicified. The pro- 
cess has succeeded completely on all calcareous blocks, whether iso- 
lated, or forming part of the structure, new and old. 

It is not yet known how this process will act on mortars ; but if 
successful, the silification of an entire monument may be accom- 
plished, and its restoration when old. The whole exterior might be 
thus covered with a thick bed of artificial silicate of lime, and a 
whole edifice be protected by this means from all atmospheric causes 
of destruction.* — (American Journal of Science and Arts, 2d 
Series, No. 49. January 1854, p. 119.) 

* This process may prove highly useful in protecting the rapid decomposi- 
tion of some of our finer building stones, that are exposed to much damp. The 
overseers of our finer buildings ought, undoubtedly, not to overlook this impor- 
tant notice. 

378 Scientific Intelligence. — Geology. 

24. To render Sandstone and other porous materials impervious 
to Water. — The sandstone is first heated to a temperature of about 
400 Fahrenheit, and then plunged into coal tar, heated to about the 
same temperature, and allowed to remain in it for about eight hours. 
In this way a mass is obtained so solid, that it is scarcely possible to 
break it with a hammer. Bricks and tiles require only four hours 
steeping, at a temperature of about 230° Fahrenheit. (Acid cisterns 
and refrigerators of Yorkshire sandstone, and many other applica- 
tions of that material, have been boiled, in this way, in tar, since 
several years, in many of the chemical factories of Great Britain, and 
with the best results.) — (Forster's Bauzeitung, 1853, p. 35. 
The Dublin Monthly Journal of Industrial Progress. No. 11, 
p. 55.) 

25. Employment of Quick Lime in High Furnaces, instead of 
Limestone, by C. Montefior Levi, and Dr Emil Schmidt. — From 
experiments made at the iron-works of Ougree near Liege, they 
found that to produce 100 kilogrammes of pig-iron, the average con- 
sumption of coke for six months of 28 days, when limestone was used, 
was 160 J kilogrammes; whilst with burned lime the consumption was 
only 146^ kilogrammes ; being a saving of 8*88 per cent. The ave- 
rage production for 28 days with limestone was 461,000 kilogrammes, 
and with burned lime, 735,000, or an increase of 24'3 per cent. 
Corresponding results were obtained with another furnace, worked 
for three months with limestone, and three with burned lime. The 
average coke consumed per 100 kilogrammes with the former being 
162, and with the latter 147i kilogrammes ; the production of iron 
per month being on an average 469,000 with limestone, and 563,000 
kilogrammes with lime. The furnaces at Ougree have now been work- 
ing 3£ years with lime, with the same result ; the saving per year, 
notwithstanding the cost of burning the lime, being 30,000 francs 
per furnace. The same process has been successfully tried in some 
parts of Wales, and in England. — {Zeitschr. des Ostr. Ing. Vereins, 
1852, p. 145.) 

26. Professor Rogers on Earthquake Movements, and the thick- 
ness of the Earth's Crust. — Professor Rogers is of opinion that the 
undulatory movement of an earthquake is felt much more sensibly 
at a point above the earth's surface, than directly upon it. An 
instance illustrating this had come within his own knowledge. The 
earthquake which destroyed the principal city of Guadaloupe was 
felt in the city of New York, but only in the fourth story of a print- 
ing office. The sound generally precedes the shock, as has been 
observed in this country. In North America, the undulation is al- 
ways parallel to the physical features of the continent, making it 
reasonable to believe, that through a long series of epochs the motion 
has been in one rather than various directions, as supposed by Elio 
de Beaumont. There are two movements in earthquakes ; an un- 
dulatory and a molecular movement. The latter, Professor Rogers 

Scientific Intelligence. — Zoology. 379 

thought, was the movement which attracted most observation, giving 
rise as it does, to sudden and abrupt changes of relation on the sur- 
face of the earth, at places where the formation of the strata admits 
of more or less freedom of movement, causing the sudden shocks 
which are so destructive. 

Professor Rogers is of opinion, that the thickness of the earth's 
crust, in most places, is not more than ten miles. — {American 
Journal of Science and Art, vol. xvii., p. 135.) 

27. Coloration. — Coloration cannot be made use of as a generic 
character, and its importance to the palaeontologist is small, but when 
occurring on fossil forms it should always be noted. Professor Forbes 
has kindly informed me, " that his observations on the distribution 
in depth of recent species, have led him to the conclusion, that definite 
patterns, i.e., stripes, bands, and waves of colour, vividly marked, 
do not occur, except in rare instances, on shells living beyond mode- 
rate depths, as below fifty fathoms or thereabouts ; and that thus we 
may be enabled to come to approximate conclusions respecting depths 
of ancient seas from the patterns preserved to us on fossil shells." 
The coloration is of some use in distinguishing the recent terms of 
Brachiopoda ; green, yellow, red, and bluish-black, being the prevail- 
ing colours : several forms are striped or spotted with red. Among 
the fossil species, some examples have preserved traces of their colours, 
as already mentioned in Part iii., p. 6, and several other examples 
will be hereafter noticed so that in all probability the species now 
extinct, when alive, presented all the rich varieties of tint, observ- 
able in the present inhabitants of our seas. — [British Fossil Brachi- 
opoda, vol. i., p. 53.) 


28. Observations on the Habits of certain Craw-fishes. — (In a 
letter of Dr R. P. Stephens to the Smithsonian Institution.) " Our 
friends the Astaci increase in interest as I become more and more 
acquainted with their habits and instincts. I have learned this month 
that they are migratory, and in their travels are capable of doing 
much damage to dams and embankments. On the Little Genesee, 
they have, within a few years, compelled the owners of a dam to re- 
build it. The former dam was built after the manner of dikes, i.e., 
with upright posts, supporting sleepers laid inclining at an angle of 
4.5° up the stream. On these were laid planks, and the planks covered 
with dirt. The Astacus proceeding up stream, would burrow under 
the planks where they rested on the bottom of the stream, removing 
bushels of dirt and gravel in the course of a night. I have seen this 
season, where they had attempted the present dam, piles of dirt, of 
at least one bushel. 

" They now travel over the dam in their migrations, often climbing 
upright posts, two or three feet high, to gain the pond above." — 
(American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. xvii., p. 134.) 

29. Arctic Whale fisheries. — The extraordinary success which has 

380 Scientific Intelligence — Botany. 

Attended the exertions of the whale-fishers of the United States, to 
which Capt. W. Baillie Hamilton called my attention last summer, 
has naturally roused the energies of many persons in this country, 
in the hope that the whales which have repaired to the farthest 
Arctic seas, to live there undisturbed, may yet be reached by the 
harpoons of our sailors. 

A document communicated to the United States 1 Senate by the 
Secretary of the Navy, on the 5th of April 1852, explains clearly 
the very extraordinary and successful efforts, which were only 
commenced in the year 1848, by the whale-ship " Superior," 
commanded by Capt. Roys, penetrating through Behring Strait 
into the Arctic Ocean. The success of this intrepid sailor, who 
filled his vessel with oil in a few weeks, gave rise to many imitators, 
and in 1849 he was followed by no less than 154 sail of American 
whale-ships, nearly the same number going out in each of the two 
succeeding years. When it is estimated that the value of the ships 
and cargoes during two of these years amounted to no less a sum than 
17,412,453 dollars, we cannot be surprised that so lucrative a trade 
should excite much emulation among British speculators. As 
geographers, indeed, we must now be anxious to have this important 
question finally set at rest — i.e., whether (as I think, in common 
with Old Barentz, Capt. W. B. Hamilton, and others) there may 
not exist a practicable passage to the Arctic Ocean to the east of 
Spitzbergen ; in which case our ships might reach profitable 
whaling grounds without the risk of a long voyage to Behring 
Strait and the difficult navigation of these seas. 

Let us still hope that our own Government will endeavour to 
determine this point, so ably urged by Mr Petermann, who has 
shewn at how little cost and in how short a time the query could 
be answered, and who has also given many valid reasons to induce 
us to confide in the prospect of success. — {Sir Roderick MurchisorCs 
Address to the Royal Geographical Society, vol. xxiii., p. lxxxi.) 

30. Cod-Fishing of the Lofodden Islands. — The cod-fishing of 
the Lofodden Islands is celebrated all over the north. Here, chiefly 
in the inclement months of February and March, fishing-boats, from 
an extent of coast of several hundreds of miles, are concentrated to the 
number, it is said, of 3000, manned by 16,000 hardy fishermen, 
who catch in the season not less than 3,000,000 cod-fish,* which 
are conveyed about midsummer to Bergen in yachts, packed in the 
manner already described. — (Forbes on Norway, p. 62.) 

* These fish are chiefly dried without salt, in the sun and wind, a process 
peculiar to the clear dry climate of Nordland and Finraarken. 

Scientific Intelligence, — Botany. 



31. Is the Flora of the Globe a distinct and independent one ? 
— While there are evident and distinct features in the plants which 
constitute the floras of different parts of Britain, there are many 
difficulties to be overcome before we can adopt the speculative views 
of Forbes. The connection between the Tertiary and the present 
epoch is not made out as far as the species of plants are concerned, 
and we are disposed to look upon the existing flora of the globe as 
a distinct and independent one. Schouw differs from Forbes in his 
explanation of the flora of the British Islands. He does not believe 
in the migration and geological changes to which Forbes alludes. 
He thinks that the west and south-west coast of Britain and Ireland 
had at first a mild climate, especially in winter, and that in conse- 
quence, plants were produced there common to the analogous 
climates of Spain and the south of France ; while the Scotch and 
English mountains were distinguished throughout by a polar 
climate, and produced nearly the same vegetation as the Lapland 
and Scandinavian mountains. — (Professor Balfour's Class-Book of 
Botany, Part II., pp. 10-33.) 

32. Physiognomy of Vegetation in different Quarters of the 
Globe. — In this department of botanical geography we consider 
plants according to the distribution of forms, marking the predomi- 
nance of this or that form of plants by the absolute mass of its 
individuals, or by the impression it makes from the character given 
to the flora. The prevalence of a single form will often produce a 
much greater physiognomic effect than the number and variety of 
the floral productions. Hind says that a general physiognomic 
impression is sometimes conveyed by the prevalence of colour. 
Yellow colours, according to him, abound on the tropical mountain- 
plains in autumn, while blue colours prevail in subtropical regions. 
In northern latitudes and in Alpine districts, white flowers are 
more common than on the plains. He makes the following state- 
ments as to the proportion of colours in the flowers of different 
countries : 





Central America, . 




Sandwich Islands, . 




Alashka, .... 




California, .... 




New Guinea, 




Hong-Kong, . . . 




— [Professor Balfour's Class-Book of Botany, Part II. p. 

VOL. LVI. NO. CXII. — APRIL 1854. 2 C 

382 Scientific Intelligence. — Botany. 

33. — The Plants considered as characteristic of Nations. By 
Schouw. — In the South Sea Islands, the bread-fruit tree, and cocoa- 
nut palm supply important articles of food and clothing. New 
Zealand flax is characteristic of the island whence it derives its name. 
Among the Malays of the Indian Islands, the clove tree, nutmeg, 
pepper, and ginger, are the principal characteristic plants, and these 
are also common in India. Maize, which gives the most abundant, 
and also the most uncertain of all crops, was originally confined to 
America, which was also the case with the Potato. The Maguey 
plant (Agave potatorum), is a valuable product of Mexico, and may 
be called the vine of the Mexicans ; while Agave americana is use- 
ful for clothing. Chenopodium Quinoa is a plant used for food in 
the high districts of Mexico, Peru, and Chili ; the Mauritia palm is 
an important means of subsistence to the tribes of the Orinoco ; 
the Date Palm is equally useful in the south of Africa, and in the 
Arabian deserts. The Coffee tree characterizes the south of Arabia 
and Abyssinia. Rice and cotton were two important plants for the 
Hindoos ; the Tea plant for the Chinese ; Wheat, barley, rye, and 
oats, to the Indo-Caucasian races of Western Asia and Europe ; 
the olive and the vine for the inhabitants of Mediterranean districts ; 
and the Rein-deer Moss for the Laplanders. — (Professor Balfour 's 
Class-Book of Botany, Part II. p. 990.) 

34. The Statistics of Vegetation over the Globe. — This subject 
involves the consideration of the number of known vegetable species 
in the world, their numerical distribution, and the relative propor- 
tion of classes, orders, genera, and species in different countries. 
In the present imperfect state of our knowledge of the floras of 
different countries, it is impossible to tell the exact number of 
species of plants in the globe. Those known at the present day, 
fdescribed and undescribed, amount probably to nearly 120,000, and 
rom this estimates have been made of the total vegetation, the num- 
ber varying from 150,000 to 200,000. Hinds, reckoning the species 
at 134,000, gives the following conjectural distribution as compared 
with surface : — 


Extent of Surface 
GeOg. sq. miles. 


. 11,200 ... 

... 2,793,000 


. 36,000 ... 

... 12,118,000 

Africa, . 

. 25,200 ... 


N. America, 

. 14,400 ... 


S. America, 

. 40,000 ... 



. 7,200 ... 


134,000 40,411,000 

The following is the estimated number of known and described 
plants : — 

Scientific Intelligence. — Miscellaneous. 383 

Genera. Species. 

Acotyledonous plants, . 140,015,000 

Monocotyledonous plants, . 1450 14,000 

Dicotyledonous plants, . 6300 67,000 

9150 96,000 

— (Professor Balfour's Botany, Part II., Physiology and Classifi- 
cation,^. 996.) 

35. Geographical Distribution of Plants. — From all that has 
been said on this interesting subject, says Professor Balfour, we are 
led to the conclusion that many plants must have originated primi- 
tively over the whole extent of their natural distribution ; that cer- 
tain species have been confined to definite localities, and have not 
spread to any great distance from a common centre ; while others 
have been generally diffused, and appear to have been created at 
the same time in different and often far distant localities ; that mi- 
gration has taken place, to a certain extent, under the agency of 
various natural causes ; that geological changes may, in some in- 
stances, have caused interruptions in the continuity of floras, and 
may have left isolated outposts in various parts of the globe ; and 
finally, that social plants were probably created in masses, that being 
the natural arrangement suited to their habits. — (Balfour s Class- 
Book of Botany, Part II., p. 989.) 


36. Dr Barttis Discoveries in Africa. — From the end of March to 
the end of May last year, Dr Overweg made a successful journey from 
Kuka, in a south-westerly direction, and reached to within 150 
English miles of Yacoba, the great town of the Fellatahs; while Dr 
Barth went north-east, on a journey to Baghirmi, a powerful king- 
dom between Lake Tchad and the Upper Nile, which had never been 
previously visited by any European. Dr Barth reached Masena, 
the capital of the country, on the 28th April last year, which place 
formed his head-quarters during the three successive months. — (Sir 
Roderick, Murchisons Address to the Royal Geographical Society 
p. 110.) 


37- Industrial Education. — If industrial education must be 
cheap, in order to be successful, we may say with equal truth, that 
its teachers must be well paid. In these countries the worth of a 
man is estimated by his pay ; and if we judge by this standard, the 
most worthless people are those to whom is intrusted the education 
of the people. This rule not only applies to the humble teacher of 
a country school, but to the most eminent professors of colleges. A 
simple clerk in a Government office very often receives three or four 

384 Scientific Intelligence. — Miscellaneous. 

times the amount of salary which is thought liberal for a professor of 
a college. If an eminent barrister is appointed to some place, less 
than £1000 a-year would not be offered him, and even the obscure 
members of the legal profession can readily obtain from £500 to 
£700 per annum ; but the moment a scientific man is in question, 
£300 is considered to be the equivalent of his services, no matter 
how brilliant, while the junior members are considered to be suffi- 
ciently paid if they receive a salary of a draper's assistant. We 
have selected the Government rewards for scientific and literary 
service*, not because they are exceptions to those conferred by the 
public, but because they shew the standard by which the latter 
judge of the value of education ; and as long as that remains, such 
as it is, we can scarcely believe that the public is seriously desirous 
of either intellectual or industrial education. We ask of our readers 
to consider calmly and earnestly the above points. One false step 
made in the beginning would precipitate us again into the slough 
from which we have already made some successful efforts to escape. 
Let them ponder well over this fact, that to be an educated people 
is to be respected, to be prosperous, to be independent. — (The Dub- 
lin Monthly Journal of Industrial Progress, No. 11, p. 44.) 

38. The Earl of Rosse, K.P.M.A., on Education. — " I do not 
contend," says the Earl of Rosse, " that science can in a moment in- 
crease our success in the arts, upon which the greatness of this 
country depends. If we were to say to the mathematician, give us 
the best lines for a ship suited to a given purpose, however profound 
his mathematical knowledge might be, he would fail ; practice must 
be combined, but in due subordination with theory. It is where in 
a nation science is cultivated profoundly by a large class of persons, 
and circumstances exist tending to direct it to practice, that some 
men will always be found gifted with the faculty of applying it 
whatever way the interests of the country may require. 

Popular science, however, will not do ; it has its uses, subordinate 
as they are. It must be science of a high order ; science as taught 
at our universities. There, a power is created capable of effecting 
great objects, but in too many cases it is not applied at all, and it 
now passes away without useful results. Were it possible to enlist 
that gigantic power into the service of the country, by making our 
scientific associations more inviting, by placing science in this metro- 
polis in a position more attractive, a result would be obtained which 
the meanest utilitarian would consider of immense value. — (Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Society, London.) 


Adie, Richard, Esq., his account of the temperature of running 

streams during the period of frost, 224. 
Africa, discoveries in, by Dr Barth, 383. 
Arago, Dominique, Francois Jean, biographical notice of, 51. 
Aridium, a supposed new metal, notice of, 373. 
Auk (Alca impennis'), still found in Iceland, 260. 
Aurora borealis, noticed, 180. 
Ayres, M., his observations on deep-sea genera, 377. 

Barry, Dr Martin, his researches on Embryology, 36. On vesicles 
in the abdominal cavity and uterus, containing a mulberry-like 
body, rotating on its axis ; and on the expulsion of the ovisac 
from the ovary, 319. 

Boue, M. Ami, his account of the palseohydrography and orography 
of the earth's surface, 1. 

Bore or Piroroco, in the Guama River, notice of, 181. 

Buist, Dr George, on the physical geography of Hindostan, noticed 
by, 328. 

China-stone, or Kaolin of Cornwall, described, 91. 

Chart, isothermal oceanic, illustrating the geographical distribution 

of marine animals, 189. 
Chalk deposits, their probable depth, 376. 
Climate of Finmarken, noticed, 369. 
Cloud, majestic, seen from the Jungfrau, 182. 
Conference, maritime, report of, held at Brussels for devising a 

uniform system of meteorological observations at sea, 81. 
Cod-fishing of the Lofodden Islands, 380. 
Coral reefs, the nature of, between the coasts of Florida and 

Mexico, 375. 
Cordylophora, anatomy and physiology of, 106. 
Coloration, its use as a generic character, 379. 
Craw fish (Astacus Jluviatilis), notice of an attempt to naturalize 

it in the south of Scotland, 136. 

observations on the habits of, 379. 

Cull, Richard, Esq., the recent progress of Ethnology, 10. 

386 Index. 

Dana, James D., his account of an isothermal oceanic chart, illus- 
trating the geographical distribution of marine animals, 189. 

Dead Sea, a mode of converting it into a south-eastern extension of 
the Mediterranean, 371. 

Deodar, the cultivation of, in England, 70. 

Dove, on oceanic currents, 373. 

Dolomite, observations on, by Durocher, 374. 

Diamond powder, its artificial production, 178. 

Earthquake movements, notice of, 378. 

Education, Industrial, remarks on, by the Earl of Rosse, 384. 

Edmonds, R., jun., Esq., on the apparent visibility of stars through 

the moon, 137. 
Embryology, researches in, noticed, 36. 
Emmons, Dr, his observations on the influence of climate on plants 

and animals, 118. 
Ethnology, recent progress of, 10. 
Euclase, analysis of, 103. 

Fisheries, Arctic Whale, 379. 

Flora of the globe, 380. 

Fluids, the cohesion of, as connected with evaporation and steam- 
boiler explosions, 26. 

Flourens, M., his funeral speech over the grave of M. Arago, 67. 

Fleming, the Rev. Dr, observations by, on the means taken to 
naturalize the Craw-fish in the south of Scotland, 136. 

Frevermann, Auguste, on the formation of crystallized minerals, 176. 

Frost, observations on the temperature of running streams during 
the period of, 224. 

Fog, the nature and origin of different kinds of, 229. 

Food of Man, under different conditions of age and employment 
noticed, 262. 

Forbes, Professor James, observations by, on some points in the 
physical geography of Norway, chiefly connected with its 
snow fields and glaciers, 159. 

Furnace products, notice of, 374. 

Glaciers, Arctic, 372. 

Alpine, Norwegian, Himalayan, Snowdon, Cambrian, and 

Highland, 372. 

queries in regard to, 119. 

of Norway, noticed, 159. 

Gould, Dr Augustus, his observations on mollusca and shells, 74. 
Graphite, purification of, for lead pencils, 374. 

Hindostan, physical geography of, 328. 

Index. 387 

Hodgkinson, E., Esq., remarks on the elasticity of stone and crys- 
talline bodies, by, 108. 

Iceland, the Great Auk of, (Alca impennis), noticed, 260. 
Intelligence, Scientific, 176. 

Justice, M., Esq., observations on the Protococcus nivalis, by, 187. 

Kane, Dr, remarks by, on the vegetable matter found on the ice 

plains of the Polar Seas, 187. 
Kaolin of Cornwall noticed, 91. 

Light, intensity of, noticed, 188. 

Limestones, crystalline, the origin of, described, 127- 

Artificial silicification of, 377. 

Martins, M. C, Esq., his observations on the nature and origin of 
different kinds of dry fogs, 229. 

Mallet, J. M., on the analysis of the Euclase, 1 03. 

Meteorological observations at sea, as devised by the maritime confer- 
ence at Brussels, 81. 

observations made at the Observatory, Whitehaven, Cum- 
berland, 1853, 249. 

Miller, John Fletcher, Esq., his meteorological observations, made 

at the Observatory, Whitehaven, Cumberland, in 1853, 249. 
Minerals, their formation and crystallization noticed, 176. 

Paragenetic relations of, 139. 

Arctic, 375. 

Mirage of South Africa, 182. 

Moa Caves in New Zealand, noticed, 28. 
Mollusca and shells, observations on, 74. 

Nicol, Professor, observations by, on Joachim Barrande's account of 
the Silurian system of Central Bohemia, 310. 

Ocean, temperature of, 371. 

colour of its currents, tides, depth, and outlines of its bot- 
tom, noticed, 152. 

Oceanic currents, 373. 

Orography of the earth's surface noticed, 1. 

Palseohydrography of the earth's surface noticed, 1. 
Playfair, Dr Lyon, his observations on the food of man under dif- 
ferent conditions of age and employment, 262. 
Plants, geographical distribution of, 383. 

characteristic of nations, 381. 

388 Index. 

Quick lime, employment of, in high furnaces, 378. 

Rosse, Earl, remarks on education by, 384. 
Rogers, Professor, on deep-sea genera, 378. 

on earthquake movements, 378. 

Rocks, palasozoic, of Great Britain, as described by Professor Sedg- 
wick, 110. 

Sandstones, rendering them impervious to water, 377. 

Scoresby, the Rev. Dr, on the surface-temperature and great 
currents of the North Atlantic and Northern Oceans, 114. 

Sea pressure, amount of, borne by animals in profound depths, 370. 

Seas, Russian Interior, geological conclusions in regard to, 376. 

Selenium, density of, 374. 

Silurian system of Central Bohemia noticed, 310. 

Silurian rocks of the United States, 375, 

Salt, its use among the natives in Namaqua Land, South 
Africa, 178. 

Stars, their apparent visibility through the moon immediately before 
their oscultation, 137. 

Stone, its elasticity, noticed, 108. 

Soundings, deep-sea, a new method for taking them, described, 182. 

Sedgwick, Professor, on the palseozoic rocks of Great Britain, 110. 

Stokes, Mr H. M., on the china-stone and china-clays of Corn- 
wall, 91. 

Strickland, Hugh Edwin, Esq., biographical notice of, 131. 

Thomson, Arthur S., M.D., his observations on the New Zealand 
Moa caves, 268. 

Vesicles in the abdominal cavity and uterus, noticed, 317. 
Vegetation, Physiognomy of, in different quarters of the globe, 381. 
general statistics of, 381. 

Wools of Saxony, an account of, 183. 


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